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Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358905


22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS)-a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 22-is associated with an elevated risk of psychosis and other developmental brain disorders. Prior single-site diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies have reported altered white matter (WM) microstructure in 22q11DS, but small samples and variable methods have led to contradictory results. Here we present the largest study ever conducted of dMRI-derived measures of WM microstructure in 22q11DS (334 22q11.2 deletion carriers and 260 healthy age- and sex-matched controls; age range 6-52 years). Using harmonization protocols developed by the ENIGMA-DTI working group, we identified widespread reductions in mean, axial and radial diffusivities in 22q11DS, most pronounced in regions with major cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic fibers: the corona radiata, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiations, and sagittal stratum (Cohen's d's ranging from -0.9 to -1.3). Only the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), comprised primarily of corticofugal fibers, showed higher axial diffusivity in 22q11DS. 22q11DS patients showed higher mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in callosal and projection fibers (IC and corona radiata) relative to controls, but lower FA than controls in regions with predominantly association fibers. Psychotic illness in 22q11DS was associated with more substantial diffusivity reductions in multiple regions. Overall, these findings indicate large effects of the 22q11.2 deletion on WM microstructure, especially in major cortico-cortical connections. Taken together with findings from animal models, this pattern of abnormalities may reflect disrupted neurogenesis of projection neurons in outer cortical layers.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 268: 35-44, 2017 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865345


Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a neurogenetic condition associated with psychosis, report brain white matter (WM) microstructure aberrations. Several studies report that WM disruptions in 22q11DS are similar to deficits in idiopathic schizophrenia. Yet, DTI results in 22q11DS are inconsistent. We used DTI to compare WM structure in 22q11DS individuals to healthy controls (HC) and explored WM differences in 22q11DS with (+) and without (-) psychosis spectrum symptoms. We examined 39 22q11DS individuals and 39 age, sex and race equivalent HC. DTI was performed at 3T using a 64-direction protocol. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was lower, while radial diffusivity was higher in 22q11DS within the cingulum bundle. Mean diffusivity was lower in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, while axial diffusivity (AD) was lower in the cingulum bundle, forceps major, and several posterior to anterior fasciculi. 22q11DS+ had lower FA in the cingulum bundle and lower AD in the uncinate fasciculus compared to 22q11DS-. Overall, we found aberrant WM microstructure in individuals with 22q11DS compared to age and sex matched HC and exploratory analysis indicated subtle WM deficits associated with psychosis. The findings highlight the dysfunction of WM microstructure in 22q11DS and its potential importance in elucidating WM abnormalities in psychosis.

Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Anisotropia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 47(10): 987-93, 2006 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17073977


BACKGROUND: Longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging studies have demonstrated increasing volumes of white matter and regionally-specific inverted U shaped developmental trajectories of gray matter volumes during childhood and adolescence. Studies of monozygotic and dyzygotic twins during this developmental period allow exploration of genetic and non-genetic influences on these developmental trajectories. METHOD: Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were acquired on a pediatric sample of 90 monozygotic twin pairs, 38 same-sex dyzygotic twin pairs, and 158 unrelated typically developing singletons. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the additive genetic, common environment, and unique environment effects, as well as age by heritability interactions, on measures of brain volumes from these images. RESULTS: Consistent with previous adult studies, additive genetic effects accounted for a substantial portion of variability in nearly all brain regions with the notable exception of the cerebellum. Significant age by heritability interactions were observed with gray matter volumes showing a reduction in heritability with increasing age, while white matter volume heritability increased with greater age. CONCLUSION: Understanding the relative contributions of genetic and nongenetic factors on developmental brain trajectories may have implications for better understanding brain-based disorders and typical cognitive development.

Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pediatria/instrumentação , Gêmeos , Adolescente , Criança , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Fenótipo