Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 23
Filtrar
1.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 6(4)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842757

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether session rating of perceived exertion-derived training load (sRPE-TL) correlates with GPS-derived measures of external load in National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) Division I female soccer athletes. METHODS: Twenty-one NCAA Division 1 collegiate women's soccer athletes (11 starters, 10 non-starters; 65.1 ± 7.2 kg, 168.4 ± 7.9 cm, 20.3 ± 1.5 yrs) volunteered to take part in this study. Data for this study were collected over the course of 16 weeks during the 2018 NCAA women's soccer season. External load and heart rate (HR) data were collected during each training session and match during the season. At least 30 min after the end of an activity (e.g., match or practice), athletes were prompted to complete a questionnaire reporting their perceived exertion for the session. sRPE-TL was calculated at the end of the season by multiplying perceived exertion by the respective session duration. RESULTS: sRPE-TL was very strongly correlated with total distance, distance covered in velocity zones 1-3, the number of accelerations in zones 4 and 5, total PlayerLoad™, and PlayerLoad™. For internal load, sRPE-TL correlated very strongly (0.70 ≤ |r| < 0.90) with Edward's and Bannister's TRIMP and strongly (0.50 ≤ |r| < 0.70) with duration spent in in heart rate zones 5 and 6 (80-90% and 90-100% max HR, respectively) while correlations with maximum HR (bpm), mean HR (bpm), and mean HR (%) and sRPE-TL were moderate (0.30 ≤ |r| < 0.50). CONCLUSIONS: In NCAA Division I women soccer, sRPE-TL is strongly associated with external measures of workload. These relationships were stronger during match play, with acceleration load and total distance exhibiting the strongest relationship with sRPE-TL.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209814

RESUMO

Sport nutrition knowledge has been shown to influence dietary habits of athletes. The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between sport nutrition knowledge and body composition and examine potential predictors of body weight goals in collegiate athletes. Participants included National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III women (n = 42, height: 169.9 ± 6.9 cm; body mass: 67.1 ± 8.6 kg; fat-free mass: 51.3 ± 6.6 kg; body fat per cent: 24.2 ± 5.3%) and men (n = 25, height: 180.8 ± 7.2 cm; body mass: 89.2 ± 20.5 kg; fat-free mass: 75.9 ± 12.2 kg; body fat per cent: 13.5 ± 8.9%) athletes. Body composition was assessed via air displacement plethysmography. Athletes completed a validated questionnaire designed to assess sport nutrition knowledge and were asked questions about their perceived dietary energy and macronutrient requirements, as well as their body weight goal (i.e., lose, maintain, gain weight). Athletes answered 47.98 ± 11.29% of questions correctly on the nutrition questionnaire with no differences observed between sexes (men: 49.52 ± 11.76% vs. women: 47.03 ± 11.04%; p = 0.40). An inverse relationship between sport nutrition knowledge scores and body fat percentage (BF%) (r = -0.330; p = 0.008), and fat mass (r = -0.268; p = 0.032) was observed for all athletes. Fat mass (ß = 0.224), BF% (ß = 0.217), and body mass index (BMI) (ß = 0.421) were all significant (p < 0.05) predictors of body weight goal in women. All athletes significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated daily energy (-1360 ± 610.2 kcal/day), carbohydrate (-301.6 ± 149.2 grams/day [g/day]), and fat (-41.4 ± 34.5 g/day) requirements. Division III collegiate athletes have a low level of sport nutrition knowledge, which was associated with a higher BF%. Women athletes with a higher body weight, BF% and BMI were more likely to select weight loss as a body weight goal. Athletes also significantly underestimated their energy and carbohydrate requirements based upon the demands of their sport, independent of sex.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Percepção , Pletismografia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 5(2): 368-376, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585801

RESUMO

Objective: To quantify the occurrence rate of abnormal electrocardiographic (ECG) findings and symptoms following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective analysis, we studied adult patients (>18 years old) who were participating in collegiate athletics and previously tested positive for COVID-19 between August 1, 2020, and December 30, 2020. The athletes underwent general examinations and ECG screening prior to being medically cleared for a return to sports following their COVID-19 diagnosis. Predetermined predictors were grouped into categorical variables including (1) sex, (2) symptom severity, and (3) body mass index (normal vs overweight [≥24 kg/m2]). These variables were used to examine differences of abnormal rates that occurred between different predictor categories. Results: Of the 170 athletes screened, 6 (3.5%) presented with abnormal ECG findings and were referred to cardiologists. We found no evidence that sex, symptom severity, and body mass index category were associated with a higher rate of abnormal ECG findings (all P>.05). Greater severity of COVID-19 symptoms was associated with a higher percentage of ST depression, T-wave inversion, ST-T changes, and the presence of fragmented QRS complex. Loss of smell, loss of taste, headache, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms, with 38.8% (66), 36.5% (62), 32.9% (56), and 25.3% (43), respectively, of the 170 athletes reporting each symptom. Conclusion: Preliminary findings indicate a low risk of myocardial injury secondary to COVID-19 infection, with less than 4% of the 170 patients in our study presenting with abnormal ECG findings and a total of 16 patients (9.4%) requiring referral to a cardiologist. Although viral myocarditis was not detected in any athlete referred for cardiological assessment, 2 patients experienced effusive viral pericarditis.

4.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(2): 205-211, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As new technology emerges and updated fitness watches are released to the market, it is important to examine their accuracy. The aim of the current study was to examine the accuracy of three commercially available activity trackers in assessing heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) during moderate intensity exercise. METHODS: Twenty healthy participants (Age: 20.5±0.7 yrs., Ht: 173.4±10.8 cm, BM: 72.8±13.9 kg, BMI: 24.0±2.5 kg/m2) wore two fitness watches (FB: Fitbit VersaTM, San Francisco, CA, USA; and PI: Polar IgniteTM, Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) and a chest-worn HR monitor (PTP: Polar TeamPro SensorTM, Polar Electro) during a 12-minute exercise protocol at incremental speeds. An electrocardiogram (ECG) and indirect calorimetry were used as criterion measures for HR and EE. Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was calculated to determine measurement error. RESULTS: The MAPE values for HR were 11.6±8.7% for the FB, 11.0±10.0% for the PI, and 6.3±5.2% for the PTP. For EE, MAPE values were 9.6±7.2% for the FB, 16.7±19.6% for the PI and 13.8±13.0% for the PTP. CONCLUSIONS: Fitness watches relying on optical measures of HR underestimate HR compared to criterion measures during moderate intensity exercise. Despite providing a more accurate measure of HR, a chest-worn monitor does not provide a more accurate estimate of EE compared to fitness watches. The Fitbit provided the most accurate measure of EE when compared to the Polar Ignite watch and chest-worn device.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Determinação da Frequência Cardíaca/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Calorimetria Indireta , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Voluntários Saudáveis , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Equipamentos de Proteção , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720985058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Concussions and mild traumatic brain injuries are important medical issues, particularly among youth as the long-term health consequences of these injuries can become increasingly problematic. The purpose of this study was to examine recent trends in diagnosed concussions among pediatric patients in a large health care system. METHODS: This was a retrospective, population-based epidemiology study design that queried all patient files (pediatrics included) using electronic medical health records and further stratified patients based on type of concussion, age, sex, and year from 2013 to 2018. RESULTS: Electronic health records from a cohort of 8 832 419 (nmales = 4 246 492; nfemales = 4 585 931) patient visits were assessed for concussion diagnosis and filtered for those whose concussive event led to a loss of consciousness (LOC) or not (nLOC). Of these patients, 12 068 were diagnosed with a concussion (LOC = 3 699; nLOC = 8 369) with an overall incidence rate of 1.37 concussions per 1000 patients. Overall, the number of patients diagnosed with a concussion increased by 5063 (LOC = 1351; nLOC = 3712) from 2013 to 2018. Males and females presented with similar rates of concussions 5919 (49.05%) and 6149 concussions (50.95%), respectively. Of total diagnosed concussions, 4972 (LOC = 815; nLOC = 4157) were under the age of 18 and represented 41.2% of all diagnosed concussions with an incidence rate of 6.79 per 1000 patients. CONCLUSION: The number of concussions diagnosed appear to be on the rise with the largest number of concussions being diagnosed in those under the age of 18. Future studies should seek to determine primary causality and the long-term health implications of concussions with or without LOC.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Adolescente , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720964665, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078678

RESUMO

Calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff is a common cause of shoulder pain and debility. Minimally invasive treatment options have been employed for management; however, ultrasonic tenotomy has not been previously described for management of calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder. The purpose of the current case series was to provide preliminary evidence in support of a novel treatment modality for calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. This descriptive pilot case series included a total of 8 patients with calcific tendinopathy of the supraspinatus that underwent ultrasound-guided ultrasonic debridement in the sports medicine clinic. All procedures were performed by the same physician (JLE). All patients had confirmation of the diagnosis with MRI and ultrasound imaging. Pain was measured pre-procedure and followed until 3-months post-procedure. Very large, statistically significant, reductions (P < .01) in pain scores were observed at 1 (ES = 1.93), 2 (ES = 1.84) and 3 (ES = 2.20) months post-procedure, respectively. All patients experienced a significant reduction in pain scores, regardless of hardness of the calcium deposit, at 1 month post-procedure with pain scores remaining lower than at baseline at 2 and 3 months post-procedure. No adverse events were noted in any patients. Ultrasonic tenotomy and debridement appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with calcific tendinopathy of the supraspinatus.


Assuntos
Calcinose , Tendinopatia , Calcinose/cirurgia , Desbridamento , Humanos , Ombro , Tendinopatia/cirurgia , Tenotomia , Ultrassom
7.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260520951317, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869714

RESUMO

A large number of studies have examined predictors of female crime quantities yet considerably less attention has been directed toward exploring patterns in the nature or quality of female violence within and across communities. Although research consistently demonstrates that females engage in less criminal behavior than males, research on the variability across contexts is somewhat sparse. The authors conduct analyses to determine if Anderson's initial observations of female violence in neighborhoods inundated with the code of the streets persist a decade after his initial ethnographic account. Specifically, we examine incident-level data from the National Incident Based Reporting System with contextual-level data on the cities in which the incidents occurred. We use hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling techniques to explore variations in predictors of offender gun use and extent of victim injury in violent female encounters. Supporting Anderson's initial accounts for street females and prior research we find the probability of gun usage and level of victim injury is not significantly influenced by differences in community context, and specifically not exacerbated by the types of conditions that make the code of the street locally salient.

8.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(8): 1594-1603, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in the frequency and severity of federally reported adverse events between caffeine-containing and non-caffeine-containing products while also identifying the category of caffeine-containing products associated with the highest frequency and severity of adverse events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All adverse event reports that met specified eligibility criteria and were submitted to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Adverse Event Reporting System between January 1, 2014, and June 29, 2018, were extracted. In this retrospective observational study, the most severe adverse event experienced, an ordinal variable, was categorized into death, life-threatening, hospitalization/disability, and emergency department visit. A nonproportional odds model was used to compare the odds of caffeine-containing products being associated with more severe adverse events relative to a noncaffeine group. The analysis is of data only from those reporting adverse events and may or may not be representative of the entire population exposed to these products, which is not known from the examined data. RESULTS: Energy and preworkout products saw a significant increase in the odds of the adverse event experienced being death rather than the other less severe outcomes relative to the noncaffeinated group. Those products, along with weight loss products, had greater odds of the adverse event being death or life-threatening vs the less severe outcomes relative to the noncaffeinated group. CONCLUSION: Caffeine-containing products have a greater association with severe adverse events compared with non-caffeine-containing products. Exposure to preworkout and weight loss products had greater odds of being associated with a more serious adverse event relative to noncaffeinated products. Health care practitioners should use these outcomes to better inform and educate patients about the many factors related to caffeine intake and adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/toxicidade , Cafeína/toxicidade , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Café/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Chá/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sports (Basel) ; 8(6)2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545603

RESUMO

Research describing the match and specific positional demands during match play in women's collegiate soccer is limited. The purpose of the study was to quantify the match demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III soccer and assess position differences in movement kinematics, heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure. Twenty-five Division III women soccer players (height: 1.61 ± 0.3 m; body mass: 66.7 ± 7.5 kg; fat-free mass: 50.3 ± 6.5 kg; body fat%: 25.6 ± 5.1%) were equipped with a wearable global positioning system to assess the demands of 22 matches throughout a season. Players were categorized by position (goal keepers (GK), center defenders (CB), flank players (FP), forwards (F), and center midfielders (CM)). Players covered 9807 ± 2588 m and 1019 ± 552 m at high speeds (>249.6 m·m-1), with an overall average speed of 62.85 ± 14.7 m·m-1. This resulted in a mean HR of 74.2 ± 6% HR max and energy expenditure of 1259 ± 309 kcal. Significant and meaningful differences in movement kinematics were observed across position groups. CM covered the most distance resulting in the highest training load. FP covered the most distance at high speeds and mean HR values were highest in CM, CB, and FP positions.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260070

RESUMO

Since Anderson's now classic, Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City, an increasing number of researchers have found a significant association between the code of the street and antisocial behavior. Less researched, however, is the relationship between the code of the street and cognate psychological factors. Building on the hypothesis that the code of the street is simply a reflection of elements of the population who exhibit antisocial traits, our aim in this study is to empirically test whether the observed association between the code of the street and antisocial behavior can withstand psychological confounds among a sample of institutionalized juvenile delinquents. Negative binomial regression models show that the code of the street remained a significant predictor of antisocial behavior despite the specification of psychopathy and temperamental traits and other controls. Moreover, as theorized, differential effects were found for African American delinquents compared to non-African American delinquents. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.


Assuntos
Delinquência Juvenil , Violência , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei
11.
Front Sports Act Living ; 2: 623068, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426521

RESUMO

The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of COVID-19 government-enforced shutdown measures on the training habits and perceptions of athletes. A web-based electronic survey was developed and distributed online to athletes. The survey contained questions regarding currently available resources, changes in weekly training habits, and perceptions of training such as intensity, motivation, and enjoyment. A total of 105 (males: n = 31; females: n = 74) athletes completed the survey (mean ± SD age = 19.86 ± 2.13 years). Ninety-nine (94.3%) athletes continued to receive guidance from their primary sport coach or strength training staff. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease (mean ± SD) in self-reported participation time for strength training (-1.65 ± 4.32 h. week-1), endurance (-1.47 ± 3.93 h. week-1), and mobility (-1.09 ± 2.24 h. week-1), with the largest reduction coming from participation time in sport-specific activities (-6.44 ± 6.28 h. week-1) pre- to post-shutdown. When asked to rate their current state of emotional well-being using a visual analog scale of 0-100, with 100 being exceptional, the mean score was 51.6 ± 19.6 AU. Athletes experienced notable reductions in training frequency and time spent completing various training related activities. In the future, practitioners should have preparations in place in the event of another lockdown period or future pandemic to avoid or minimize significant disruptions in training. Special considerations may be needed when athletes are allowed to return to sport in the event of significant levels of detraining that may have occurred.

12.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 5(4)2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467292

RESUMO

This case study examined changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), aerobic capacity, and daily physical activity in a patient who had ulcerative colitis and underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) surgery. Body composition, RMR, and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were assessed prior to surgery and four, eight, and 16 weeks after IPAA surgery. Daily physical activity data were extracted from a wrist-worn activity tracker preoperatively and 16 months postoperatively. At baseline, total body mass was 95.3 kg; body fat, 11.6%; lean body mass, 81.1 kg; RMR, 2416 kcal/d; and VO2peak, 42.7 mL/kg/min. All values decreased from baseline at four weeks postoperatively, body mass was 85.2 kg (-10.5%); body fat, 10.9% (-6.0%); lean body mass, 73.1 kg (-9.9%); RMR 2210 kcal/d (-8.5%) and VO2peak, 25.5 mL/kg/min (-40.3%). At 16 weeks postoperatively, most parameters were near their baseline levels (within 1-7%), exceptions were VO2peak, which was 20.4% below baseline, and RMR, which increased to nearly 20% above baseline. After the patient had IPAA surgery, his total and lean body masses, RMR, and aerobic capacity were markedly decreased. Daily physical activity decreased postoperatively and likely contributed to the decreased aerobic capacity, which may take longer to recover compared to body composition and RMR parameters.

13.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 5(4)2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467311

RESUMO

(1) Background: Limited information exists on the prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in collegiate team sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of LEA in collegiate women soccer players. (2) Methods: Collegiate women soccer athletes (n = 18, height: 1.67 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 65.3 ± 7.9 kg; body fat %: 24.9 ± 5.6%) had their body composition and sport nutrition knowledge assessed in the pre-season. Energy availability was assessed mid-season using a 4-day dietary log and activity energy expenditure values from a team-based monitoring system. A validated screening tool was used to screen for LEA. (3) Results: The screening tool classified 56.3% of athletes as at risk of LEA (<30 kcal/kg of FFM); however, the actual dietary intake identified 67% as LEA. Athletes identified as non-LEA consumed significantly more absolute (p = 0.040) and relative (p = 0.004) energy than LEA athletes. (4) Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of LEA among collegiate women soccer athletes. Although previously validated in women endurance athletes, the LEA screening tool was not effective in identifying those at risk of LEA in this sample of athletes.

14.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 12(2): 187-202, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761195

RESUMO

Multiple ingredient pre-workout supplements (MIPS) are purported to offer favorable acute metabolic changes potentially leading to improvements in body composition and training adaptations over time. However, there is limited information available regarding the long-term benefits and safety of consuming MIPS, specifically in female populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-workout ingestion on body composition, training adaptations and select markers of clinical health in recreationally active females after 7 weeks of supplementation and resistance training. Nineteen participants participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Experimental testing included resting heart rate and blood pressure, blood lipid panels, body composition, resting metabolic testing and performance measurements before and after a seven-week resistance training program while ingesting either a MIPS or placebo once daily. There were no significant group x time interactions for changes in body fat percentage (p=0.66), fat-free mass (p=0.87), fat mass (p=0.63) or resting metabolic rate (p=0.52). Both groups showed significant improvements in upper (p<0.001) and lower body (p<0.001) maximal strength following the 7-week training period however no differences in upper (p=0.74) and lower body (p=0.53) strength improvements were observed between groups, respectively. No significant group x time interactions were observed for any of the markers of clinical health. In conclusion, the current study suggests that daily consumption of a MIPS does not enhance training adaptations in recreationally active females and does not appear to negatively affect resting blood pressure, heart rate and blood lipids.

15.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 3008-3014, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199450

RESUMO

Jagim, AR, Camic, CL, Askow, A, Luedke, J, Erickson, J, Kerksick, CM, Jones, MT, and Oliver, JM. Sex differences in resting metabolic rate among athletes. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 3008-3014, 2019-The purpose of this study was to compare differences in resting metabolic rate (RMR) between sexes in Division III National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) collegiate athletes and to identify predictors of RMR. Sixty-eight male (M) (age: 20.1 ± 1.5 years; height: 181.8 ± 5.9 cm; body mass (BM): 93.7 ± 16.3 kg; and body fat%: 16.3 ± 8.6%) and 48 female (F) athletes (age: 19.4 ± 1.3 years; height: 166.5 ± 6.0 cm; BM: 63.4 ± 12.7 kg; and body fat%: 21.5 ± 6.3%) participated in a single day of testing, which included determination of RMR using indirect calorimetry and air displacement plethysmography to measure fat mass and fat-free mass (FFM). An independent-samples t-test was used to compare differences in body composition and RMR between sexes, and regression analysis was used to identify predictors of RMR. Men had a significantly higher absolute RMR (M: 2,481 ± 209 vs. F: 1,553 ± 193 kcals·d; p < 0.001), but when adjusted for BM (M: 25.6 ± 8.3 vs. F: 25.9 ± 2.5 kcals·kg BM per day; p = 0.82) and FFM (M: 31.1 ± 10.6 vs. F: 33.6 ± 3.8 kcals·kg FFM per day; p = 0.12), these differences became nonsignificant. Regression analysis indicated that BM in both men (ß = 0.73) and women (ß = 0.88) was the strongest predictor of RMR. The results of the current study indicate minimal differences in RMR between sexes among athletic populations when adjusted for BM and FFM. In the current group of athletes, BM seems to account for the largest variability in RMR.


Assuntos
Atletas , Metabolismo Basal , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pletismografia , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
16.
Front Nutr ; 5: 115, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547033

RESUMO

Creatine has been extensively researched and is well-supported as one of the most effective dietary supplements available. There is overwhelming support within the literature regarding the ability of creatine to augment performance following short term (5-7 days) and long-duration supplementation periods. There is also strong support for creatine regarding its safety profile and minimal risk for adverse events or any negative influence on markers of clinical health and safety. Recent research has also highlighted the ability of creatine to confer several health-related benefits in select clinical populations in addition to offering cognitive benefits. Creatine is also a popular supplement of choice for adolescent athletes; however, research in this area is extremely limited, particularly when examining the safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in this population. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to highlight the limited number of studies available in adolescent populations and systematically discuss the topic of safety of creatine supplementation in a younger population.

17.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 15(1): 41, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089501

RESUMO

In recent years, a new class of dietary supplements called multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements (MIPS) has increased in popularity. These supplements are intended to be taken prior to exercise and typically contain a blend of ingredients such as caffeine, creatine, beta-alanine, amino acids, and nitric oxide agents, the combination of which may elicit a synergistic effect on acute exercise performance and subsequent training adaptations compared to single ingredients alone. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to review the theoretical rationale and available scientific evidence assessing the potential ergogenic value of acute and chronic ingestion of MIPS, to address potential safety concerns surrounding MIPS supplementation, and to highlight potential areas for future research. Though direct comparisons between formulations of MIPS or between a MIPS and a single ingredient are challenging and often impossible due to the widespread use of "proprietary blends" that do not disclose specific amounts of ingredients in a given formulation, a substantial body of evidence suggests that the acute pre-exercise consumption of MIPS may positively influence muscular endurance and subjective mood, though mixed results have been reported regarding the acute effect of MIPS on force and power production. The chronic consumption of MIPS in conjunction with a periodized resistance training program appears to augment beneficial changes in body composition through increased lean mass accretion. However, the impact of long-term MIPS supplementation on force production, muscular endurance, aerobic performance, and subjective measures is less clear. MIPS ingestion appears to be relatively safe, though most studies that have assessed the safety of MIPS are relatively short (less than eight weeks) and thus more information is needed regarding the safety of long-term supplementation. As with any dietary supplement, the use of MIPS carries implications for the athlete, as many formulations may intentionally contain banned substances as ingredients or unintentionally as contaminants. We suggest that athletes thoroughly investigate the ingredients present in a given MIPS prior to consumption. In conclusion, it appears that multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements have promise as an ergogenic aid for active individuals, though further information is required regarding long-term efficacy and safety in a wider variety of populations.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Suplementos Nutricionais , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Atletas , Betaína/farmacologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Creatina/farmacologia , Humanos , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , beta-Alanina/farmacologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311763

RESUMO

Background: The use of dietary supplements to improve performance is becoming increasingly popular among athletes and fitness enthusiasts. Unfortunately, there is a tremendous lack of research being done regarding female athletes and the use of sport supplements. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement (MIPS) ingestion on resting metabolism and exercise performance in recreationally-active females. Methods: Fifteen recreationally-active females participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Subjects completed baseline, and two experimental testing sessions in a cross-over design fashion. Experimental testing included assessment of resting energy expenditure (REE), heart rate, and blood pressure following the ingestion of a MIPS or placebo. Subjects also completed a repetition to failure test for the back squat (BS) and bench press (BP) at 85% of their 5-repetition maximum followed by the assessment of anaerobic power using a counter-movement vertical jump test and a sprint test on a force-treadmill. Subjective measurements of energy, focus, and fatigue were also assessed using a 5-point Likert scale. Separate repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to assess differences in REE, cardiovascular responses, and subjective markers between conditions. Performance data were analyzed using paired Student's T-tests. Results: A significant main effect for condition was observed for REE (p = 0.021) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.011) following ingestion of the MIPS. The supplement condition resulted in a greater number of BP repetitions to failure and total work completed during treadmill test (p = 0.039) compared to placebo (p = 0.037). A significant condition x time interaction for focus was observed with the supplement treatment exhibiting improved focus at 80-min post ingestion (p = 0.046). Conclusions: Consumption of a MIPS increased resting metabolism following a single dose accompanied by an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, acute MIPS ingestion improved upper body muscular endurance and anaerobic capacity while improving feelings of focus following high-intensity exercise in recreationally active females.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Atletas , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Strength Cond Res ; 32(7): 1875-1881, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28682934

RESUMO

Jagim, AR, Camic, CL, Kisiolek, J, Luedke, J, Erickson, J, Jones, MT, and Oliver, JM. Accuracy of resting metabolic rate prediction equations in athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(7): 1875-1881, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of 5 different resting metabolic rate (RMR) prediction equations in male and female athletes. Twenty-two female (19.7 ± 1.4 years; 166.2 ± 5.5 cm; 63.5 ± 7.3 kg; 49.2 ± 4.3 kg of fat-free mass (FFM); 23.4 ± 4.4 body fat (BF) percent) and 28 male (20.2 ± 1.6 years; 181.9 ± 6.1 cm; 94.5 ± 16.2 kg; 79.1 ± 7.2 kg of FFM; 15.1 ± 8.5% BF) athletes were recruited to participate in 1 day of metabolic testing. Assessments comprised RMR measurements using indirect calorimetry, and body composition analyses using air displacement plethysmography. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with follow-up paired t tests were selected to determine differences between indirect calorimetry and 5 RMR prediction equations. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the accuracy of each RMR prediction method. An alpha level of p ≤ 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. All the prediction equations significantly underestimated RMR while the Cunningham equation had the smallest mean difference (-165 kcals). In men, the Harris-Benedict equation was found to be the best prediction formula with the lowest root-mean-square prediction error value of 284 kcals. In women, the Cunningham equation was found to be the best prediction equation with the lowest root-mean-squared error value of 110 kcals. Resting metabolic rate prediction equations consistently seem to underestimate RMR in male and female athletes. The Harris-Benedict equation seems to be most accurate for male athletes, whereas the Cunningham equation may be better suited for female athletes.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Conceitos Matemáticos , Esportes/fisiologia , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pletismografia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 14(3): 227-34, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25968857

RESUMO

This review summarizes the evidence base for using compression, massage, caloric replacement, cold, and heat as exercise recovery aids in sport.


Assuntos
Bandagens Compressivas , Crioterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico , Temperatura Alta/uso terapêutico , Massagem , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...