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1.
Heart ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We recently identified a health conscious food pattern (HCFP) associated with reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease. However, the molecular events linking the healthy food pattern to reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease are unknown. Our aim was to identify plasma metabolites associated with the HCFP and test if such metabolites predict cardiometabolic disease and mortality. METHODS: Using liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry, 112 plasma metabolites were measured in 3236 participants without cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer study. Metabolites associated with the HCFP were identified using multivariable adjusted linear regressions followed by Bonferroni correction. The healthy dietary biomarkers were subsequently related to risk of cardiometabolic disease and mortality during long-term follow-up with multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 21.4 years, 603 participants developed CVD, 362 developed diabetes mellitus and 843 participants died. Five healthy dietary biomarkers were associated with the HCFP at baseline (p<0.0004) and four predicted at least one of the studied end points (p<0.05). Ergothioneine was the metabolite most strongly connected to the HCFP and was associated with a lower risk of coronary disease (HR per 1 SD increment of ergothioneine, HR=0.85, p=0.01), cardiovascular mortality (HR=0.79, p=0.002) and overall mortality (HR=0.86, p=4e-5). CONCLUSIONS: We identified that higher ergothioneine was an independent marker of lower risk of cardiometabolic disease and mortality, which potentially can be induced by a specific healthy dietary intake.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(19): e012846, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533499

RESUMO

Background Identification of lifestyle modifiable metabolic pathways related to cardiometabolic disease risk is essential for improvement of primary prevention in susceptible individuals. It was recently shown that plasma dimethylguanidino valerate (DMGV) levels are associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our aims were to investigate whether plasma DMGV is related to risk of future coronary artery disease and with cardiovascular mortality and to replicate the association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and pinpoint candidate lifestyle interventions susceptible to modulate DMGV levels. Methods and Results Plasma DMGV levels were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in a total of 5768 participants from the MDC (Malmö Diet and Cancer Study-Cardiovascular Cohort), MPP (Malmö Preventive Project), and MOS (Malmö Offspring Study). Dietary intake assessment was performed in the MOS. Baseline levels of DMGV associated with incident coronary artery disease in both the MDC (hazard ratio=1.29; CI=1.16-1.43; P<0.001) and MPP (odds ratio=1.25; CI=1.08-1.44; P=2.4e-3). In the MDC, DMGV was associated with cardiovascular mortality and incident coronary artery disease, independently of traditional risk factors. Furthermore, the association between DMGV and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus was replicated in both the MDC (hazard ratio=1.83; CI=1.63-2.05; P<0.001) and MPP (odds ratio=1.65; CI=1.38-1.98; P<0.001). Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased levels of DMGV, whereas intake of vegetables and level of physical activity was associated with lower DMGV. Conclusions We discovered novel independent associations between plasma DMGV and incident coronary artery disease and cardiovascular mortality, while replicating the previously reported association with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additionally, strong associations with sugar-sweetened beverages, vegetable intake, and physical activity suggest the potential to modify DMGV levels using lifestyle interventions.

3.
BMJ ; 366: l4292, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the genetic burden of type 2 diabetes modifies the association between the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Individual participant data meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Eligible prospective cohort studies were systematically sourced from studies published between January 1970 and February 2017 through electronic searches in major medical databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) and discussion with investigators. REVIEW METHODS: Data from cohort studies or multicohort consortia with available genome-wide genetic data and information about the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in participants of European descent was sought. Prospective cohorts that had accrued five or more years of follow-up were included. The type 2 diabetes genetic risk profile was characterized by a 68-variant polygenic risk score weighted by published effect sizes. Diet was recorded by using validated cohort-specific dietary assessment tools. Outcome measures were summary adjusted hazard ratios of incident type 2 diabetes for polygenic risk score, isocaloric replacement of carbohydrate (refined starch and sugars) with types of fat, and the interaction of types of fat with polygenic risk score. RESULTS: Of 102 305 participants from 15 prospective cohort studies, 20 015 type 2 diabetes cases were documented after a median follow-up of 12 years (interquartile range 9.4-14.2). The hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes per increment of 10 risk alleles in the polygenic risk score was 1.64 (95% confidence interval 1.54 to 1.75, I2=7.1%, τ2=0.003). The increase of polyunsaturated fat and total omega 6 polyunsaturated fat intake in place of carbohydrate was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, with hazard ratios of 0.90 (0.82 to 0.98, I2=18.0%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy) and 0.99 (0.97 to 1.00, I2=58.8%, τ2=0.001; per increment of 1 g/d), respectively. Increasing monounsaturated fat in place of carbohydrate was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.19, I2=25.9%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy). Evidence of small study effects was detected for the overall association of polyunsaturated fat with the risk of type 2 diabetes, but not for the omega 6 polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat associations. Significant interactions between dietary fat and polygenic risk score on the risk of type 2 diabetes (P>0.05 for interaction) were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that genetic burden and the quality of dietary fat are each associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The findings do not support tailoring recommendations on the quality of dietary fat to individual type 2 diabetes genetic risk profiles for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes, and suggest that dietary fat is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes across the spectrum of type 2 diabetes genetic risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alelos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342519

RESUMO

Polyphenols are bioactive compounds with several anticarcinogenic activities; however, human data regarding associations with thyroid cancer (TC) is still negligible. Our aim was to evaluate the association between intakes of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and risk of differentiated TC and its main subtypes, papillary and follicular, in a European population. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort included 476,108 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, there were 748 incident differentiated TC cases, including 601 papillary and 109 follicular tumors. Polyphenol intake was estimated at baseline using validated center/country-specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, no association between total polyphenol and the risks of overall differentiated TC (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.29), papillary (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.06, 95% CI 0.80-1.41) or follicular TC (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.10, 95% CI 0.55-2.22) were found. No associations were observed either for flavonoids, phenolic acids or the rest of classes and subclasses of polyphenols. After stratification by body mass index (BMI), an inverse association between the intake of polyphenols (p-trend = 0.019) and phenolic acids (p-trend = 0.007) and differentiated TC risk in subjects with BMI ≥ 25 was observed. In conclusion, our study showed no associations between dietary polyphenol intake and differentiated TC risk; although further studies are warranted to investigate the potential protective associations in overweight and obese individuals.

5.
Circulation ; 139(25): 2835-2845, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the relevance of animal foods to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined meat, fish, dairy products, and eggs and risk for IHD in the pan-European EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition). METHODS: In this prospective study of 409 885 men and women in 9 European countries, diet was assessed with validated questionnaires and calibrated with 24-hour recalls. Lipids and blood pressure were measured in a subsample. During a mean of 12.6 years of follow-up, 7198 participants had a myocardial infarction or died of IHD. The relationships of animal foods with risk were examined with Cox regression with adjustment for other animal foods and relevant covariates. RESULTS: The hazard ratio (HR) for IHD was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06-1.33) for a 100-g/d increment in intake of red and processed meat, and this remained significant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up (HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.09-1.42]). Risk was inversely associated with intakes of yogurt (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89-0.98] per 100-g/d increment), cheese (HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.98] per 30-g/d increment), and eggs (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.99] per 20-g/d increment); the associations with yogurt and eggs were attenuated and nonsignificant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up. Risk was not significantly associated with intakes of poultry, fish, or milk. In analyses modeling dietary substitutions, replacement of 100 kcal/d from red and processed meat with 100 kcal/d from fatty fish, yogurt, cheese, or eggs was associated with ≈20% lower risk of IHD. Consumption of red and processed meat was positively associated with serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and systolic blood pressure, and consumption of cheese was inversely associated with serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Risk for IHD was positively associated with consumption of red and processed meat and inversely associated with consumption of yogurt, cheese, and eggs, although the associations with yogurt and eggs may be influenced by reverse causation bias. It is not clear whether the associations with red and processed meat and cheese reflect causality, but they were consistent with the associations of these foods with plasma non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and for red and processed meat with systolic blood pressure, which could mediate such effects.

6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 1917-1925, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Because elevated copeptin, a marker of vasopressin, is linked to low water intake and high diabetes risk, we tested the effect of water supplementation on copeptin and fasting glucose. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one healthy adults with high copeptin (>10.7 pmol · L-1 in men and >6.1 pmol·L-1 in women) identified in a population-based survey from 2013 to 2015 and with a current 24-hour urine osmolality of >600 mOsm · kg-1 were included. INTERVENTION: Addition of 1.5 L water daily on top of habitual fluid intake for 6 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pre- and postintervention fasting plasma copeptin concentrations. RESULTS: Reported mean water intake increased from 0.43 to 1.35 L · d-1 (P < 0.001), with no other observed changes in diet. Median (interquartile range) urine osmolality was reduced from 879 (705, 996) to 384 (319, 502) mOsm · kg-1 (P < 0.001); urine volume increased from 1.06 (0.90, 1.20) to 2.27 (1.52, 2.67) L · d-1 (P < 0.001); and baseline copeptin decreased from 12.9 (7.4, 21.9) pmol · L-1 to 7.8 (4.6;11.3) pmol · L-1 (P < 0.001). Water supplementation reduced fasting plasma glucose from a mean (SD) of 5.94 (0.44) to 5.74 (0.51) (P = 0.04). The water-associated reduction of both fasting copeptin and glucose concentration in plasma was most pronounced in participants in the top tertile of baseline copeptin. CONCLUSIONS: Water supplementation in persons with habitually low water consumption and high copeptin levels is effective in lowering copeptin. It appears a safe and promising intervention with the potential of lowering fasting plasma glucose and thus reducing diabetes risk. Further investigations are warranted to support these findings.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 411-423, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590448

RESUMO

Background: Although sugar consumption has been associated with several risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases, evidence for harmful long-term effects is lacking. In addition, most studies have focused on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), not sugar per se. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between added and free sugar intake, intake of different sugar sources, and mortality risk. Methods: Two prospective population-based cohorts were examined: the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS; n = 24,272), which collected dietary data by combining a food diary, interview, and food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and the Northern Swedish Health and Disease Study (NSHDS; n = 24,475), which assessed diet with an FFQ. Sugar intakes defined as both added and free sugar and different sugar sources were examined. The associations with mortality were examined using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Higher sugar consumption was associated with a less favorable lifestyle in general. The lowest mortality risk was found with added sugar intakes between 7.5% and 10% of energy (E%) intake in both cohorts. Intakes >20E% were associated with a 30% increased mortality risk, but increased risks were also found at intakes <5E% [23% in the MDCS and 9% (nonsignificant) in the NSHDS]. Similar U-shaped associations were found for both cardiovascular and cancer mortality in the MDCS. By separately analyzing the different sugar sources, the intake of SSBs was positively associated with mortality, whereas the intake of treats was inversely associated. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that a high sugar intake is associated with an increased mortality risk. However, the risk is also increased among low sugar consumers, although they have a more favorable lifestyle in general. In addition, the associations are dependent on the type of sugar source.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Dieta , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Paladar
8.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 122-131, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588620

RESUMO

There is a growing evidence of the protective role of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on cancer. However, no prospective study has yet investigated its influence on lymphoma. We evaluated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The analysis included 476,160 participants, recruited from 10 European countries between 1991 and 2001. Adherence to the MD was estimated through the adapted relative MD (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma [HL], 2,606 non-HL and 395 lymphoma not otherwise specified) were identified. Overall, a 1-unit increase in the arMED score was associated with a 2% lower risk of lymphoma (95% CI: 0.97; 1.00, p-trend = 0.03) while a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between a high versus low arMED score and risk of lymphoma was observed (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91 [95% CI 0.80; 1.03], p-trend = 0.12). Analyses by lymphoma subtype did not reveal any statistically significant associations. Albeit with small numbers of cases (N = 135), a suggestive inverse association was found for HL (HR 1-unit increase = 0.93 [95% CI: 0.86; 1.01], p-trend = 0.07). However, the study may have lacked statistical power to detect small effect sizes for lymphoma subtype. Our findings suggest that an increasing arMED score was inversely related to the risk of overall lymphoma in EPIC but not by subtypes. Further large prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
9.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499135

RESUMO

Vitamin B supplementation can have side effects for human health, including cancer risk. We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin B12 in lung cancer aetiology via direct measurements of pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin B12 concentrations in a nested case-control study, complemented with a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in an independent case-control sample. We used pre-diagnostic biomarker data from 5,183 case-control pairs nested within 20 prospective cohorts, and genetic data from 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. Exposures included directly measured circulating vitamin B12 in pre-diagnostic blood samples from the nested case-control study, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin B12 concentrations in the MR study. Our main outcome of interest was increased risk for lung cancer, overall and by histological subtype, per increase in circulating vitamin B12 concentrations. We found circulating vitamin B12 to be positively associated with overall lung cancer risk in a dose response fashion (odds ratio for a doubling in B12 [ORlog2B12 ] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06-1.25). The MR analysis based on 8 genetic variants also indicated that genetically determined higher vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall lung cancer risk (OR per 150 pmol/L standard deviation increase in B12 [ORSD ]= 1.08, 95%CI= 1.00-1.16). Considering the consistency of these two independent and complementary analyses, these findings support the hypothesis that high vitamin B12 status increases the risk of lung cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422929

RESUMO

The World Cancer Research Fund International has concluded strong evidence for that high intake of dairy products and foods containing dietary fiber and low intake of processed meat are associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). As food items are consumed together, it is important to study dietary patterns. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between an a priori constructed dietary index and incident CRC and between intake of processed meat, fiber, and dairy products and CRC. In the Malmö Diet and Cancer study cohort, 923 cases of CRC were identified, during 502 136 person-years of follow-up. A Colorectal Diet Quality Index (CDQI) was constructed regarding intakes of processed meat, fiber, and dairy products in relation to CRC. Higher index indicated a higher dietary quality. Higher CDQI was associated with lower risk of CRC [hazard ratios (HR): 0.57 for highest compared with lowest quintile; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43, 0.75; P<0.001]. Intake of dairy products was inversely associated with risk of CRC [HR for highest vs. lowest quintile was 0.77 (CI: 0.62, 0.96); P=0.008], as was dietary fiber (HR for highest vs. lowest quintile was 0.77 (CI: 0.61, 0.98); P=0.043). High intake of processed meat was associated with CRC (HR for highest vs. lowest quintile was 1.31; CI: 1.05, 1.63; P=0.012). High adherence to a predefined CRC-specific diet quality index was inversely associated with the risk of CRC and gave a stronger association with CRC, than when analyzing the components of the CDQI individually.

11.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-12, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine timing of eating across ten European countries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study using standardized 24 h diet recalls collected during 1995-2000. Eleven predefined food consumption occasions were assessed during the recall interview. We present time of consumption of meals and snacks as well as the later:earlier energy intake ratio, with earlier and later intakes defined as 06.00-14.00 and 15.00-24.00 hours, respectively. Type III tests were used to examine associations of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health variables with timing of energy intake. SETTING: Ten Western European countries. SUBJECTS: In total, 22 985 women and 13 035 men aged 35-74 years (n 36 020). RESULTS: A south-north gradient was observed for timing of eating, with later consumption of meals and snacks in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries. However, the energy load was reversed, with the later:earlier energy intake ratio ranging from 0·68 (France) to 1·39 (Norway) among women, and from 0·71 (Greece) to 1·35 (the Netherlands) among men. Among women, country, age, education, marital status, smoking, day of recall and season were all independently associated with timing of energy intake (all P<0·05). Among men, the corresponding variables were country, age, education, smoking, physical activity, BMI and day of recall (all P<0·05). CONCLUSIONS: We found pronounced differences in timing of eating across Europe, with later meal timetables but greater energy load earlier during the day in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries.

12.
PLoS Med ; 15(9): e1002651, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helping consumers make healthier food choices is a key issue for the prevention of cancer and other diseases. In many countries, political authorities are considering the implementation of a simplified labelling system to reflect the nutritional quality of food products. The Nutri-Score, a five-colour nutrition label, is derived from the Nutrient Profiling System of the British Food Standards Agency (modified version) (FSAm-NPS). How the consumption of foods with high/low FSAm-NPS relates to cancer risk has been studied in national/regional cohorts but has not been characterized in diverse European populations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This prospective analysis included 471,495 adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, 1992-2014, median follow-up: 15.3 y), among whom there were 49,794 incident cancer cases (main locations: breast, n = 12,063; prostate, n = 6,745; colon-rectum, n = 5,806). Usual food intakes were assessed with standardized country-specific diet assessment methods. The FSAm-NPS was calculated for each food/beverage using their 100-g content in energy, sugar, saturated fatty acid, sodium, fibres, proteins, and fruits/vegetables/legumes/nuts. The FSAm-NPS scores of all food items usually consumed by a participant were averaged to obtain the individual FSAm-NPS Dietary Index (DI) scores. Multi-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were computed. A higher FSAm-NPS DI score, reflecting a lower nutritional quality of the food consumed, was associated with a higher risk of total cancer (HRQ5 versus Q1 = 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.10, P-trend < 0.001). Absolute cancer rates in those with high and low (quintiles 5 and 1) FSAm-NPS DI scores were 81.4 and 69.5 cases/10,000 person-years, respectively. Higher FSAm-NPS DI scores were specifically associated with higher risks of cancers of the colon-rectum, upper aerodigestive tract and stomach, lung for men, and liver and postmenopausal breast for women (all P < 0.05). The main study limitation is that it was based on an observational cohort using self-reported dietary data obtained through a single baseline food frequency questionnaire; thus, exposure misclassification and residual confounding cannot be ruled out. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multinational European cohort, the consumption of food products with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher risk of cancer. This supports the relevance of the FSAm-NPS as underlying nutrient profiling system for front-of-pack nutrition labels, as well as for other public health nutritional measures.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178496

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) has an exceptionally low survival rate and primary prevention strategies are limited. Folate plays an important role in one-carbon metabolism and has been associated with the risk of several cancers, but not consistently with PC risk. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary folate intake and PC risk, using the standardised folate database across 10 European countries. A total of 477,206 participants were followed up for 11 years, during which 865 incident primary PC cases were recorded. Folate intake was energy-adjusted using the residual method. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. In multivariable analyses stratified by age, sex, study centre and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, BMI, educational level, diabetes status, supplement use and dietary fibre intake, we found no significant association between folate intake and PC risk: the HR of PC risk for those in the highest quartile of folate intake (≥353 µg/d) compared with the lowest (<241 µg/d) was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.31; Ptrend = 0.38). In current smokers, a positive trend was observed in PC risk across folate quartiles (HR=4.42 (95% CI: 1.05, 18.62) for ≥353 µg/d vs. <241 µg/d, Ptrend = 0.01). Nonetheless, there was no significant interaction between smoking and dietary folate intake (Pinteraction = 0.99). We found no association between dietary folate intake and PC risk in this large European study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Eur J Nutr ; 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855685

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined if data-driven food-patterns associate with weight change, incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary events (CE) and stroke. METHODS: The study included 20,487 individuals (61% women) from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, 45-74 years, without diabetes and CVD at baseline (1991-1996) and who did not report dietary changes. Diet was measured with a modified diet history method. During 15 years follow-up, 2206 T2D, 1571 CE and 1332 stroke cases were identified. Data on weight change after 16.7 years were available in 2627 individuals. RESULTS: From principal component analysis, we identified six food-patterns which were similar in women and men. The first pattern, explaining 7% of the variance, was characterized by high intake of fibre-rich bread, breakfast cereals, fruits, vegetables, fish and low-fat yoghurt, and by low intake of low-fibre bread. This health conscious pattern was associated with lower T2D risk (HR comparing highest quintile with lowest: 0.75; 95% CI 0.61-0.92, 0.82; 95% CI 0.68-1.00 in women and men, respectively, P trends = 0.003, 0.01) and CE (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.58-1.02, HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.68-1.01, P trends = 0.05, 0.07), and in men also with lower risk of ischemic stroke (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.54-0.88; P trend = 0.001) and less pronounced weight gain (0.93 kg/10 years, P trend = 0.03). A low-fat product pattern was associated with increased T2D risk in gender combined analyses (P trend = 0.03) and a pattern characterized by dressing and vegetables with lower CE risk in men (P trend = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our main finding was that a dietary pattern indicating health conscious food choices was associated with lower risk of cardiometabolic diseases in both genders.

15.
Genes Nutr ; 13: 13, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796113

RESUMO

Background: Both lifestyle and genetic predisposition determine the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and studies have indicated interactions between specific dietary components and individual genetic variants. However, it is unclear whether the importance of overall dietary habits, including T2D-related food intakes, differs depending on genetic predisposition to T2D. We examined interaction between a genetic risk score for T2D, constructed from 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies, and a diet risk score of four foods consistently associated with T2D in epidemiological studies (processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, whole grain and coffee). In total, 25,069 individuals aged 45-74 years with genotype information and without prevalent diabetes from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (1991-1996) were included. Diet data were collected with a modified diet history method. Results: During 17-year follow-up, 3588 incident T2D cases were identified. Both the diet risk score (HR in the highest risk category 1.40; 95% CI 1.26, 1.58; P trend = 6 × 10-10) and the genetic risk score (HR in the highest tertile of the genetic risk score 1.67; 95% CI 1.54, 1.81; P trend = 7 × 10-35) were associated with increased incidence of T2D. No significant interaction between the genetic risk score and the diet risk score (P = 0.83) or its food components was observed. The highest risk was seen among the 6% of the individuals with both high genetic and dietary risk scores (HR 2.49; 95% CI 2.06, 3.01). Conclusions: The findings thus show that both genetic heredity and dietary habits previously associated with T2D add to the risk of T2D, but they seem to act in an independent fashion, with the consequence that all individuals, whether at high or low genetic risk, would benefit from favourable food choices.

16.
Br J Nutr ; 119(10): 1168-1176, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29759108

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to derive dietary patterns associated with cardio-metabolic traits and to examine whether these predict prospective changes in these traits and incidence of the metabolic syndrome (iMetS). Subjects from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cardiovascular cohort without cardio-metabolic disease and related drug treatments at baseline (n 4071; aged 45-67 years, 40 % men) were included. We applied reduced rank regression on thirty-eight foods to derive patterns that explain variation in response variables measured at baseline (waist circumference, TAG, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin). Patterns were examined in relation to change in cardio-metabolic traits and iMetS in subjects who were re-examined after 16·7 years (n 2704). Two dietary patterns ('Western' and 'Drinker') were retained and explained 3·2 % of the variation in response variables. The 'Western' dietary pattern was inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol and positively with all other response variables (both at baseline and follow-up), but there was no association with LDL at follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, the 'Western' dietary pattern was associated with higher risk of iMetS (hazard ratio Q4 v. Q1: 1·47; 95 % CI 1·23, 1·77; P trend=1·5×10-5). The 'Drinker' dietary pattern primarily explained variation in HDL and was not associated with iMetS. In conclusion, this study supports current food-based dietary guidelines suggesting that a 'Western' dietary pattern with high intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages and red and processed meats and low intakes of wine, cheese, vegetables and high-fibre foods is associated with detrimental effects on cardio-metabolic health.

17.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-10, 2018 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697292

RESUMO

Sugar sweetened beverages (SSB), artificially sweetened beverages (ASB), juice, coffee and tea has been associated with risk of metabolic disease. High consumption of these beverages may be associated with certain characteristics of the overall diet that would be important to take into account when analysing beverage-disease associations. Here, we investigate five beverages and their association with lifestyle and diet in 25,112 individuals from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort. We observed that high consumption of SSB was associated with lower intakes of foods perceived as healthy. However, high consumption of both tea and juice was associated with higher intakes of foods perceived as healthy. Further, high consumption of ASB was associated with higher intakes of low-fat products. High consumption of coffee was associated with higher intakes of meat and high-fat margarine, and lower intake of breakfast cereals. We observe five beverages to associate with different lifestyle and dietary patterns.

18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(4): 1491-1501, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409054

RESUMO

Context: Emerging evidence has related the gut microbiome and circulating metabolites to human obesity. Gut microbiota is responsible for several metabolic functions, and altered plasma metabolome might reflect differences in the gut microbiome. Objective: To identify a plasma metabolite profile associated with body mass index (BMI) in a general population and investigate whether such metabolite profile is associated with distinct composition of the gut microbiota. Design: Targeted profiling of 48 plasma metabolites was performed in a population of 920 Swedish adults (mean age, 39 years; 53% women) from the ongoing Malmö Offspring Study using targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Gut microbiota was analyzed by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1-V3 region) in fecal samples of 674 study participants. Results: BMI was associated with 19 metabolites (P < 0.001 for all), of which glutamate provided the strongest direct association (P = 5.2e-53). By orthogonal partial least squares regression, a metabolite principal component predictive of BMI was constructed (PCBMI). In addition to glutamate, PCBMI was dominated by branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and related metabolites. Four gut microbiota genera (Blautia, Dorea, Ruminococcus, and SHA-98) were associated with both BMI and PCBMI (P < 8.0e-4 for all). When simultaneously regressing PCBMI and metabolite-associated gut bacteria against BMI, only PCBMI remained statistically significant. Conclusions: We discovered associations between four gut microbiota genera (Blautia, Dorea, Ruminococcus, and SHA-98) and BMI-predictive plasma metabolites, including glutamate and BCAAs. Thus, these metabolites could be mediators between gut microbiota and obesity, pointing to potential future opportunities for targeting the gut microbiota in prevention of obesity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
Int J Cancer ; 142(12): 2425-2434, 2018 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238985

RESUMO

Circulating vitamin B6 levels have been found to be inversely associated with lung cancer. Most studies have focused on the B6 form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), a direct biomarker influenced by inflammation and other factors. Using a functional B6 marker allows further investigation of the potential role of vitamin B6 status in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. We prospectively evaluated the association of the functional marker of vitamin B6 status, the 3-hydroxykynurenine:xanthurenic acid (HK:XA) ratio, with risk of lung cancer in a nested case-control study consisting of 5,364 matched case-control pairs from the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between HK:XA and lung cancer, and random effect models to combine results from different cohorts and regions. High levels of HK:XA, indicating impaired functional B6 status, were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, the odds ratio comparing the fourth and the first quartiles (OR4thvs.1st ) was 1.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.41). Stratified analyses indicated that this association was primarily driven by cases diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. Notably, the risk associated with HK:XA was approximately 50% higher in groups with a high relative frequency of squamous cell carcinoma, i.e., men, former and current smokers. This risk of squamous cell carcinoma was present in both men and women regardless of smoking status.

20.
Diabetologia ; 61(2): 317-330, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098321

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major dietary contributor to fructose intake. A molecular pathway involving the carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) may influence sugar metabolism and, thereby, contribute to fructose-induced metabolic disease. We hypothesise that common variants in 11 genes involved in fructose metabolism and the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway may interact with SSB intake to exacerbate positive associations between higher SSB intake and glycaemic traits. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts (six discovery and five replication) in the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided association and interaction results from 34,748 adults of European descent. SSB intake (soft drinks, fruit punches, lemonades or other fruit drinks) was derived from food-frequency questionnaires and food diaries. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified: (1) the associations between SSBs and glycaemic traits (fasting glucose and fasting insulin); and (2) the interactions between SSBs and 18 independent SNPs related to the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway. RESULTS: In our combined meta-analyses of discovery and replication cohorts, after adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI and other dietary covariates, each additional serving of SSB intake was associated with higher fasting glucose (ß ± SE 0.014 ± 0.004 [mmol/l], p = 1.5 × 10-3) and higher fasting insulin (0.030 ± 0.005 [log e pmol/l], p = 2.0 × 10-10). No significant interactions on glycaemic traits were observed between SSB intake and selected SNPs. While a suggestive interaction was observed in the discovery cohorts with a SNP (rs1542423) in the ß-Klotho (KLB) locus on fasting insulin (0.030 ± 0.011 log e pmol/l, uncorrected p = 0.006), results in the replication cohorts and combined meta-analyses were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In this large meta-analysis, we observed that SSB intake was associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin. Although a suggestive interaction with a genetic variant in the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway was observed in the discovery cohorts, this observation was not confirmed in the replication analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trials related to this study were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005131 (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), NCT00005133 (Cardiovascular Health Study), NCT00005121 (Framingham Offspring Study), NCT00005487 (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) and NCT00005152 (Nurses' Health Study).


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Bebidas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Insulina/sangue , Edulcorantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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