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1.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071317

RESUMO

(1) Background: Methyl-group donors (MGDs), including folate, choline, betaine, and methionine, may influence breast cancer (BC) risk through their role in one-carbon metabolism; (2) Methods: We studied the relationship between dietary intakes of MGDs and BC risk, adopting data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort; (3) Results: 318,686 pre- and postmenopausal women were followed between enrolment in 1992-2000 and December 2013-December 2015. Dietary MGD intakes were estimated at baseline through food-frequency questionnaires. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify the association between dietary intake of MGDs, measured both as a calculated score based on their sum and individually, and BC risk. Subgroup analyses were performed by hormone receptor status, menopausal status, and level of alcohol intake. During a mean follow-up time of 14.1 years, 13,320 women with malignant BC were identified. No associations were found between dietary intakes of the MGD score or individual MGDs and BC risk. However, a potential U-shaped relationship was observed between dietary folate intake and overall BC risk, suggesting an inverse association for intakes up to 350 µg/day compared to a reference intake of 205 µg/day. No statistically significant differences in the associations were observed by hormone receptor status, menopausal status, or level of alcohol intake; (4) Conclusions: There was no strong evidence for an association between MGDs involved in one-carbon metabolism and BC risk. However, a potential U-shaped trend was suggested for dietary folate intake and BC risk. Further research is needed to clarify this association.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Betaína/análise , Colina/análise , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/análise , Humanos , Metionina/análise , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065043

RESUMO

Irregular dietary intakes impairs estimations from food records. Biomarkers and method combinations can be used to improve estimates. Our aim was to examine reproducibility from two assessment methods, compare them, and validate intakes against objective biomarkers. We used the Malmö Offspring Study (55% women, 18-71 y) with data from a 4-day food record (4DFR) and a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) to compare (1) repeated intakes (n = 180), (2) intakes from 4DFR and SFFQ (n = 1601), and (3) intakes of fatty fish, fruits and vegetables, and citrus with plasma biomarkers (n = 1433) (3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid [CMPF], ß-carotene and proline betaine). We also combined 4DFR and SFFQ estimates using principal component analysis (PCA). Moderate correlations were seen between repeated intakes (4DFR median ρ = 0.41, SFFQ median ρ = 0.59) although lower for specific 4DFR-items, especially fatty/lean fish (ρ ≤ 0.08). Between-method correlations (median ρ = 0.33) were higher for intakes of overall food groups compared to specific foods. PCA scores for citrus (proline betaine ρ = 0.53) and fruits and vegetables (ß-carotene: ρ = 0.39) showed the highest biomarker correlations, whereas fatty fish intake from the SFFQ per se showed the highest correlation with CMPF (ρ = 0.46). To conclude, the reproducibility of SFFQ data was superior to 4DFR data regarding irregularly consumed foods. Method combination could slightly improve fruit and vegetable estimates, whereas SFFQ data gave most valid fatty fish intake.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Frutas , Furanos/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Prolina/sangue , Propionatos/sangue , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Alimentos Marinhos , Verduras , Adulto Jovem , beta Caroteno/sangue
3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(1): 338-347, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin B6 insufficiency has been linked to increased risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. The circulating concentration of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is a commonly used measure of vitamin B6 status. Ratios of substrates indicating PLP coenzymatic function and metabolism may be useful complementary measures to further explore the role of vitamin B6 in health. OBJECTIVES: We explored the sensitivity of 5 outcomes, namely PLP concentration, homocysteine:cysteine (Hcy:Cys), cystathionine:cysteine (Cysta:Cys), the 3´-hydroxykynurenine ratio (HKr), and the 4-pyridoxic acid ratio (PAr) to vitamin B6 intake as well as personal and lifestyle characteristics. MEDTHODS: Dietary intake and biomarker data were collected from participants from 3 nested case-control studies within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Bayesian regression models assessed the associations of the 5 biomarker outcomes with vitamin B6 intake and personal and lifestyle covariates. Analogous models examined the relations of Hcy:Cys, Cysta:Cys, and HKr with PLP. RESULTS: In total, 4608 participants were included in the analyses. Vitamin B6 intake was most strongly associated with PLP, moderately associated with Hcy:Cys, Cysta:Cys, and HKr, and not associated with PAr (fold change in marker given a doubling of vitamin B6 intake: PLP 1.60 [95% credible interval (CrI): 1.50, 1.71]; Hcy:Cys 0.87 [95% CrI: 0.84, 0.90]; Cysta:Cys 0.89 [95% CrI: 0.84, 0.94]; HKr 0.88 [95% CrI: 0.85, 0.91]; PAr 1.00 [95% CrI: 0.95, 1.05]). PAr was most sensitive to age, and HKr was least sensitive to BMI and alcohol intake. Sex and menopause status were strongly associated with all 5 markers. CONCLUSIONS: We found that 5 different markers, capturing different aspects of vitamin B6-related biological processes, varied in their associations with vitamin B6 intake and personal and lifestyle predictors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Vitamina B 6/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Deficiência de Vitamina B 6
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta carotene, fruit, fiber, nonwhite bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in the NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), wine (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), beer/cider (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08), milk (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), cheese (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), calcium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), phosphorus (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), magnesium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), potassium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), riboflavin (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), beta carotene (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), and total protein (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta carotene, and total protein.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913149

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies examining the association between specific fatty acids and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are inconclusive. We investigated the association between dietary estimates and plasma levels of individual and total saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), industrial-processed trans (iTFA), and ruminant-sourced trans (rTFA) fatty acids, and CRC risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Baseline fatty acid intakes were estimated in 450 112 participants (6162 developed CRC, median follow-up = 15 years). In a nested case-control study, plasma phospholipid fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography in 433 colon cancer cases and 433 matched controls. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using Cox and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Dietary total SFA (highest vs lowest quintile, HRQ5vsQ1  = 0.80; 95%CI:0.69-0.92), myristic acid (HRQ5vsQ1  = 0.83, 95%CI:0.74-0.93) and palmitic acid (HRQ5vsQ1  = 0.81, 95%CI:0.70-0.93) were inversely associated with CRC risk. Plasma myristic acid was also inversely associated with colon cancer risk (highest vs lowest quartile, ORQ4vsQ1  = 0.51; 95%CI:0.32-0.83), whereas a borderline positive association was found for plasma stearic acid (ORQ4vsQ1  = 1.63; 95%CI:1.00-2.64). Dietary total MUFA was inversely associated with colon cancer (per 1-SD increment, HR1-SD  = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.85-0.98), but not rectal cancer (HR1-SD  = 1.04, 95%CI:0.95-1.15, Pheterogeneity  = 0.027). Dietary iTFA, and particularly elaidic acid, was positively associated with rectal cancer (HR1-SD  = 1.07, 95%CI:1.02-1.13). Our results suggest that total and individual saturated fatty acids and fatty acids of industrial origin may be relevant to the aetiology of CRC. Both dietary and plasma myristic acid levels were inversely associated with colon cancer risk, which warrants further investigation.

6.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(4): 2087-2097, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030577

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It has been suggested that a high intake of sugar or sweeteners may result in an unfavorable microbiota composition; however, evidence is lacking. Hence, in this exploratory epidemiological study, we aim to examine if intake of added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) or artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) associate with the gut microbiota composition. METHODS: Participants (18-70 years) in the Malmö Offspring Study have provided blood, urine, and fecal samples and completed both web-based 4 day food records and short food frequency questionnaires. The gut microbiota was assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing, processed in QIIME and matched to Greengenes (v.13.8), giving 64 included genera after filtering. Intake of added sugar (n = 1371) (also supported by the overnight urinary sugar biomarker in a subgroup n = 577), SSBs (n = 1086) and ASBs (n = 1085) were examined as exposures in negative binomial regressions. RESULTS: Various genera nominally associated with intake of added sugar, SSBs, and ASBs. Only the negative association between SSB intake and Lachnobacterium remained significant after multiple testing correction. A positive association between SSB intake and the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio was also observed. CONCLUSION: In this wide population, the cross-sectional associations between added sugar and sweet beverage intake and the gut microbiota are modest, but the results suggest that SSB intake is associated negatively with the genus Lachnobacterium and positively with the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Larger studies, preferably using metagenomic sequencing, are needed to further evaluate if a link exists between intake of sugars and sweeteners and the human gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Bebidas , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Açúcares , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos
7.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(1): 174-180, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Altered gut microbiota have been suggested as part of an etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but studies have shown contrasting results. Our aim was to examine gut microbiota composition in a large population-based cohort, with respect to presence and severity of bowel symptoms. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 1988 participants of the Malmö Offspring Study (mean age 40 years, 53% women). From a questionnaire, 19% reported having bowel symptoms the last 2 weeks and 15% reported having IBS. Bowel symptoms were assessed by a validated set of questions with visual analog scales. Gut microbiota was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (300 bp*2 in V1-V3 region) from fecal samples. The association between abundance of bacteria at genus level and bowel symptoms was calculated by logistic regression or general linear model, adjusted for false discovery rate (q < 0.05). RESULTS: Self-reported bowel symptoms (P = 0.003) and IBS (P = 0.031) were associated with difference in overall gut microbiota composition (beta-diversity). Additionally, bowel symptoms and IBS were associated with increased abundance of Blautia, and bowel symptoms also with a genus in the SHA98 order and Butyricimonas. Pain was associated with increased abundance of Fusobacterium. Diarrhea was associated positively with [Prevotella] and Blautia and negatively with a genus in the SHA98 order and a genus in the Christensenellaceae family. CONCLUSION: Self-reported bowel symptoms are associated with differences in overall gut microbiota composition and abundancy of a few specific bacteria at genus level in a population-based cohort. Diarrhea is the individual symptom with most associations.

8.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(1): 103-116, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222051

RESUMO

As cardio metabolic disease manifestations tend to cluster in families there is a need to better understand the underlying mechanisms in order to further develop preventive strategies. In fact, genetic markers used in genetic risk scores, important as they are, will not be able alone to explain these family clusters. Therefore, the search goes on for the so called missing heritability to better explain these associations. Shared lifestyle and social conditions in families, but also early life influences may be of importance. Gene-environmental interactions should be explored. In recent years interest has grown for the role of diet-microbiota associations, as microbiota patterns may be shared by family members. In the Malmö Offspring Study that started in 2013, we have so far been able to examine about 4700 subjects (18-71 years) representing children and grandchildren of index subjects from the first generation, examined in the Malmö Diet Cancer Study during 1991 to 1996. This will provide rich data and opportunities to analyse family traits of chronic disease across three generations. We will provide extensive genotyping and phenotyping including cardiovascular and respiratory function, as well as markers of glucose metabolism. In addition, also cognitive function will be assessed. A 4-day online dietary recall will be conducted and gut as well as oral microbiota analysed. The ambition is to provide one of the first large-scale European family studies with individual data across three generations, which could deepen our knowledge about the role of family traits for chronic disease and its underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Dieta , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica , Microbiota , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doença Crônica , Exercício Físico , Família , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Br J Nutr ; 126(7): 1065-1075, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355062

RESUMO

Dietary carbohydrates have long been expected to be associated with risk of type 2 diabetes; however, the associations for many carbohydrates and carbohydrate-rich foods remain inconclusive. This study analysed associations between intakes of six types of carbohydrates and thirteen carbohydrate-rich foods with incident type 2 diabetes in 26 622 participants (61 % women) in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study in southern Sweden. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1991-1996) by using a modified diet history method. During mean follow-up of 18 years, 4046 cases were identified. Adjusting for potential confounders (including lifestyle, BMI and dietary factors), comparing highest v. lowest quintile of intake, monosaccharides (hazard ratio (HR) 0·88; 95 % CI 0·79, 0·98; Ptrend = 0·02) and fruits (HR 0·91; 95 % CI 0·82, 1·01; Ptrend = 0·03) were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes, while disaccharides (HR 1·17; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·30; Ptrend = 0·002) and sweets (HR 1·09; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·19; Ptrend = 0·02) were positively associated. After stratification by sex, marmalade/honey/jam (HR 0·82; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·94; Ptrend < 0·001) and vegetables (HR 0·85; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·98; Ptrend = 0·06) were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes in men and chocolate (HR 1·26; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·46; Ptrend < 0·001) was positively associated in women. In conclusion, we identified inverse associations for intake of monosaccharides and fruits with type 2 diabetes risk, and positive associations for disaccharides and sweets. Additional sex-specific associations were also identified. Future studies are needed to explore these associations further.

10.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066363

RESUMO

It has been suggested that high intake of added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) increase the level of circulating inflammatory proteins and that chronic inflammation plays a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) development. We aim to examine how added sugar and SSB intake associate with 136 measured plasma proteins and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the Malmö Diet and Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort (n = 4382), and examine if the identified added sugar- and SSB-associated proteins associate with T2D incidence. A two-step iterative resampling approach was used to internally replicate proteins that associated with added sugar and SSB intake. Nine proteins were identified to associate with added sugar intake, of which only two associated with T2D incidence (p < 0.00045). Seven proteins were identified to associate with SSB intake, of which six associated strongly with T2D incidence (p < 6.9 × 10-8). No significant associations were observed between added sugar and SSB intake and CRP concentrations. In summary, our elucidation of the relationship between plasma proteome and added sugar and SSB intake, in relation to future T2D risk, demonstrated that SSB intake, rather than the total intake of added sugar, was related to a T2D-pathological proteomic signature. However, external replication is needed to verify the findings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Proteômica , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Proteína C-Reativa , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMJ ; 370: m3173, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system (FSAm-NPS), which grades the nutritional quality of food products and is used to derive the Nutri-Score front-of-packet label to guide consumers towards healthier food choices, is associated with mortality. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort from 23 centres in 10 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 521 324 adults; at recruitment, country specific and validated dietary questionnaires were used to assess their usual dietary intakes. A FSAm-NPS score was calculated for each food item per 100 g content of energy, sugars, saturated fatty acids, sodium, fibre, and protein, and of fruit, vegetables, legumes, and nuts. The FSAm-NPS dietary index was calculated for each participant as an energy weighted mean of the FSAm-NPS score of all foods consumed. The higher the score the lower the overall nutritional quality of the diet. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Associations between the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and mortality, assessed using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: After exclusions, 501 594 adults (median follow-up 17.2 years, 8 162 730 person years) were included in the analyses. Those with a higher FSAm-NPS dietary index score (highest versus lowest fifth) showed an increased risk of all cause mortality (n=53 112 events from non-external causes; hazard ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.10, P<0.001 for trend) and mortality from cancer (1.08, 1.03 to 1.13, P<0.001 for trend) and diseases of the circulatory (1.04, 0.98 to 1.11, P=0.06 for trend), respiratory (1.39, 1.22 to 1.59, P<0.001), and digestive (1.22, 1.02 to 1.45, P=0.03 for trend) systems. The age standardised absolute rates for all cause mortality per 10 000 persons over 10 years were 760 (men=1237; women=563) for those in the highest fifth of the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and 661 (men=1008; women=518) for those in the lowest fifth. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multinational European cohort, consuming foods with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher mortality for all causes and for cancer and diseases of the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems, supporting the relevance of FSAm-NPS to characterise healthier food choices in the context of public health policies (eg, the Nutri-Score) for European populations. This is important considering ongoing discussions about the potential implementation of a unique nutrition labelling system at the European Union level.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Mortalidade , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2660-2667, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is sparse evidence for the association of suitable food substitutions for red and processed meat on the risk of type 2 diabetes. We modeled the association between replacing red and processed meat with other protein sources and the risk of type 2 diabetes and estimated its population impact. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct case cohort included 11,741 individuals with type 2 diabetes and a subcohort of 15,450 participants in eight countries. We modeled the replacement of self-reported red and processed meat with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, cheese, cereals, yogurt, milk, and nuts. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: There was a lower hazard for type 2 diabetes for the modeled replacement of red and processed meat (50 g/day) with cheese (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97) (30 g/day), yogurt (0.90, 0.86-0.95) (70 g/day), nuts (0.90, 0.84-0.96) (10 g/day), or cereals (0.92, 0.88-0.96) (30 g/day) but not for replacements with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, or milk. If a causal association is assumed, replacing red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, or nuts could prevent 8.8%, 8.3%, or 7.5%, respectively, of new cases of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Replacement of red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, nuts, or cereals was associated with a lower rate of type 2 diabetes. Substituting red and processed meat by other protein sources may contribute to the prevention of incident type 2 diabetes in European populations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos , Autorrelato , Iogurte
13.
Front Nutr ; 7: 62, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435652

RESUMO

Studies on sugar intake and its link to cardiometabolic risk show inconsistent results, partly due to dietary misreporting. Cost-effective and easily measured nutritional biomarkers that can complement dietary data are warranted. Measurement of 24-h urinary sugars is a biomarker of sugar intake, but there are knowledge gaps regarding the use of overnight urine samples. We aim to compare (1) overnight urinary sucrose and fructose measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, (2) self-reported sugar intake measured with web-based 4-day food records, (3) their composite measure, and (4) these different measures' (1-3) cross-sectional associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in 991 adults in the Malmö Offspring Study (18-69 years, 54% women). The correlations between the reported intakes of total sugar, added sugar and sucrose was higher for urinary sucrose than fructose, and the correlations for the sum or urinary sucrose and fructose (U-sugars) varied between r≈0.2-0.3 (P < 0.01) in men and women. Differences in the direction of associations were observed for some cardiometabolic risk factors between U-sugars and reported added sugar intake, as well as between the sexes. In women, U-sugars, but not reported added sugar intake, were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting glucose. Both U-sugars and added sugar were positively associated with BMI and waist circumference in women, whereas among men, U-sugars were negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference, and no association was observed for added sugar. The composite measure of added sugars and U-sugars was positively associated with BMI, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure and negatively associated with HDL cholesterol in women (P < 0.05). Conclusively, we demonstrate statistically significant, but not very high, correlations between reported sugar intakes and U-sugars. Results indicate that overnight urinary sugars may be used as a complement to self-reported dietary data when investigating associations between sugar exposure and cardiometabolic risk. However, future studies are highly needed to validate the overnight urinary sugars as a biomarker because its use, instead of 24-h urine, facilitates data collection.

14.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 685-697, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383070

RESUMO

Epidemiology studies suggested that low birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in later life. However, little is known about the causality of such associations. In our study, we evaluated the causal association of low birthweight with adulthood hypertension following a standard analytic protocol using the study-level data of 183,433 participants from 60 studies (CHARGE-BIG consortium), as well as that with blood pressure using publicly available summary-level genome-wide association data from EGG consortium of 153,781 participants, ICBP consortium and UK Biobank cohort together of 757,601 participants. We used seven SNPs as the instrumental variable in the study-level analysis and 47 SNPs in the summary-level analysis. In the study-level analyses, decreased birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in adults (the odds ratio per 1 standard deviation (SD) lower birthweight, 1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.28), while no association was found between genetically instrumented birthweight and hypertension risk (instrumental odds ratio for causal effect per 1 SD lower birthweight, 0.97; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.41). Such results were consistent with that from the summary-level analyses, where the genetically determined low birthweight was not associated with blood pressure measurements either. One SD lower genetically determined birthweight was not associated with systolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.76, 95% CI - 2.45 to 1.08 mmHg), 0.06 mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.93 to 0.87 mmHg), or pulse pressure (ß = - 0.65, 95% CI - 1.38 to 0.69 mmHg, all p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the inverse association of birthweight with hypertension risk from observational studies was not supported by large Mendelian randomization analyses.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
15.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(8): 3715-3722, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072267

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Elevated plasma concentration of the vasopressin marker copeptin and low water intake are associated with elevated blood glucose and diabetes risk at a population level. Moreover, in individuals with low urine volume and high urine osmolality (u-Osm), water supplementation reduced fasting plasma (fp) copeptin and fp-glucose. In this observational study, we investigated if low total water intake or high u-Osm correlated with high fp-copeptin and components of the metabolic syndrome at the population level. METHODS: In the population-based Malmö Offspring Study (MOS, n = 2599), fp-copeptin and u-Osm from morning urine samples were measured, and diet and total water intake (from beverages and food moisture) was assessed by a 4-day web-based record. RESULTS: Increasing water intake by tertile was after adjustment for age and sex associated with low fp-triglycerides (p = 0.002) and high fp-HDL (p = 0.004), whereas there was no association with the other investigated metabolic traits (HbA1c, fp-glucose, BMI or waist circumference). Increasing u-Osm by tertile was, after adjustment for age and sex, associated with high fp-glucose (p = 0.007), and borderline significantly associated with high HbA1c (p = 0.053), but no association was observed with fp-HDL, fp-triglycerides, BMI or waist circumference. Fp-copeptin concentration correlated significantly with water intake (r = - 0.13, p < 0.001) and u-Osm (r = 0.27, p < 0.001). High copeptin was associated with all investigated metabolic traits (p < 0.001 for all). CONCLUSION: Low concentrations of the vasopressin marker copeptin is linked to high water intake, low u-Osm, and a favorable metabolic profile, suggesting that vasopressin lowering lifestyle interventions, such as increased water intake, may promote metabolic health.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Glicopeptídeos , Humanos , Metaboloma , Concentração Osmolar , Vasopressinas
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 261, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While a dose-response relationship between physical activity and risk of diabetes has been demonstrated, few studies have assessed the relative importance of different measures of physical activity on diabetes risk. The aim was to examine the association between different self-reported measures of physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Out of 26,615 adults (45-74 years, 60% women) in the population-based Swedish Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort, 3791 type 2 diabetes cases were identified from registers during 17 years of follow-up. Leisure-time (17 activities), occupational and domestic physical activity were assessed through a questionnaire, and these and total physical activity were investigated in relation to type 2 diabetes risk. RESULTS: All physical activity measures showed weak to modest associations with type 2 diabetes risk. The strongest association was found in the lower end of leisure-time physical activity in dose-response analysis at levels approximately below 22 MET-hrs/week (300 min/week) representing around 40% of the population. Compared with the lowest quintile, the moderate leisure-time physical activity category had a 28% (95% CI: 0.71, 0.87) decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Total physical activity showed a similar, but weaker, association with diabetes risk as to that of leisure-time physical activity. Domestic physical activity was positively and linearly related to diabetes risk, HR = 1.11 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.25) comparing highest to lowest quintile. There was no association between occupational physical activity and diabetes risk. CONCLUSION: A curvilinear association was observed between leisure-time physical activity and risk of diabetes. Beyond a threshold level of approximately 22 MET-hrs/week or 300 min/week, no additional risk reduction was observed with increase in physical activity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Autorrelato , Suécia/epidemiologia
17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 5, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several dietary factors have been reported to be associated with risk of breast cancer, but to date, unequivocal evidence only exists for alcohol consumption. We sought to systematically assess the association between intake of 92 foods and nutrients and breast cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study. METHODS: Using data from 272,098 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we assessed dietary intake of 92 foods and nutrients estimated by dietary questionnaires. Cox regression was used to quantify the association between each food/nutrient and risk of breast cancer. A false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05 was used to select the set of foods and nutrients to be replicated in the independent Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). RESULTS: Six foods and nutrients were identified as associated with risk of breast cancer in the EPIC study (10,979 cases). Higher intake of alcohol overall was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) for a 1 SD increment in intake = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07), as was beer/cider intake and wine intake (HRs per 1 SD increment = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.06 and 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06, respectively), whereas higher intakes of fibre, apple/pear, and carbohydrates were associated with a lower risk of breast cancer (HRs per 1 SD increment = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98; 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99; and 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, respectively). When evaluated in the NLCS (2368 cases), estimates for each of these foods and nutrients were similar in magnitude and direction, with the exception of beer/cider intake, which was not associated with risk in the NLCS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association of alcohol consumption and suggest an inverse association of dietary fibre and possibly fruit intake with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/dietoterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/normas , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Nutrientes , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1841-1850, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342519

RESUMO

Polyphenols are bioactive compounds with several anticarcinogenic activities; however, human data regarding associations with thyroid cancer (TC) is still negligible. Our aim was to evaluate the association between intakes of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and risk of differentiated TC and its main subtypes, papillary and follicular, in a European population. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort included 476,108 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, there were 748 incident differentiated TC cases, including 601 papillary and 109 follicular tumors. Polyphenol intake was estimated at baseline using validated center/country-specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, no association between total polyphenol and the risks of overall differentiated TC (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.29), papillary (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.06, 95% CI 0.80-1.41) or follicular TC (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.10, 95% CI 0.55-2.22) were found. No associations were observed either for flavonoids, phenolic acids or the rest of classes and subclasses of polyphenols. After stratification by body mass index (BMI), an inverse association between the intake of polyphenols (p-trend = 0.019) and phenolic acids (p-trend = 0.007) and differentiated TC risk in subjects with BMI ≥ 25 was observed. In conclusion, our study showed no associations between dietary polyphenol intake and differentiated TC risk; although further studies are warranted to investigate the potential protective associations in overweight and obese individuals.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/prevenção & controle
19.
J Nutr ; 150(4): 861-872, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet is a determinant of gut microbiota. Both diet and gut microbiota have been linked to metabolic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine data-driven food patterns in relation to the prevalence of prediabetes and gut microbiota composition and food pattern-associated bacteria in relation to prediabetes. METHODS: Food patterns were extracted using principal component analysis in 1726 individuals (aged 18-71 y, 55% women, mean BMI = 25.5 kg/m2) without diabetes from the population-based Malmö Offspring Study. The gut (fecal) microbiota was analyzed by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1-V3 region). Prediabetes classification was based on fasting glucose ≥6.0 mmol/L and/or glycated hemoglobin ≥42 mmol/L at baseline and/or type 2 diabetes diagnosis during follow-up (0-3.8 y). Logistic regression was used to investigate cross-sectional associations with prediabetes, and the general linear model to examine associations between food patterns and bacterial genera. RESULTS: Two food patterns, the Health-conscious and the Sugar and High-Fat Dairy patterns, were identified. Adherence to the Health-conscious pattern was associated with a lower prevalence of prediabetes (OR comparing highest quintile with lowest: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.92; P-trend = 0.03) and with the abundance of several gut bacterial genera, of which the most robust findings were with a higher abundance of Roseburia and Lachnospira and with a lower abundance of Eubacterium. Roseburia was also associated with a lower prevalence of prediabetes (OR comparing highest quintile with lowest: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.92; P-trend = 0.01) and the association between the Health-conscious pattern and prediabetes was attenuated after adjustment for abundance of Roseburia and BMI. Adherence to the Sugar and High-Fat Dairy pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of prediabetes in women (P-trend across food pattern quintiles = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In this Swedish population-based study, a Health-conscious food pattern showed an inverse association with the prevalence of prediabetes. Potential underlying explanations may involve links between healthy diet and BMI, as well as gut microbiota, especially a higher abundance of Roseburia.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gorduras na Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Análise de Componente Principal , Suécia
20.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 366-373, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with dyslipidemia, but the detailed alterations in lipid species preceding the disease are largely unknown. We aimed to identify plasma lipids associated with development of T2DM and investigate their associations with lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: At baseline, 178 lipids were measured by mass spectrometry in 3,668 participants without diabetes from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. The population was randomly split into discovery (n = 1,868, including 257 incident cases) and replication (n = 1,800, including 249 incident cases) sets. We used orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analyses, extracted a predictive component for T2DM incidence (lipid-PCDM), and assessed its association with T2DM incidence using Cox regression and lifestyle factors using general linear models. RESULTS: A T2DM-predictive lipid-PCDM derived from the discovery set was independently associated with T2DM incidence in the replication set, with hazard ratio (HR) among subjects in the fifth versus first quintile of lipid-PCDM of 3.7 (95% CI 2.2-6.5). In comparison, the HR of T2DM among obese versus normal weight subjects was 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.6). Clinical lipids did not improve T2DM risk prediction, but adding the lipid-PCDM to all conventional T2DM risk factors increased the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve by 3%. The lipid-PCDM was also associated with a dietary risk score for T2DM incidence and lower level of physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: A lifestyle-related lipidomic profile strongly predicts T2DM development beyond current risk factors. Further studies are warranted to test if lifestyle interventions modifying this lipidomic profile can prevent T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lipidômica , Masculino , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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