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1.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066363

RESUMO

It has been suggested that high intake of added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) increase the level of circulating inflammatory proteins and that chronic inflammation plays a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) development. We aim to examine how added sugar and SSB intake associate with 136 measured plasma proteins and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the Malmö Diet and Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort (n = 4382), and examine if the identified added sugar- and SSB-associated proteins associate with T2D incidence. A two-step iterative resampling approach was used to internally replicate proteins that associated with added sugar and SSB intake. Nine proteins were identified to associate with added sugar intake, of which only two associated with T2D incidence (p < 0.00045). Seven proteins were identified to associate with SSB intake, of which six associated strongly with T2D incidence (p < 6.9 × 10-8). No significant associations were observed between added sugar and SSB intake and CRP concentrations. In summary, our elucidation of the relationship between plasma proteome and added sugar and SSB intake, in relation to future T2D risk, demonstrated that SSB intake, rather than the total intake of added sugar, was related to a T2D-pathological proteomic signature. However, external replication is needed to verify the findings.

2.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030577

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It has been suggested that a high intake of sugar or sweeteners may result in an unfavorable microbiota composition; however, evidence is lacking. Hence, in this exploratory epidemiological study, we aim to examine if intake of added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) or artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) associate with the gut microbiota composition. METHODS: Participants (18-70 years) in the Malmö Offspring Study have provided blood, urine, and fecal samples and completed both web-based 4 day food records and short food frequency questionnaires. The gut microbiota was assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing, processed in QIIME and matched to Greengenes (v.13.8), giving 64 included genera after filtering. Intake of added sugar (n = 1371) (also supported by the overnight urinary sugar biomarker in a subgroup n = 577), SSBs (n = 1086) and ASBs (n = 1085) were examined as exposures in negative binomial regressions. RESULTS: Various genera nominally associated with intake of added sugar, SSBs, and ASBs. Only the negative association between SSB intake and Lachnobacterium remained significant after multiple testing correction. A positive association between SSB intake and the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio was also observed. CONCLUSION: In this wide population, the cross-sectional associations between added sugar and sweet beverage intake and the gut microbiota are modest, but the results suggest that SSB intake is associated negatively with the genus Lachnobacterium and positively with the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Larger studies, preferably using metagenomic sequencing, are needed to further evaluate if a link exists between intake of sugars and sweeteners and the human gut microbiota.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2660-2667, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is sparse evidence for the association of suitable food substitutions for red and processed meat on the risk of type 2 diabetes. We modeled the association between replacing red and processed meat with other protein sources and the risk of type 2 diabetes and estimated its population impact. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct case cohort included 11,741 individuals with type 2 diabetes and a subcohort of 15,450 participants in eight countries. We modeled the replacement of self-reported red and processed meat with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, cheese, cereals, yogurt, milk, and nuts. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: There was a lower hazard for type 2 diabetes for the modeled replacement of red and processed meat (50 g/day) with cheese (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97) (30 g/day), yogurt (0.90, 0.86-0.95) (70 g/day), nuts (0.90, 0.84-0.96) (10 g/day), or cereals (0.92, 0.88-0.96) (30 g/day) but not for replacements with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, or milk. If a causal association is assumed, replacing red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, or nuts could prevent 8.8%, 8.3%, or 7.5%, respectively, of new cases of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Replacement of red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, nuts, or cereals was associated with a lower rate of type 2 diabetes. Substituting red and processed meat by other protein sources may contribute to the prevention of incident type 2 diabetes in European populations.

4.
BMJ ; 370: m3173, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system (FSAm-NPS), which grades the nutritional quality of food products and is used to derive the Nutri-Score front-of-packet label to guide consumers towards healthier food choices, is associated with mortality. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort from 23 centres in 10 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 521 324 adults; at recruitment, country specific and validated dietary questionnaires were used to assess their usual dietary intakes. A FSAm-NPS score was calculated for each food item per 100 g content of energy, sugars, saturated fatty acids, sodium, fibre, and protein, and of fruit, vegetables, legumes, and nuts. The FSAm-NPS dietary index was calculated for each participant as an energy weighted mean of the FSAm-NPS score of all foods consumed. The higher the score the lower the overall nutritional quality of the diet. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Associations between the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and mortality, assessed using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: After exclusions, 501 594 adults (median follow-up 17.2 years, 8 162 730 person years) were included in the analyses. Those with a higher FSAm-NPS dietary index score (highest versus lowest fifth) showed an increased risk of all cause mortality (n=53 112 events from non-external causes; hazard ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.10, P<0.001 for trend) and mortality from cancer (1.08, 1.03 to 1.13, P<0.001 for trend) and diseases of the circulatory (1.04, 0.98 to 1.11, P=0.06 for trend), respiratory (1.39, 1.22 to 1.59, P<0.001), and digestive (1.22, 1.02 to 1.45, P=0.03 for trend) systems. The age standardised absolute rates for all cause mortality per 10 000 persons over 10 years were 760 (men=1237; women=563) for those in the highest fifth of the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and 661 (men=1008; women=518) for those in the lowest fifth. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multinational European cohort, consuming foods with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher mortality for all causes and for cancer and diseases of the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems, supporting the relevance of FSAm-NPS to characterise healthier food choices in the context of public health policies (eg, the Nutri-Score) for European populations. This is important considering ongoing discussions about the potential implementation of a unique nutrition labelling system at the European Union level.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Mortalidade , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 685-697, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383070

RESUMO

Epidemiology studies suggested that low birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in later life. However, little is known about the causality of such associations. In our study, we evaluated the causal association of low birthweight with adulthood hypertension following a standard analytic protocol using the study-level data of 183,433 participants from 60 studies (CHARGE-BIG consortium), as well as that with blood pressure using publicly available summary-level genome-wide association data from EGG consortium of 153,781 participants, ICBP consortium and UK Biobank cohort together of 757,601 participants. We used seven SNPs as the instrumental variable in the study-level analysis and 47 SNPs in the summary-level analysis. In the study-level analyses, decreased birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in adults (the odds ratio per 1 standard deviation (SD) lower birthweight, 1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.28), while no association was found between genetically instrumented birthweight and hypertension risk (instrumental odds ratio for causal effect per 1 SD lower birthweight, 0.97; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.41). Such results were consistent with that from the summary-level analyses, where the genetically determined low birthweight was not associated with blood pressure measurements either. One SD lower genetically determined birthweight was not associated with systolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.76, 95% CI - 2.45 to 1.08 mmHg), 0.06 mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.93 to 0.87 mmHg), or pulse pressure (ß = - 0.65, 95% CI - 1.38 to 0.69 mmHg, all p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the inverse association of birthweight with hypertension risk from observational studies was not supported by large Mendelian randomization analyses.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Altered gut microbiota have been suggested as part of an etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but studies have shown contrasting results. Our aim was to examine gut microbiota composition in a large population-based cohort, with respect to presence and severity of bowel symptoms. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 1988 participants of the Malmö Offspring Study (mean age 40 years, 53% women). From a questionnaire, 19% reported having bowel symptoms the last 2 weeks and 15% reported having IBS. Bowel symptoms were assessed by a validated set of questions with visual analog scales. Gut microbiota was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (300 bp*2 in V1-V3 region) from fecal samples. The association between abundance of bacteria at genus level and bowel symptoms was calculated by logistic regression or general linear model, adjusted for false discovery rate (q < 0.05). RESULTS: Self-reported bowel symptoms (P = 0.003) and IBS (P = 0.031) were associated with difference in overall gut microbiota composition (beta-diversity). Additionally, bowel symptoms and IBS were associated with increased abundance of Blautia, and bowel symptoms also with a genus in the SHA98 order and Butyricimonas. Pain was associated with increased abundance of Fusobacterium. Diarrhea was associated positively with [Prevotella] and Blautia and negatively with a genus in the SHA98 order and a genus in the Christensenellaceae family. CONCLUSION: Self-reported bowel symptoms are associated with differences in overall gut microbiota composition and abundancy of a few specific bacteria at genus level in a population-based cohort. Diarrhea is the individual symptom with most associations.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 261, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While a dose-response relationship between physical activity and risk of diabetes has been demonstrated, few studies have assessed the relative importance of different measures of physical activity on diabetes risk. The aim was to examine the association between different self-reported measures of physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Out of 26,615 adults (45-74 years, 60% women) in the population-based Swedish Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort, 3791 type 2 diabetes cases were identified from registers during 17 years of follow-up. Leisure-time (17 activities), occupational and domestic physical activity were assessed through a questionnaire, and these and total physical activity were investigated in relation to type 2 diabetes risk. RESULTS: All physical activity measures showed weak to modest associations with type 2 diabetes risk. The strongest association was found in the lower end of leisure-time physical activity in dose-response analysis at levels approximately below 22 MET-hrs/week (300 min/week) representing around 40% of the population. Compared with the lowest quintile, the moderate leisure-time physical activity category had a 28% (95% CI: 0.71, 0.87) decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Total physical activity showed a similar, but weaker, association with diabetes risk as to that of leisure-time physical activity. Domestic physical activity was positively and linearly related to diabetes risk, HR = 1.11 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.25) comparing highest to lowest quintile. There was no association between occupational physical activity and diabetes risk. CONCLUSION: A curvilinear association was observed between leisure-time physical activity and risk of diabetes. Beyond a threshold level of approximately 22 MET-hrs/week or 300 min/week, no additional risk reduction was observed with increase in physical activity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Autorrelato , Suécia/epidemiologia
8.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072267

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Elevated plasma concentration of the vasopressin marker copeptin and low water intake are associated with elevated blood glucose and diabetes risk at a population level. Moreover, in individuals with low urine volume and high urine osmolality (u-Osm), water supplementation reduced fasting plasma (fp) copeptin and fp-glucose. In this observational study, we investigated if low total water intake or high u-Osm correlated with high fp-copeptin and components of the metabolic syndrome at the population level. METHODS: In the population-based Malmö Offspring Study (MOS, n = 2599), fp-copeptin and u-Osm from morning urine samples were measured, and diet and total water intake (from beverages and food moisture) was assessed by a 4-day web-based record. RESULTS: Increasing water intake by tertile was after adjustment for age and sex associated with low fp-triglycerides (p = 0.002) and high fp-HDL (p = 0.004), whereas there was no association with the other investigated metabolic traits (HbA1c, fp-glucose, BMI or waist circumference). Increasing u-Osm by tertile was, after adjustment for age and sex, associated with high fp-glucose (p = 0.007), and borderline significantly associated with high HbA1c (p = 0.053), but no association was observed with fp-HDL, fp-triglycerides, BMI or waist circumference. Fp-copeptin concentration correlated significantly with water intake (r = - 0.13, p < 0.001) and u-Osm (r = 0.27, p < 0.001). High copeptin was associated with all investigated metabolic traits (p < 0.001 for all). CONCLUSION: Low concentrations of the vasopressin marker copeptin is linked to high water intake, low u-Osm, and a favorable metabolic profile, suggesting that vasopressin lowering lifestyle interventions, such as increased water intake, may promote metabolic health.

9.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 5, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several dietary factors have been reported to be associated with risk of breast cancer, but to date, unequivocal evidence only exists for alcohol consumption. We sought to systematically assess the association between intake of 92 foods and nutrients and breast cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study. METHODS: Using data from 272,098 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we assessed dietary intake of 92 foods and nutrients estimated by dietary questionnaires. Cox regression was used to quantify the association between each food/nutrient and risk of breast cancer. A false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05 was used to select the set of foods and nutrients to be replicated in the independent Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). RESULTS: Six foods and nutrients were identified as associated with risk of breast cancer in the EPIC study (10,979 cases). Higher intake of alcohol overall was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) for a 1 SD increment in intake = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07), as was beer/cider intake and wine intake (HRs per 1 SD increment = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.06 and 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06, respectively), whereas higher intakes of fibre, apple/pear, and carbohydrates were associated with a lower risk of breast cancer (HRs per 1 SD increment = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98; 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99; and 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, respectively). When evaluated in the NLCS (2368 cases), estimates for each of these foods and nutrients were similar in magnitude and direction, with the exception of beer/cider intake, which was not associated with risk in the NLCS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association of alcohol consumption and suggest an inverse association of dietary fibre and possibly fruit intake with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/dietoterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/normas , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Nutrientes , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 366-373, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with dyslipidemia, but the detailed alterations in lipid species preceding the disease are largely unknown. We aimed to identify plasma lipids associated with development of T2DM and investigate their associations with lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: At baseline, 178 lipids were measured by mass spectrometry in 3,668 participants without diabetes from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. The population was randomly split into discovery (n = 1,868, including 257 incident cases) and replication (n = 1,800, including 249 incident cases) sets. We used orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analyses, extracted a predictive component for T2DM incidence (lipid-PCDM), and assessed its association with T2DM incidence using Cox regression and lifestyle factors using general linear models. RESULTS: A T2DM-predictive lipid-PCDM derived from the discovery set was independently associated with T2DM incidence in the replication set, with hazard ratio (HR) among subjects in the fifth versus first quintile of lipid-PCDM of 3.7 (95% CI 2.2-6.5). In comparison, the HR of T2DM among obese versus normal weight subjects was 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.6). Clinical lipids did not improve T2DM risk prediction, but adding the lipid-PCDM to all conventional T2DM risk factors increased the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve by 3%. The lipid-PCDM was also associated with a dietary risk score for T2DM incidence and lower level of physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: A lifestyle-related lipidomic profile strongly predicts T2DM development beyond current risk factors. Further studies are warranted to test if lifestyle interventions modifying this lipidomic profile can prevent T2DM.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1841-1850, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342519

RESUMO

Polyphenols are bioactive compounds with several anticarcinogenic activities; however, human data regarding associations with thyroid cancer (TC) is still negligible. Our aim was to evaluate the association between intakes of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and risk of differentiated TC and its main subtypes, papillary and follicular, in a European population. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort included 476,108 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, there were 748 incident differentiated TC cases, including 601 papillary and 109 follicular tumors. Polyphenol intake was estimated at baseline using validated center/country-specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, no association between total polyphenol and the risks of overall differentiated TC (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.29), papillary (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.06, 95% CI 0.80-1.41) or follicular TC (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.10, 95% CI 0.55-2.22) were found. No associations were observed either for flavonoids, phenolic acids or the rest of classes and subclasses of polyphenols. After stratification by body mass index (BMI), an inverse association between the intake of polyphenols (p-trend = 0.019) and phenolic acids (p-trend = 0.007) and differentiated TC risk in subjects with BMI ≥ 25 was observed. In conclusion, our study showed no associations between dietary polyphenol intake and differentiated TC risk; although further studies are warranted to investigate the potential protective associations in overweight and obese individuals.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/prevenção & controle
12.
Heart ; 106(9): 691-697, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We recently identified a health conscious food pattern (HCFP) associated with reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease. However, the molecular events linking the healthy food pattern to reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease are unknown. Our aim was to identify plasma metabolites associated with the HCFP and test if such metabolites predict cardiometabolic disease and mortality. METHODS: Using liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry, 112 plasma metabolites were measured in 3236 participants without cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer study. Metabolites associated with the HCFP were identified using multivariable adjusted linear regressions followed by Bonferroni correction. The healthy dietary biomarkers were subsequently related to risk of cardiometabolic disease and mortality during long-term follow-up with multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 21.4 years, 603 participants developed CVD, 362 developed diabetes mellitus and 843 participants died. Five healthy dietary biomarkers were associated with the HCFP at baseline (p<0.0004) and four predicted at least one of the studied end points (p<0.05). Ergothioneine was the metabolite most strongly connected to the HCFP and was associated with a lower risk of coronary disease (HR per 1 SD increment of ergothioneine, HR=0.85, p=0.01), cardiovascular mortality (HR=0.79, p=0.002) and overall mortality (HR=0.86, p=4e-5). CONCLUSIONS: We identified that higher ergothioneine was an independent marker of lower risk of cardiometabolic disease and mortality, which potentially can be induced by a specific healthy dietary intake.

13.
J Nutr ; 150(4): 861-872, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet is a determinant of gut microbiota. Both diet and gut microbiota have been linked to metabolic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine data-driven food patterns in relation to the prevalence of prediabetes and gut microbiota composition and food pattern-associated bacteria in relation to prediabetes. METHODS: Food patterns were extracted using principal component analysis in 1726 individuals (aged 18-71 y, 55% women, mean BMI = 25.5 kg/m2) without diabetes from the population-based Malmö Offspring Study. The gut (fecal) microbiota was analyzed by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1-V3 region). Prediabetes classification was based on fasting glucose ≥6.0 mmol/L and/or glycated hemoglobin ≥42 mmol/L at baseline and/or type 2 diabetes diagnosis during follow-up (0-3.8 y). Logistic regression was used to investigate cross-sectional associations with prediabetes, and the general linear model to examine associations between food patterns and bacterial genera. RESULTS: Two food patterns, the Health-conscious and the Sugar and High-Fat Dairy patterns, were identified. Adherence to the Health-conscious pattern was associated with a lower prevalence of prediabetes (OR comparing highest quintile with lowest: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.92; P-trend = 0.03) and with the abundance of several gut bacterial genera, of which the most robust findings were with a higher abundance of Roseburia and Lachnospira and with a lower abundance of Eubacterium. Roseburia was also associated with a lower prevalence of prediabetes (OR comparing highest quintile with lowest: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.92; P-trend = 0.01) and the association between the Health-conscious pattern and prediabetes was attenuated after adjustment for abundance of Roseburia and BMI. Adherence to the Sugar and High-Fat Dairy pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of prediabetes in women (P-trend across food pattern quintiles = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In this Swedish population-based study, a Health-conscious food pattern showed an inverse association with the prevalence of prediabetes. Potential underlying explanations may involve links between healthy diet and BMI, as well as gut microbiota, especially a higher abundance of Roseburia.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gorduras na Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Análise de Componente Principal , Suécia
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(19): e012846, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533499

RESUMO

Background Identification of lifestyle modifiable metabolic pathways related to cardiometabolic disease risk is essential for improvement of primary prevention in susceptible individuals. It was recently shown that plasma dimethylguanidino valerate (DMGV) levels are associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our aims were to investigate whether plasma DMGV is related to risk of future coronary artery disease and with cardiovascular mortality and to replicate the association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and pinpoint candidate lifestyle interventions susceptible to modulate DMGV levels. Methods and Results Plasma DMGV levels were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in a total of 5768 participants from the MDC (Malmö Diet and Cancer Study-Cardiovascular Cohort), MPP (Malmö Preventive Project), and MOS (Malmö Offspring Study). Dietary intake assessment was performed in the MOS. Baseline levels of DMGV associated with incident coronary artery disease in both the MDC (hazard ratio=1.29; CI=1.16-1.43; P<0.001) and MPP (odds ratio=1.25; CI=1.08-1.44; P=2.4e-3). In the MDC, DMGV was associated with cardiovascular mortality and incident coronary artery disease, independently of traditional risk factors. Furthermore, the association between DMGV and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus was replicated in both the MDC (hazard ratio=1.83; CI=1.63-2.05; P<0.001) and MPP (odds ratio=1.65; CI=1.38-1.98; P<0.001). Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased levels of DMGV, whereas intake of vegetables and level of physical activity was associated with lower DMGV. Conclusions We discovered novel independent associations between plasma DMGV and incident coronary artery disease and cardiovascular mortality, while replicating the previously reported association with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additionally, strong associations with sugar-sweetened beverages, vegetable intake, and physical activity suggest the potential to modify DMGV levels using lifestyle interventions.

15.
BMJ ; 366: l4292, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the genetic burden of type 2 diabetes modifies the association between the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Individual participant data meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Eligible prospective cohort studies were systematically sourced from studies published between January 1970 and February 2017 through electronic searches in major medical databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) and discussion with investigators. REVIEW METHODS: Data from cohort studies or multicohort consortia with available genome-wide genetic data and information about the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in participants of European descent was sought. Prospective cohorts that had accrued five or more years of follow-up were included. The type 2 diabetes genetic risk profile was characterized by a 68-variant polygenic risk score weighted by published effect sizes. Diet was recorded by using validated cohort-specific dietary assessment tools. Outcome measures were summary adjusted hazard ratios of incident type 2 diabetes for polygenic risk score, isocaloric replacement of carbohydrate (refined starch and sugars) with types of fat, and the interaction of types of fat with polygenic risk score. RESULTS: Of 102 305 participants from 15 prospective cohort studies, 20 015 type 2 diabetes cases were documented after a median follow-up of 12 years (interquartile range 9.4-14.2). The hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes per increment of 10 risk alleles in the polygenic risk score was 1.64 (95% confidence interval 1.54 to 1.75, I2=7.1%, τ2=0.003). The increase of polyunsaturated fat and total omega 6 polyunsaturated fat intake in place of carbohydrate was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, with hazard ratios of 0.90 (0.82 to 0.98, I2=18.0%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy) and 0.99 (0.97 to 1.00, I2=58.8%, τ2=0.001; per increment of 1 g/d), respectively. Increasing monounsaturated fat in place of carbohydrate was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.19, I2=25.9%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy). Evidence of small study effects was detected for the overall association of polyunsaturated fat with the risk of type 2 diabetes, but not for the omega 6 polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat associations. Significant interactions between dietary fat and polygenic risk score on the risk of type 2 diabetes (P>0.05 for interaction) were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that genetic burden and the quality of dietary fat are each associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The findings do not support tailoring recommendations on the quality of dietary fat to individual type 2 diabetes genetic risk profiles for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes, and suggest that dietary fat is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes across the spectrum of type 2 diabetes genetic risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alelos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Circulation ; 139(25): 2835-2845, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the relevance of animal foods to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined meat, fish, dairy products, and eggs and risk for IHD in the pan-European EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition). METHODS: In this prospective study of 409 885 men and women in 9 European countries, diet was assessed with validated questionnaires and calibrated with 24-hour recalls. Lipids and blood pressure were measured in a subsample. During a mean of 12.6 years of follow-up, 7198 participants had a myocardial infarction or died of IHD. The relationships of animal foods with risk were examined with Cox regression with adjustment for other animal foods and relevant covariates. RESULTS: The hazard ratio (HR) for IHD was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06-1.33) for a 100-g/d increment in intake of red and processed meat, and this remained significant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up (HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.09-1.42]). Risk was inversely associated with intakes of yogurt (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89-0.98] per 100-g/d increment), cheese (HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.98] per 30-g/d increment), and eggs (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.99] per 20-g/d increment); the associations with yogurt and eggs were attenuated and nonsignificant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up. Risk was not significantly associated with intakes of poultry, fish, or milk. In analyses modeling dietary substitutions, replacement of 100 kcal/d from red and processed meat with 100 kcal/d from fatty fish, yogurt, cheese, or eggs was associated with ≈20% lower risk of IHD. Consumption of red and processed meat was positively associated with serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and systolic blood pressure, and consumption of cheese was inversely associated with serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Risk for IHD was positively associated with consumption of red and processed meat and inversely associated with consumption of yogurt, cheese, and eggs, although the associations with yogurt and eggs may be influenced by reverse causation bias. It is not clear whether the associations with red and processed meat and cheese reflect causality, but they were consistent with the associations of these foods with plasma non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and for red and processed meat with systolic blood pressure, which could mediate such effects.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Dieta Saudável , Ovos , Carne , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Alimentos Marinhos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ovos/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Int J Cancer ; 144(7): 1511-1521, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178496

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) has an exceptionally low survival rate and primary prevention strategies are limited. Folate plays an important role in one-carbon metabolism and has been associated with the risk of several cancers, but not consistently with PC risk. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary folate intake and PC risk, using the standardised folate database across 10 European countries. A total of 477,206 participants were followed up for 11 years, during which 865 incident primary PC cases were recorded. Folate intake was energy-adjusted using the residual method. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. In multivariable analyses stratified by age, sex, study centre and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, BMI, educational level, diabetes status, supplement use and dietary fibre intake, we found no significant association between folate intake and PC risk: the HR of PC risk for those in the highest quartile of folate intake (≥353 µg/day) compared to the lowest (<241 µg/day) was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.31; ptrend = 0.38). In current smokers, a positive trend was observed in PC risk across folate quartiles [HR = 4.42 (95% CI: 1.05, 18.62) for ≥353 µg/day vs. <241 µg/day, ptrend = 0.01]. Nonetheless, there was no significant interaction between smoking and dietary folate intake (pinteraction = 0.99). We found no association between dietary folate intake and PC risk in this large European study.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Fumar/efeitos adversos
18.
Int J Cancer ; 145(6): 1499-1503, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499135

RESUMO

Vitamin B supplementation can have side effects for human health, including cancer risk. We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin B12 in lung cancer etiology via direct measurements of pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin B12 concentrations in a nested case-control study, complemented with a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in an independent case-control sample. We used pre-diagnostic biomarker data from 5183 case-control pairs nested within 20 prospective cohorts, and genetic data from 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. Exposures included directly measured circulating vitamin B12 in pre-diagnostic blood samples from the nested case-control study, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin B12 concentrations in the MR study. Our main outcome of interest was increased risk for lung cancer, overall and by histological subtype, per increase in circulating vitamin B12 concentrations. We found circulating vitamin B12 to be positively associated with overall lung cancer risk in a dose response fashion (odds ratio for a doubling in B12 [ORlog2B12 ] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06-1.25). The MR analysis based on 8 genetic variants also indicated that genetically determined higher vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall lung cancer risk (OR per 150 pmol/L standard deviation increase in B12 [ORSD ] = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.00-1.16). Considering the consistency of these two independent and complementary analyses, these findings support the hypothesis that high vitamin B12 status increases the risk of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar
19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 1917-1925, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Because elevated copeptin, a marker of vasopressin, is linked to low water intake and high diabetes risk, we tested the effect of water supplementation on copeptin and fasting glucose. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one healthy adults with high copeptin (>10.7 pmol · L-1 in men and >6.1 pmol·L-1 in women) identified in a population-based survey from 2013 to 2015 and with a current 24-hour urine osmolality of >600 mOsm · kg-1 were included. INTERVENTION: Addition of 1.5 L water daily on top of habitual fluid intake for 6 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pre- and postintervention fasting plasma copeptin concentrations. RESULTS: Reported mean water intake increased from 0.43 to 1.35 L · d-1 (P < 0.001), with no other observed changes in diet. Median (interquartile range) urine osmolality was reduced from 879 (705, 996) to 384 (319, 502) mOsm · kg-1 (P < 0.001); urine volume increased from 1.06 (0.90, 1.20) to 2.27 (1.52, 2.67) L · d-1 (P < 0.001); and baseline copeptin decreased from 12.9 (7.4, 21.9) pmol · L-1 to 7.8 (4.6;11.3) pmol · L-1 (P < 0.001). Water supplementation reduced fasting plasma glucose from a mean (SD) of 5.94 (0.44) to 5.74 (0.51) (P = 0.04). The water-associated reduction of both fasting copeptin and glucose concentration in plasma was most pronounced in participants in the top tertile of baseline copeptin. CONCLUSIONS: Water supplementation in persons with habitually low water consumption and high copeptin levels is effective in lowering copeptin. It appears a safe and promising intervention with the potential of lowering fasting plasma glucose and thus reducing diabetes risk. Further investigations are warranted to support these findings.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Água/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Glicopeptídeos/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento , Urina/química , Urina/fisiologia , Vasopressinas/sangue , Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 122-131, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588620

RESUMO

There is a growing evidence of the protective role of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on cancer. However, no prospective study has yet investigated its influence on lymphoma. We evaluated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The analysis included 476,160 participants, recruited from 10 European countries between 1991 and 2001. Adherence to the MD was estimated through the adapted relative MD (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma [HL], 2,606 non-HL and 395 lymphoma not otherwise specified) were identified. Overall, a 1-unit increase in the arMED score was associated with a 2% lower risk of lymphoma (95% CI: 0.97; 1.00, p-trend = 0.03) while a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between a high versus low arMED score and risk of lymphoma was observed (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91 [95% CI 0.80; 1.03], p-trend = 0.12). Analyses by lymphoma subtype did not reveal any statistically significant associations. Albeit with small numbers of cases (N = 135), a suggestive inverse association was found for HL (HR 1-unit increase = 0.93 [95% CI: 0.86; 1.01], p-trend = 0.07). However, the study may have lacked statistical power to detect small effect sizes for lymphoma subtype. Our findings suggest that an increasing arMED score was inversely related to the risk of overall lymphoma in EPIC but not by subtypes. Further large prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
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