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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21588, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732766

RESUMO

To investigate whether expression-based polygenic risk scores for the insulin receptor gene network (ePRS-IRs) modifiy the association between type of depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This cross-sectional study includes 1558 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Between 2001 and 2004, the Short Form-36 questionnaire was employed to assess mental and physical components of HRQoL and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to assess depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were categorized into minimal (BDI < 10), non-melancholic and melancholic types of depression. The ePRS-IRs were calculated for the hippocampal (hePRS-IR) and the mesocorticolimbic (mePRS-IR) regions of the brain. General linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, population stratification, lifestyle factors and body mass index were applied to analyze the data. Both types of depressive symptoms were associated with lower HRQoL (p < 0.0001). HePRS-IR modified the association between the types of depression and mental HRQoL (p for interaction = 0.005). Melancholic type of depressive symptoms was associated with higher mental HRQoL compared to the non-melancholic symptoms among individuals with low hePRS-IR (adjusted mean 4.1, 95% CI 0.7-7.4, p = 0.018). However, no such difference was evident in moderate or high hePRS-IR groups as higher hePRS-IR was associated with lower mental HRQoL (B = - 3.4, 95% CI - 5.6 to - 1.2) in individuals with melancholic type of depressive symptoms. No direct associations were detected between the ePRS-IRs and type of depressive symptoms or HRQoL. Variations in the glucose-insulin metabolism can lower HRQoL in individuals with melancholic depressive symptoms.

2.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 145, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Time spent in movement behaviours, including physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and sleep, across the 24-h day may have distinct health consequences. We aimed to describe 24-h movement behaviour (24 h-MB) profiles in children and how profile membership changed from age 5.5 to 8 years. METHODS: Children in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort were asked to wear an accelerometer (ActiGraph-GT3X+) on their wrist for seven consecutive days at ages 5.5 and 8 years to measure 24 h-MB patterns. Time spent in night sleep, inactivity (proxy for SB), light PA, moderate PA (MPA), and vigorous PA (VPA) per day were calculated using the R-package GGIR 2.0. Using latent profile analyses (n = 442) we identified 24 h-MB profiles, which were given animal names to convey key characteristics. Latent transition analyses were used to describe the profile membership transition from ages 5.5 to 8 years. Associations with sex and ethnicity were examined. RESULTS: We identified four profiles, "Rabbits" (very high-MPA/VPA, low-inactivity and average-night-sleep), "Chimpanzees" (high-MPA, low-inactivity and average-night-sleep), "Pandas" (low-PA, high-inactivity and high-night-sleep) and "Owls" (low-PA, high-inactivity and low-night-sleep), among children at both time points. At ages 5.5 and 8 years, the majority of children were classified into profiles of "Chimpanzees" (51 and 39%, respectively) and "Pandas" (24 and 37%). Half of the sample (49%), particularly "Rabbits", remained in the same profile at ages 5.5 and 8 years: among children who changed profile the predominant transitions occurred from "Chimpanzees" (27%) and "Owls" (56%) profiles to "Pandas". Sex, but not ethnicity, was associated with profile membership: compared to girls, boys were more likely to be in the "Rabbits" profile (adjusted OR [95% CI]: 3.6 [1.4, 9.7] and 4.5 [1.8, 10.9] at ages 5.5 and 8 years, respectively) and less likely to be in the "Pandas" profile (0.5 [0.3, 0.9] and 0.4 [0.2, 0.6]) at both ages. CONCLUSIONS: With increasing age about half the children stayed in the same of four 24 h-MB profiles, while the predominant transition for the remaining children was towards lower PA, higher inactivity and longer sleep duration. These findings can aid development and implementation of public health strategies to promote better health. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study was registered on 4th August 2010 and is available online at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01174875 .

3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 738570, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777246

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate associations between exposure to fetal hypoxia and indicators of metabolic health in young adult offspring of women with type 1 diabetes (OT1D). Methods: 156 OT1D born between 7/1995 and 12/2000 at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, were invited for follow-up between 3/2019 and 11/2019. A control group of 442 adults born from non-diabetic pregnancies, matched for date and place of birth, was obtained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. In total, 58 OT1D and 86 controls agreed to participate. All OT1D had amniotic fluid (AF) sampled for erythropoietin (EPO) measurement within two days before delivery in order to diagnose fetal hypoxia. In total, 29 OTID had an AF EPO concentration <14.0 mU/l, defined as normal, and were categorized into the low EPO (L-EPO) group. The remaining 29 OT1D had AF EPO ≥14.0 mU/ml, defined as fetal hypoxia, and were categorized into the high EPO (H-EPO) group. At the age of 18-23 years, participants underwent a 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in addition to height, weight, waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, HbA1c, cholesterol, triglyceride, high-sensitivity CRP and leisure-time physical activity measurements. Results: Two OT1D were diagnosed with diabetes and excluded from further analyses. At young adult age, OT1D in the H-EPO group had a higher BMI than those in the L-EPO group. In addition, among female participants, waist circumference and body fat percentage were highest in the H-EPO group. In the OGTTs, the mean (SD) 2-h post-load plasma glucose (mmol/L) was higher in the H-EPO [6.50 (2.11)] than in the L-EPO [5.21 (1.10)] or control [5.67 (1.48)] offspring (p=0.009). AF EPO concentrations correlated positively with 2-h post-load plasma glucose [r=0.35 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.62)] and serum insulin [r=0.44 (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.69)] concentrations, even after adjusting for maternal BMI, birth weight z-score, gestational age at birth and adult BMI. Control, L-EPO and H-EPO groups did not differ with regards to other assessed parameters. Conclusions: High AF EPO concentrations in late pregnancy, indicating fetal hypoxia, are associated with increased adiposity and elevated post-load glucose and insulin concentrations in young adult OT1D.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259463, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793498

RESUMO

AIM: Preterm birth(<37 gestational weeks) is associated with numerous adversities, however, data on positive developmental outcomes remain limited. We examined if preterm and term born(≥37 gestational weeks) adults differ in dispositional optimism/pessimism, a personality trait associated with health and wellbeing. We assessed if birth weight z-score, neurosensory impairments and parental education modified the outcome. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and Web of Science for cohort or case-control studies(born ≥ 1970) with data on gestational age and optimism/pessimism reported using the Life-Orientation-Test-Revised in adulthood(≥18 years). The three identified studies(Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults; Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study; Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) provided data for the two-step random-effects linear regression Individual-Participant-Data meta-analysis. RESULTS: Preterm and term borns did not differ on optimism(p = 0.76). Preterms scored higher on pessimism than term borns(Mean difference = 0.35, 95%Confidence Interval 0.36, 0.60, p = 0.007), although not after full adjustment. Preterm born participants, but not term born participants, with higher birth weight z-score, had higher optimism scores (0.30 raw score units per standard deviation increase, 95% CI 0.10, 0.49, p = 0.003); preterm vs term x birth weight z-score interaction p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Preterm and term born adults display similar optimism. In preterms, higher birth weight may foster developmental trajectories promoting more optimistic life orientations.

5.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The EU LifeCycle Project was launched in 2017 to combine, harmonise, and analyse data from more than 250,000 participants across Europe and Australia, involving cohorts participating in the EU-funded LifeCycle Project. The purpose of this cohort description is to provide a detailed overview over the major measures within mental health domains that are available in 17 European and Australian cohorts participating in the LifeCycle Project. METHODS: Data on cognitive, behavioural and psychological development has been collected on participants from birth until adulthood through questionnaire and medical data. We developed an inventory of the available data by mapping individual instruments, domain types, and age groups, providing the basis for statistical harmonization across mental health measures. RESULTS: The mental health data in LifeCycle contain longitudinal and cross-sectional data for ages 0-18+ years, covering domains across a wide range of behavioural and psychopathology indicators and outcomes (including executive function, depression, ADHD and cognition). These data span a unique combination of qualitative data collected through behavioural/cognitive/mental health questionnaires and examination, as well as data from biological samples and indices in the form of brain imaging (MRI, foetal ultrasound) and DNA methylation data. Harmonized variables on a subset of mental health domains have been developed, providing statistical equivalence of measures required for longitudinal meta-analyses across instruments and cohorts. CONCLUSION: Mental health data harmonized through the LifeCycle project can be used to study life course trajectories and exposure-outcome models that examine early life risk factors for mental illness and develop predictive markers for later-life disease.

6.
Radiol Artif Intell ; 3(5): e200304, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617030

RESUMO

Purpose: To develop and evaluate an automated segmentation method for accurate quantification of abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) depots (superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue [SSAT], deep subcutaneous adipose tissue [DSAT], and visceral adipose tissue [VAT]) in neonates and young children. Materials and Methods: This was a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data, which used abdominal MRI data from Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes, or GUSTO, a longitudinal mother-offspring cohort, to train and evaluate a convolutional neural network for volumetric AAT segmentation. The data comprised imaging volumes of 333 neonates obtained at early infancy (age ≤2 weeks, 180 male neonates) and 755 children aged either 4.5 years (n = 316, 150 male children) or 6 years (n = 439, 219 male children). The network was trained on images of 761 randomly selected volumes (neonates and children combined) and evaluated on 100 neonatal volumes and 227 child volumes by using 10-fold validation. Automated segmentations were compared with expert-generated manual segmentation. Segmentation performance was assessed using Dice scores. Results: When the model was tested on the test datasets across the 10 folds, the model had strong agreement with the ground truth for all testing sets, with mean Dice similarity scores for SSAT, DSAT, and VAT, respectively, of 0.960, 0.909, and 0.872 in neonates and 0.944, 0.851, and 0.960 in children. The model generalized well to different body sizes and ages and to all abdominal levels. Conclusion: The proposed segmentation approach provided accurate automated volumetric assessment of AAT compartments on MR images of neonates and children.Keywords Pediatrics, Deep Learning, Convolutional Neural Networks, Water-Fat MRI, Image Segmentation, Deep and Superficial Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, Visceral Adipose TissueClinical trial registration no. NCT01174875 Supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2021.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modest associations have been reported between specific food groups or nutrients and fecundability [measured by time to pregnancy (TTP)]. Examining overall diets provides a more holistic approach towards understanding the relationships with fecundability. It is not known if plant-based diets indices or exploratory dietary patterns are associated with fecundability. OBJECTIVE: We examine the associations between adherence to 1) plant-based diet indices and 2) exploratory dietary patterns and fecundability among women planning pregnancy. DESIGN: Data were analysed from the Singapore S-PRESTO study. Pre-pregnancy diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire from which the overall, healthful and unhealthful plant-based diet indices (oPDI, hPDI and uPDI) were calculated. Exploratory dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis based on forty-four pre-defined food groups. Participants were categorized into quintiles based on their dietary pattern scores. TTP (in menstrual cycles) was ascertained within a year of dietary assessment. Discrete-time proportional hazard models, adjusted for confounders, were used to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% CIs, with FR > 1 indicating a shorter TTP. RESULTS: Among 805 women, 383 pregnancies confirmed by ultrasound scans occurred. Compared to women in the lowest quintile, those in the highest quintile of the uPDI had reduced fecundability [FR of Q5 vs Q1 (95% CI): 0.65 (0.46, 0.91), p trend: 0.009]. Conversely, greater adherence to the hPDI was associated with increased fecundability [1.46 (1.02, 2.07), p trend: 0.036]. The oPDI was not associated with fecundability. Among the three exploratory dietary patterns, only greater adherence to the "Fast Food and Sweetened Beverages" pattern (FFSB) was associated with reduced fecundability [0.61 (0.40, 0.91), p trend: 0.018]. CONCLUSIONS: Greater adherence to the uPDI or the FFSB dietary pattern was associated with reduced fecundability among Asian women. Greater adherence to the hPDI may be beneficial for fecundability, though this requires confirmation by future studies.Clinical Trial Registry number: NCT 03531658Secondary Abstract: Plant-based diets are increasingly popular as they are associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases and considered a sustainable diet for planetary health. Do these diets contribute to fecundability (as measured by time to pregnancy)?

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633450

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Antenatal hyperglycemia is associated with increased risk of future adverse health outcomes in both mother and child. Variations in offspring's epigenome can reflect the impact and response to in utero glycemic exposure, and may have different consequences for the child. OBJECTIVE: We examined possible differences in associations of basal glucose status and glucose handling during pregnancy with both clinical covariates and offspring cord tissue DNA methylation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 830 mother-offspring dyads from the GUSTO cohort. The fetal epigenome of umbilical cord tissue was profiled using Illumina HumanMethylation450 arrays. Associations of maternal mid-pregnancy fasting (FPG) and 2h plasma glucose (2hPG) post-75g oral glucose challenge (OGTT) with both maternal clinical phenotypes and offspring epigenome at delivery were investigated separately. RESULTS: Maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI and blood pressure measures were associated with both FPG and 2hPG; while Chinese ethnicity (p=1.9×10 -4), maternal height (p=1.1×10 -4), pregnancy weight gain (p=2.2×10 -3), pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption (p=4.6×10 -4), and tobacco exposure (p=1.9×10 -3) showed significantly opposite associations between the two glucose measures. Most importantly, we observed a dichotomy in the effects of these glycemic indices on the offspring epigenome. Offspring born to mothers with elevated 2hPG showed global hypomethylation. CpGs most associated with the two glucose measures also reflected differences in gene ontologies and had different associations with offspring birthweight. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that two traditionally used glycemic indices for diagnosing gestational diabetes may reflect distinctive pathophysiologies in pregnancy, and have differential impacts on the offspring's DNA methylome.

9.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1875-1884, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between frailty and specialized healthcare utilization is not well studied. We, therefore, examined the utilization of specialized healthcare services among frail Finnish older adults. METHODS: A sub-sample of 1060 participants of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were followed prospectively for specialized healthcare utilization from nationwide registers between the years 2013 and 2017. The participants' frailty status was assessed according to Fried's criteria at a mean age of 71.0 (2.7 SD) years between the years 2011 and 2013. A negative binomial regression model was used to examine the association between frailty and the total number of visits, emergency visits, outpatient appointments separating the first outpatient appointments and the follow-up appointments, inpatient care including elective and non-elective hospital admissions and the total number of hospital days. We also calculated average length of stay (ALOS) and used the Kruskal-Wallis test to examine the differences between the groups. RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates, frailty was significantly associated with the number of specialized healthcare visits (IRR 1.50, 95% CI = 1.04-2.15) and all subgroups of visits apart from follow-up outpatient appointments. Frailty was particularly strongly associated with the number of hospital days (IRR 5.24, 95% CI = 2.35-11.7) and notably with emergency visits (IRR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.45-3.51) and hospital admissions (IRR 2.23, 95% CI = 1.39-3.56). Frail older adults had also higher ALOS compared to non-frail participants (p = .009). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty increases the use of most specialized healthcare services. Preventative interventions against frailty are needed to decrease the burden on specialized healthcare systems.KEY MESSAGEFrailty is associated with the utilization of most specialized healthcare services, the most expensive part of the healthcare in most high-income countries.The association of frailty with inpatient care is particularly strong.Preventative interventions against frailty are needed to decrease the burden on specialized healthcare systems.

10.
Hum Reprod ; 36(11): 2935-2947, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492112

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Can abnormalities in retinal microvasculature representing adverse microcirculatory perfusion and inflammation shed light on the pathophysiology of female fecundability? SUMMARY ANSWER: In our prospective study, abnormalities in retinal vascular geometric morphology (i.e. sparser arteriolar fractal and larger venular bifurcation) during pre-conception phase are temporarily associated with a prolonged time-to-pregnancy (TTP). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Suboptimal retinal microcirculatory morphology has been associated with obesity, psychological stress and hypertension, all of which are known risk factors for reduced female fecundability. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A total of 652 women of Chinese, Malay or Indian ethnicity 18-45 years of age and planning to conceive spontaneously within the next 12 months were recruited during the pre-conception period into the Singapore PREconception Study of long-Term maternal and child Outcomes (S-PRESTO), from February 2015 to October 2017. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: During recruitment, we collected information on socio-demographic factors, menstrual characteristics and lifestyle behaviors and made anthropometric measurements. We assessed the following retinal microvascular features: caliber, branching angle and fractal dimension. We conducted follow-up telephone surveys to track each participant's pregnancy status at 6, 9 and 12 months after enrolment. We ascertained clinical pregnancies via ultrasonography, with TTP measured by the number of menstrual cycles required to achieve a clinical pregnancy over a 1-year follow-up. Then, we performed discrete-time proportional hazards models to estimate the fecundability odds ratio (FOR) and 95% CI for each retinal microvascular feature in association with TTP, after adjusting for major confounders, including body mass index and fasting glycemic level at study entry. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF THE CHANCE: Among 652 recruited women, 276 (42.3%) successfully conceived within 1 year of follow-up. The mean (and SD) was 1.24 (0.05) Df for retinal arteriolar dimension fraction and 78.45 (9.79) degrees for retinal venular branching angle, respectively. Non-linear relationship testing was performed before multiple adjustment in all associations and a non-monotonic association was detected between retinal venular branching angle and TTP. Compared with women in the highest tertile of retinal arteriolar fractal dimension, women in the second tertile had a prolonged TTP (FOR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51-0.92), as did women in the lowest tertile (FOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.98). Compared with women in the middle tertile of retinal venular branching angle, women in the highest tertile had a borderline prolonged TTP (FOR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.56-1.02). No other retinal vascular features were significantly associated with TTP. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We were unable to adjust for other potential confounding factors such as female sexual function (e.g. frequency of sexual intercourse), which might introduce a residual bias. Moreover, even though this is a prospective cohort design, our findings can identify the temporal relationship but not necessarily infer a causal relationship between maternal microvasculature and TTP. Lastly, our study involving mainly Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities might not be generalizable to other races or ethnicities. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Suboptimal microcirculation may lead to reduced female fecundability. In the future, in addition to conventional ultrasonographic evaluation of ovarian and uterine physiological function, assessing the retinal microvasculature might be useful for assessment of ovarian age, fertility prediction and endometrial evaluation before assisted reproductive techniques for fertility treatments. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This research is supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF) under its Translational and Clinical Research (TCR) Flagship Programme and administered by the Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council (NMRC) (Singapore-NMRC/TCR/004-NUS/2008; NMRC/TCR/012-NUHS/2014) and Singapore National Medical Research Council Transition Award (NMRC TA/0027/2014). The authors have no competing interests to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03531658.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Tempo para Engravidar , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Microcirculação , Microvasos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Singapura/epidemiologia
11.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 165, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a pivotal role in fetal programming. Antenatal treatment with synthetic GCs (sGCs) in individuals in danger of preterm labor is common practice. Adverse short- and long-term effects of antenatal sGCs have been reported, but their effects on placental epigenetic characteristics have never been systematically studied in humans. RESULTS: We tested the association between exposure to the sGC betamethasone (BET) and placental DNA methylation (DNAm) in 52 exposed cases and 84 gestational-age-matched controls. We fine-mapped associated loci using targeted bisulfite sequencing. The association of placental DNAm with gene expression and co-expression analysis on implicated genes was performed in an independent cohort including 494 placentas. Exposure to BET was significantly associated with lower placenta DNAm at an enhancer of FKBP5. FKBP5 (FK506-binding protein 51) is a co-chaperone that modulates glucocorticoid receptor activity. Lower DNAm at this enhancer site was associated with higher expression of FKBP5 and a co-expressed gene module. This module is enriched for genes associated with preeclampsia and involved in inflammation and immune response. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that BET exposure during pregnancy associates with few but lasting changes in placental DNAm and may promote a gene expression profile associated with placental dysfunction and increased inflammation. This may represent a pathway mediating GC-associated negative long-term consequences and health outcomes in offspring.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 149(12): 2010-2019, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398974

RESUMO

The trends in incidence of lung cancer in never smokers are unclear as well as the significance of risk factors. We studied time trends in the incidence and risk factors of lung cancer in never smokers in Finland in a large, pooled cohort. We pooled data from seven Finnish health cohorts from the period between 1972 and 2015 with 106 193 never smokers. The harmonised risk factors included education, alcohol consumption, physical activity, height and BMI. We retrieved incident lung cancers from the nation-wide Finnish Cancer Registry. We estimated average annual percent change (AAPC) and the effects of risk factors on cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) of lung cancer using Poisson regression. We detected 47 lung cancers in never smoking men (n = 31 859) and 155 in never smoking women (n = 74 334). The AAPC of lung cancer incidence was -3.30% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.68% to -0.88%, P = .009) in never smoking men and 0.00% (95% CI: -1.57% to 1.60%, P = .996) in never smoking women. Of the five studied risk factors only greater height in women had a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (multivariate HR = 1.84, 95%CI: 1.08 to 3.12). It is plausible that tobacco control measures focused on working places have reduced passive smoking among men more than among women, which could explain the declining trend in lung cancer incidence in never smoker men but not in never smoker women. As tobacco control measures have not been targeted to domestic environments, it is likely that women's exposure to passive smoking has continued longer.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16435, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385555

RESUMO

We aimed to identify serum metabolites related to abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The study recruited 50 women diagnosed with GDM during mid-late pregnancy and 50 non-GDM matchees in a Singapore birth cohort. At the 5-year post-partum follow-up, we applied an untargeted approach to investigate the profiles of serum metabolites among all participants. We first employed OPLS-DA and logistic regression to discriminate women with and without follow-up AGM, and then applied area under the curve (AUC) to assess the incremental indicative value of metabolic signatures on AGM. We identified 23 candidate metabolites that were associated with postpartum AGM among all participants. We then narrowed down to five metabolites [p-cresol sulfate, linoleic acid, glycocholic acid, lysoPC(16:1) and lysoPC(20:3)] specifically associating with both GDM and postpartum AGM. The combined metabolites in addition to traditional risks showed a higher indicative value in AUC (0.92-0.94 vs. 0.74 of traditional risks and 0.77 of baseline diagnostic biomarkers) and R2 (0.67-0.70 vs. 0.25 of traditional risks and 0.32 of baseline diagnostic biomarkers) in terms of AGM indication, compared with the traditional risks model and traditional risks and diagnostic biomarkers combined model. These metabolic signatures significantly increased the AUC value of AGM indication in addition to traditional risks, and might shed light on the pathophysiology underlying the transition from GDM to AGM.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Singapura
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16718, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408173

RESUMO

There is limited evidence for any dietary factor, except alcohol, in breast cancer (BC) risk. Therefore, studies on a whole diet, using diet quality indices, can broaden our insight. We examined associations of the Nordic Diet (mNDI), Mediterranean diet (mMEDI) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI) with postmenopausal BC risk. Five Finnish cohorts were combined including 6374 postmenopausal women with dietary information. In all, 8-9 dietary components were aggregated in each index, higher total score indicating higher adherence to a healthy diet. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the combined hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for BC risk. During an average 10-year follow-up period, 274 incident postmenopausal BC cases were diagnosed. In multivariable models, the HR for highest vs. lowest quintile of index was 0.67 (95 %CI 0.48-1.01) for mNDI, 0.88 (0.59-1.30) for mMEDI and 0.89 (0.60-1.32) for mAHEI. In this combined dataset, a borderline preventive finding of high adherence to mNDI on postmenopausal BC risk was found. Of the indices, mNDI was more based on the local food culture than the others. Although a healthy diet has beneficially been related to several chronic diseases, the link with the etiology of postmenopausal BC does not seem to be that obvious.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
15.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 159, 2021 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized, controlled cardiovascular outcome trials may not be fully representative of the management of patients with type 2 diabetes across different geographic regions. We conducted analyses of data from the multinational CVD-REAL consortium to determine the association between initiation of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) and cardiovascular outcomes, including subgroup analyses based on patient characteristics. METHODS: De-identified health records from 13 countries across three continents were used to identify patients newly-initiated on SGLT-2i or other glucose-lowering drugs (oGLDs). Propensity scores for SGLT-2i initiation were developed in each country, with 1:1 matching for oGLD initiation. In the matched groups hazard ratios (HRs) for hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), all-cause death (ACD), the composite of HHF or ACD, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke were estimated by country, and pooled using a weighted meta-analysis. Multiple subgroup analyses were conducted across patient demographic and clinical characteristics to examine any heterogeneity in treatment effects. RESULTS: Following matching, 440,599 new users of SGLT-2i and oGLDs were included in each group. Mean follow-up time was 396 days for SGLT-2i initiation and 406 days for oGLDs initiation. SGLT-2i initiation was associated with a lower risk of HHF (HR: 0.66, 95%CI 0.58-0.75; p < 0.001), ACD (HR: 0.52, 95%CI 0.45-0.60; p < 0.001), the composite of HHF or ACD (HR: 0.60, 95%CI 0.53-0.68; p < 0.001), MI (HR: 0.85, 95%CI 0.78-0.92; p < 0.001), and stroke (HR: 0.78, 95%CI 0.72-0.85; p < 0.001); regardless of patient characteristics, including established cardiovascular disease, or geographic region. CONCLUSIONS: This CVD-REAL study extends the findings from the SGLT-2i clinical trials to the broader setting of an ethnically and geographically diverse population, and across multiple subgroups. Trial registration NCT02993614.

16.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2678-2684, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current guidelines on prediabetes and diabetes (T2D) recommend to regularly perform an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on subjects at risk of T2D. However, it is not known why women tend to have relatively higher 2-h post-load plasma (2hPG) glucose concentrations during OGTT than men. The aim of the present study is to investigate if there are sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2hPG concentrations in relation to body size in apparently healthy non-diabetic subjects with normal glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that sex differences in glucose tolerance are physiological and related to different body surface area (BSA) in men and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 2-h 75 g OGTT was performed on 2010 subjects aged 45-70 years. Their BSA was calculated using the Mosteller formula. Men and women were separately divided into five BSA levels. Within the normal 2hPG range, women had higher mean 2hPG concentrations during the OGTT than men in all BSA levels estimated by sex-standardized BSA (p for linearity < 0.001). BSA adjusted for age, waist circumference, leisure-time physical activity, and smoking, showed an inverse association with 2hPG concentration in both sexes. Mean FPG concentrations were higher in men than in women. CONCLUSIONS: Body size has a negative inverse association with 2hPG concentration in an OGTT even within a physiological plasma glucose range. This may cause underestimation of glucose disorders in individuals with larger BSA and overestimation in individuals with smaller BSA when using an OGTT.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Superfície Corporal , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(11): 2396-2403, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal adiposity is associated with a higher risk of obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in later life. It is however unknown if central food intake regulating networks in the ventral striatum are altered with in-utero abdominal growth, indexed by neonatal adiposity in our current study. We aim to examine the relationship between striatal microstructure and abdominal adipose tissue compartments (AATCs) in Asian neonates from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort. STUDY DESIGN: About 109 neonates were included in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for the brain and abdominal regions between 5 to 17 days of life. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the brain was performed for the derivation of caudate and putamen fractional anisotropy (FA). Abdominal imaging was performed to quantify AATCs namely superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (sSAT), deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (dSAT), and internal adipose tissue (IAT). Absolute and percentage adipose tissue of total abdominal volume (TAV) were calculated. RESULTS: We showed that AATCs at birth were significantly associated with increased FA in bilateral ventral caudate heads which are part of the ventral striatum (sSAT: ßleft = 0.56, p < 0.001; ßright = 0.65, p < 0.001, dSAT: ßleft = 0.43, p < 0.001; ßright = 0.52, p < 0.001, IAT: ßleft = 0.30, p = 0.005; ßright = 0.32, p = 0.002) in neonates with low birth weights adjusted for gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides preliminary evidence of a potential relationship between neonatal adiposity and in-utero programming of the ventral striatum, a brain structure that governs feeding behavior.

18.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 14: 3187-3197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285526

RESUMO

Background: Heredity and family-shared lifestyle contribute to cardiovascular risk, but the magnitude of their influence on arterial structure and function in early childhood is unknown. We aimed to assess associations between child and maternal ideal cardiovascular health, maternal subclinical atherosclerosis, and child arterial phenotype. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 201 mother-child pairs originating from the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study (RADIEL) longitudinal cohort was done at child age 6.1 ± 0.5 years with assessments of ideal cardiovascular health (BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, diet quality, physical activity, smoking), body composition, very-high frequency ultrasound of carotid arteries (25 and 35 MHz), and pulse wave velocity. Results: We found no association between child and maternal ideal cardiovascular health but report evidence of particular metrics correlations: total cholesterol (r=0.24, P=0.003), BMI (r=0.17, P=0.02), diastolic blood pressure (r=0.15, P=0.03), and diet quality (r=0.22, P=0.002). Child arterial phenotype was not associated with child or maternal ideal cardiovascular health. In the multivariable regression explanatory model adjusted for child sex, age, systolic blood pressure, lean body mass, and body fat percentage, child carotid intima-media thickness was independently associated only with maternal carotid intima-media thickness (0.1 mm increase [95% CI 0.05, 0.21, P=0.001] for each 1 mm increase in maternal carotid intima-media thickness). Children of mothers with subclinical atherosclerosis had decreased carotid artery distensibility (1.1 ± 0.2 vs 1.2 ± 0.2%/10 mmHg, P=0.01) and trend toward increased carotid intima-media thickness (0.37 ± 0.04 vs 0.35 ± 0.04 mm, P=0.06). Conclusion: Ideal Cardiovascular Health metrics are heterogeneously associated in mother-child pairs in early childhood. We found no evidence of child or maternal Ideal Cardiovascular Health effect on child arterial phenotype. Maternal carotid intima-media thickness predicts child carotid intima-media thickness, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Maternal subclinical atherosclerosis is associated with local carotid arterial stiffness in early childhood.

19.
Environ Microbiol ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309161

RESUMO

Exposure to a diverse microbial environment during pregnancy and early postnatal period is important in determining predisposition towards allergy. However, the effect of environmental microbiota exposure during preconception, pregnancy and postnatal life on development of allergy in the child has not been investigated so far. In the S-PRESTO (Singapore PREconception Study of long Term maternal and child Outcomes) cohort, we collected house dust during all three critical window periods and analysed microbial composition using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. At 6 and 18 months, the child was assessed for eczema by clinicians. In the eczema group, household environmental microbiota was characterized by presence of human-associated bacteria Actinomyces, Anaerococcus, Finegoldia, Micrococcus, Prevotella and Propionibacterium at all time points, suggesting their possible contributions to regulating host immunity and increasing the susceptibility to eczema. In the home environment of the control group, putative protective effect of an environmental microbe Planomicrobium (Planococcaceae family) was observed to be significantly higher than that in the eczema group. Network correlation analysis demonstrated inverse relationships between beneficial Planomicrobium and human-associated bacteria (Actinomyces, Anaerococcus, Finegoldia, Micrococcus, Prevotella and Propionibacterium). Exposure to natural environmental microbiota may be beneficial to modulate shed human-associated microbiota in an indoor environment.

20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 550860, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136447

RESUMO

Background: Pre-pregnancy obesity, excess gestational weight gain (GWG), and gestational diabetes (GDM) increase fetal growth. Our aim was to assess whether normal GWG is associated with lower risk for a large-for-gestational-age (LGA; over the 90th percentile of birth weight for sex and gestational age) infant and lower birth weight standard deviation (SD) score in the presence of GDM and maternal obesity. Methods: This multicenter case-control study is part of the Finnish Gestational Diabetes (FinnGeDi) Study and includes singleton pregnancies of 1,055 women with GDM and 1,032 non-diabetic controls. Women were divided into 12 subgroups according to their GDM status, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), and GWG. Non-diabetic women with normal BMI and normal GWG (according to Institute of Medicine recommendations) served as a reference group. Results: The prevalence of LGA birth was 12.2% among women with GDM and 6.2% among non-diabetic women (p < 0.001). Among all women, normal GWG was associated with lower odds of LGA [odds ratio (OR) 0.57, 95% CI: 0.41-0.78]. Among women with both obesity and GDM, the odds for giving birth to a LGA infant was 2.25-fold (95% CI: 1.04-4.85) among those with normal GWG and 7.63-fold (95% CI: 4.25-13.7) among those with excess GWG compared with the reference group. Compared with excess GWG, normal GWG was associated with 0.71 SD (95% CI: 0.47-0.97) lower birth weight SD score among women with GDM and obesity. Newborns of normal weight women with GDM and normal GWG had 0.28 SD (95% CI: 0.05-0.51) lower birth weight SD scores compared with their counterparts with excess GWG. In addition, in the group of normal weight non-diabetic women, normal GWG was associated with 0.46 SD (95% CI: 0.30-0.61) lower birth weight SD scores compared with excess GWG. Conclusion: GDM, obesity, and excess GWG are associated with higher risk for LGA infants. Interventions aiming at normal GWG have the potential to lower LGA rate and birth weight SD scores even when GDM and obesity are present.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Ganho de Peso
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