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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(12): 5825-5833, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129616

RESUMO

The reaction of HO• radical with DNA is intensively studied both mechanistically and analytically for lesions formation. Several aspects related to the reaction paths of purine moieties with the formation of 5',8-cyclopurines (cPu), 8-oxopurines (8-oxo-Pu), and their relationship are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the reaction of HO• radical with a 21-mer double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ds-ODNs) in γ-irradiated aqueous solutions under various oxygen concentrations and accurately quantified the six purine lesions (i.e., four cPu and two 8-oxo-Pu) by LC-MS/MS analysis using isotopomeric internal standards. In the absence of oxygen, 8-oxo-Pu lesions are only ∼4 times more than cPu lesions. By increasing oxygen concentration, the 8-oxo-Pu and the cPu gradually increase and decrease, respectively, reaching a gap of ∼130 times at 2.01 × 10-4 M of O2. Kinetic treatment of the data allows to estimate the C5' radical competition between cyclization and oxygen trapping in ds-ODNs, and lastly the rate constants of the four cyclization steps. Tailored computational studies by means of dispersion-corrected DFT calculations were performed on the CGC and TAT in their double-strand models for each cPu diastereoisomer along with the complete reaction pathways of the cyclization steps. Our findings reveal unheralded reaction mechanisms that resolve the long-standing issues with C5' radical cyclization in purine moieties of DNA sequences.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(10): 5376-5385, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098846

RESUMO

The mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (Mpi) locus in Semibalanus balanoides has been studied as a candidate gene for balancing selection for more than two decades. Previous work has shown that Mpi allozyme genotypes (fast and slow) have different frequencies across Atlantic intertidal zones due to selection on postsettlement survival (i.e., allele zonation). We present the complete gene sequence of the Mpi locus and quantify nucleotide polymorphism in S. balanoides, as well as divergence to its sister taxon Semibalanus cariosus We show that the slow allozyme contains a derived charge-altering amino acid polymorphism, and both allozyme classes correspond to two haplogroups with multiple internal haplotypes. The locus shows several footprints of balancing selection around the fast/slow site: an enrichment of positive Tajima's D for nonsynonymous mutations, an excess of polymorphism, and a spike in the levels of silent polymorphism relative to silent divergence, as well as a site frequency spectrum enriched for midfrequency mutations. We observe other departures from neutrality across the locus in both coding and noncoding regions. These include a nonsynonymous trans-species polymorphism and a recent mutation under selection within the fast haplogroup. The latter suggests ongoing allelic replacement of functionally relevant amino acid variants. Moreover, predicted models of Mpi protein structure provide insight into the functional significance of the putatively selected amino acid polymorphisms. While footprints of selection are widespread across the range of S. balanoides, our data show that intertidal zonation patterns are variable across both spatial and temporal scales. These data provide further evidence for heterogeneous selection on Mpi.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698846

RESUMO

Inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) is a transmembrane dual kinase/ribonuclease protein involved in propagation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Inositol-requiring enzyme 1α is currently being explored as a potential drug target due to the growing evidence of its role in variety of disease conditions. Upon activation, IRE1 cleaves X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA through its RNase domain. Small molecules targeting the kinase site are known to either increase or decrease RNase activity, but the allosteric relationship between the kinase and RNase domains of IRE1α is poorly understood. Subsets of IRE1 kinase inhibitors (known as "KIRA" compounds) bind to the ATP-binding site and allosterically impede the RNase activity. The KIRA compounds are able to regulate the RNase activity by stabilizing the monomeric form of IRE1α. In the present work, computational analysis, protein-protein and protein-ligand docking studies, and molecular dynamics simulations were applied to different IRE1 dimer systems to provide structural insights into the perturbation of IRE1 dimers by small molecules kinase inhibitors that regulate the RNase activity. By analyzing structural deviations, energetic components, and the number of hydrogen bonds in the interface region, we propose that the KIRA inhibitors act at an early stage of IRE1 activation by interfering with IRE1 face-to-face dimer formation thus disabling the activation of the RNase domain. This work sheds light on the mechanism of action of KIRA compounds and may assist in development of further compounds in, for example, cancer therapeutics. The work also provides information on the sequence of events and protein-protein interactions initiating the unfolded protein response.

4.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(6)2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040128

RESUMO

Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) is a dimeric protein disulfide isomerase family member involved in the regulation of protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Mouse AGR2 deletion increases intestinal inflammation and promotes the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although these biological effects are well established, the underlying molecular mechanisms of AGR2 function toward inflammation remain poorly defined. Here, using a protein-protein interaction screen to identify cellular regulators of AGR2 dimerization, we unveiled specific enhancers, including TMED2, and inhibitors of AGR2 dimerization, that control AGR2 functions. We demonstrate that modulation of AGR2 dimer formation, whether enhancing or inhibiting the process, yields pro-inflammatory phenotypes, through either autophagy-dependent processes or secretion of AGR2, respectively. We also demonstrate that in IBD and specifically in Crohn's disease, the levels of AGR2 dimerization modulators are selectively deregulated, and this correlates with severity of disease. Our study demonstrates that AGR2 dimers act as sensors of ER homeostasis which are disrupted upon ER stress and promote the secretion of AGR2 monomers. The latter might represent systemic alarm signals for pro-inflammatory responses.

5.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(4): 300, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931942

RESUMO

IRE1, PERK, and ATF6 are the three transducers of the mammalian canonical unfolded protein response (UPR). GSK2606414 is a potent inhibitor of PERK, while KIRA6 inhibits the kinase activity of IRE1. Both molecules are frequently used to probe the biological roles of the UPR in mammalian cells. In a direct binding assay, GSK2606414 bound to the cytoplasmic domain of KIT with dissociation constants (Kd) value of 664 ± 294 nM whereas KIRA6 showed a Kd value of 10.8 ± 2.9 µM. In silico docking studies confirmed a compact interaction of GSK2606414 and KIRA6 with KIT ATP binding pocket. In cultured cells, GSK2606414 inhibited KIT tyrosine kinase activity at nanomolar concentrations and in a PERK-independent manner. Moreover, in contrast to other KIT inhibitors, GSK2606414 enhanced KIT endocytosis and its lysosomal degradation. Although KIRA6 also inhibited KIT at nanomolar concentrations, it did not prompt KIT degradation, and rescued KIT from GSK2606414-mediated degradation. Consistent with KIT inhibition, nanomolar concentrations of GSK2606414 and KIRA6 were sufficient to induce cell death in a KIT signaling-dependent mast cell leukemia cell line. Our data show for the first time that KIT is a shared target for two seemingly unrelated UPR inhibitors at concentrations that overlap with PERK and IRE1 inhibition. Furthermore, these data underscore discrepancies between in vitro binding measurements of kinase inhibitors and inhibition of the tyrosine kinase receptors in living cells.

6.
FEBS Open Bio ; 9(7): 1194-1203, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033240

RESUMO

The expense and time required for in vivo reproductive and developmental toxicity studies have driven the development of in vitro alternatives. Here, we used a new in vitro split luciferase-based assay to screen a library of 177 toxicants for inhibitors of apoptosome formation. The apoptosome contains seven Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor-1 (Apaf-1) molecules and induces cell death by activating caspase-9. Apaf-1-dependent caspase activation also plays an important role in CNS development and spermatogenesis. In the in vitro assay, Apaf-1 fused to an N-terminal fragment of luciferase binds to Apaf-1 fused to a C-terminal fragment of luciferase and reconstitutes luciferase activity. Our assay indicated that pentachlorophenol (PCP) inhibits apoptosome formation, and further investigation revealed that PCP binds to cytochrome c. PCP is a wood preservative that reduces male fertility by ill-defined mechanisms. Although the data show that PCP inhibited apoptosome formation, the concentration required suggests that other mechanisms may be more important for PCP's effects on spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, the data demonstrate the utility of the new assay in identifying apoptosome inhibitors, and we suggest that the assay may be useful in screening for reproductive and developmental toxicants.


Assuntos
Apoptossomas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pentaclorofenol/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptossomas/metabolismo , Fator Apoptótico 1 Ativador de Proteases/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Luciferases/metabolismo , Pentaclorofenol/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3407, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833722

RESUMO

IRE1 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bound transmembrane bifunctional kinase and endoribonuclease protein crucial for the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway. Upon ER stress, IRE1 homodimerizes, oligomerizes and autophosphorylates resulting in endoribonuclease activity responsible for excision of a 26 nucleotide intron from the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA. This unique splicing mechanism results in activation of the XBP1s transcription factor to specifically restore ER stress. Small molecules targeting the reactive lysine residue (Lys907) in IRE1α's RNase domain have been shown to inhibit the cleavage of XBP1 mRNA. Crystal structures of murine IRE1 in complex with covalently bound hydroxyl aryl aldehyde (HAA) inhibitors show that these molecules form hydrophobic interactions with His910 and Phe889, a hydrogen bond with Tyr892 and an indispensable Schiff-base with Lys907. The availability of such data prompted interest in exploring structure-based drug design as a strategy to develop new covalently binding ligands. We extensively evaluated conventional and covalent docking for drug discovery targeting the catalytic site of the RNase domain. The results indicate that neither computational approach is fully successful in the current case, and we highlight herein the potential and limitations of the methods for the design of novel IRE1 RNase binders.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 818, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692548

RESUMO

UVR8 (UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8) is a UV-B photoreceptor responsible for initiating UV-B signalling in plants. UVR8 is a homodimer in its signalling inactive form. Upon absorption of UV radiation, the protein monomerizes into its photoactivated state. In the monomeric form, UVR8 binds the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 (CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1), triggering subsequent UV-B-dependent photomorphogenic development in plants. Recent in vivo experiments have shown that the UVR8 C-terminal region (aa 397-423; UVR8C27) alone is sufficient to regulate the activity of COP1. In this work, CD spectroscopy and NMR experiments showed that the UVR8C27 domain was non-structured but gained secondary structure at higher temperatures leading to increased order. Bias-exchange metadynamics simulations were also performed to evaluate the free energy landscape of UVR8C27. An inverted free energy landscape was revealed, with a disordered structure in the global energy minimum. Flanking the global energy minimum, more structured states were found at higher energies. Furthermore, stabilization of the low energy disordered state was attributed to a proline residue, P411, as evident from P411A mutant data. P411 is also a key residue in UVR8 binding to COP1. UVR8C27 is therefore structurally competent to function as a molecular switch for interaction of UVR8 with different binding partners since at higher free energies different structural conformations are being induced in this peptide. P411 has a key role for this function.

9.
FEBS J ; 286(2): 241-278, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027602

RESUMO

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a membranous intracellular organelle and the first compartment of the secretory pathway. As such, the ER contributes to the production and folding of approximately one-third of cellular proteins, and is thus inextricably linked to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and the fine balance between health and disease. Specific ER stress signalling pathways, collectively known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), are required for maintaining ER homeostasis. The UPR is triggered when ER protein folding capacity is overwhelmed by cellular demand and the UPR initially aims to restore ER homeostasis and normal cellular functions. However, if this fails, then the UPR triggers cell death. In this review, we provide a UPR signalling-centric view of ER functions, from the ER's discovery to the latest advancements in the understanding of ER and UPR biology. Our review provides a synthesis of intracellular ER signalling revolving around proteostasis and the UPR, its impact on other organelles and cellular behaviour, its multifaceted and dynamic response to stress and its role in physiology, before finally exploring the potential exploitation of this knowledge to tackle unresolved biological questions and address unmet biomedical needs. Thus, we provide an integrated and global view of existing literature on ER signalling pathways and their use for therapeutic purposes.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Retículo Endoplasmático/patologia , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Animais , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
10.
ACS Omega ; 3(10): 13313-13322, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411035

RESUMO

Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) is an orchestrator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), the cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that plays a crucial role in tumor development. IRE1 signaling is the most evolutionary conserved branch of the UPR. Under ER stress, the IRE1 luminal domain undergoes a conformational change to multimerize, resulting in trans-autophosphorylation and activation of the cytosolic kinase and endoribonuclease domain. Adenosine triphosphate-competitive inhibitors that bind to the IRE1 kinase site can modulate the activity of the RNase domain through an allosteric relationship between the IRE1 kinase and RNase domains. The current study aims at the investigation of available structural data of the IRE1 kinase domain and provides insights into the design of novel kinase inhibitors. To this end, a detailed analysis of IRE1 kinase active site and investigation of suitable structures for virtual screening studies were performed. The results indicate in silico target fishing as an appropriate strategy for the identification of novel IRE1 kinase binders, further validating the robustness of the in silico protocol. Importantly, the study highlights the kinase-inhibiting RNase attenuator (KIRA)-bound protein data bank 4U6R structure as the best protein structure to perform virtual screening to develop diverse and more potent KIRA-like IRE1 kinase inhibitors that are capable of allosterically affecting the RNase activity.

11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1824: 229-243, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039410

RESUMO

Nowadays it is widely accepted that one compound can be able to hit several targets at once. This "magic shotgun" approach for drug development properly describes the mechanism of biomolecular recognition. The need to take into account the polypharmacology in structure-based drug design has led to the development of several computational tools. Here we present a computational protocol to identify promising compounds against several biological targets, a protocol known as inverse docking.


Assuntos
Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Polifarmacologia
12.
J Chem Inf Model ; 58(7): 1406-1414, 2018 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927239

RESUMO

Eukaryotic diphthine synthase, Dph5, is a promiscuous methyltransferase that catalyzes an extraordinary N, O-tetramethylation of 2-(3-carboxy-3-aminopropyl)-l-histidine (ACP) to yield diphthine methyl ester (DTM). These are intermediates in the biosynthesis of the post-translationally modified histidine residue diphthamide (DTA), a unique and essential residue part of the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). Herein, the promiscuity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dph5 has been studied with in silico approaches, including homology modeling to provide the structure of Dph5, protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics to construct the Dph5-eEF2 complex, and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to outline a plausible mechanism. The calculations show that the methylation of ACP follows a typical SN2 mechanism, initiating with a complete methylation (trimethylation) at the N-position, followed by the single O-methylation. For each of the three N-methylation reactions, our calculations support a stepwise mechanism, which first involve proton transfer through a bridging water to a conserved aspartate residue D165, followed by a methyl transfer. Once fully methylated, the trimethyl amino group forms a weak electrostatic interaction with D165, which allows the carboxylate group of diphthine to attain the right orientation for the final methylation step to be accomplished.


Assuntos
Histidina/análogos & derivados , Metiltransferases/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Ácido Aspártico/química , Vias Biossintéticas , Simulação por Computador , Histidina/química , Metilação , Fator 2 de Elongação de Peptídeos/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Eletricidade Estática
13.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0193503, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474495

RESUMO

The biobased production of adipic acid, a precursor in the production of nylon, is of great interest in order to replace the current petrochemical production route. Glucose-rich lignocellulosic raw materials have high potential to replace the petrochemical raw material. A number of metabolic pathways have been proposed for the microbial conversion of glucose to adipic acid, but achieved yields and titers remain to be improved before industrial applications are feasible. One proposed pathway starts with lysine, an essential metabolite industrially produced from glucose by microorganisms. However, the drawback of this pathway is that several reactions are involved where there is no known efficient enzyme. By changing the order of the enzymatic reactions, we were able to identify an alternative pathway with one unknown enzyme less compared to the original pathway. One of the reactions lacking known enzymes is the reduction of the unsaturated α,ß bond of 6-amino-trans-2-hexenoic acid and trans-2-hexenedioic acid. To identify the necessary enzymes, we selected N-ethylmaleimide reductase from Escherichia coli and Old Yellow Enzyme 1 from Saccharomyces pastorianus. Despite successful in silico docking studies, where both target substrates could fit in the enzyme pockets, and hydrogen bonds with catalytic residues of both enzymes were predicted, no in vitro activity was observed. We hypothesize that the lack of activity is due to a difference in electron withdrawing potential between the naturally reduced aldehyde and the carboxylate groups of our target substrates. Suggestions for protein engineering to induce the reactions are discussed, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the two metabolic pathways from lysine. We have highlighted bottlenecks associated with the lysine pathways, and proposed ways of addressing them.


Assuntos
Adipatos/metabolismo , Alcenos/metabolismo , Aminocaproatos/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , NADPH Desidrogenase/química , NADPH Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/química , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia
14.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(1): 431-438, 2018 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206039

RESUMO

Oxidative damage to RNA has been linked to change or loss of RNA function and development of many human age-related diseases. However, knowledge on the nature of RNA oxidative damage is relatively limited. In this study, oxidative damage to RNA is investigated under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by exploring the properties and reactions of 5-hydroxyl-2'-uridin-6-yl and its peroxyl diastereoisomers in the RNA strand, respectively. Selective addition of OH to the nucleic base from the 5'-end is studied at the molecular level for the first time, explaining the large number of the 5S-isomer available for further reactions. Our results provide clear evidence that the efficiency of C2'-H2' bond activation in the peroxyl isomers is lower than in the carbon radical species. An exception is observed for the isomer cis-(5S,6R)-A1, whose internucleotidyl H2'-abstraction barrier is far smaller than that in the corresponding C6-yl radical. However, analysis of the equilibrium species distribution reveals that the amount of cis-(5S,6R)-A1 is very small among the peroxyl diastereoisomers, and hence the resulting products from direct strand scission should be a less important component in RNA oxidative damage. The species with maximum distribution is the cis-(5S,6R)-B1 isomer, which is derived from cis-(5S,6R)-A1 and has a moderate intranucleotidyl H2'-abstraction barrier. More importantly, the reaction is mildly exothermic. These results show that the main fraction of the intranucleotidyl H2'-abstraction intermediates can be formed from the cis-(5S,6R)-B1 isomer. The absolute reduction potentials, the hydrogen atom binding energies, and the key structural parameters of the C6-peroxyl species are used to understand the diverse reactivity of the cis-(5S,6R) diastereoisomers toward the C2'-H2' bonds activation. The present study shows that in addition to the selectivity of the OH radical addition, there is a strong correlation between the conformation of the modified uracil base and its reactivity in RNA oxidative damage.


Assuntos
RNA/química , Aerobiose , Oxirredução , Teoria Quântica
15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 8885, 2017 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827702

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal 2-arylproprionic acids are widely used, over-the-counter, anti-inflammatory drugs. Photosensitivity is a commonly overlooked adverse effect of these drugs. Based on the combined use of cell viability assays and molecular modeling, we prove and rationalize the photochemical pathways triggering photosensitization for two drugs, ibuprofen and ketoprofen. As its parent compound benzophenone, ketoprofen produces singlet oxygen, upon triplet manifold population. However, ibuprofen and ketoprofen photodissociate and hence may generate two highly reactive radicals. The formation of metastable aggregates between the two drugs and B-DNA is also directly probed by molecular dynamics. Our approach characterizes the coupled influence of the drug's intrinsic photochemistry and the interaction pattern with DNA. The photosensitization activity of nonsteroidal 2-arylproprionic acids, being added to gels and creams for topical use, should be crucially analyzed and rationalized to enact the proper preventive measures.


Assuntos
Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos da radiação , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Cetoprofeno/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/química , Cetoprofeno/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
16.
Proteins ; 85(11): 1983-1993, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28707320

RESUMO

RtcB is an essential human tRNA ligase required for ligating the 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-hydroxyl termini of cleaved tRNA halves during tRNA splicing and XBP1 fragments during endoplasmic reticulum stress. Activation of XBP1 has been implicated in various human tumors including breast cancer. Here we present, for the first time, a homology model of human RtcB (hRtcB) in complex with manganese and covalently bound GMP built from the Pyrococcus horikoshii RtcB (bRtcB) crystal structure, PDB ID 4DWQA. The structure is analyzed in terms of stereochemical quality, folding reliability, secondary structure similarity with bRtcB, druggability of the active site binding pocket and its metal-binding microenvironment. In comparison with bRtcB, loss of a manganese-coordinating water and movement of Asn226 (Asn202 in 4DWQA) to form metal-ligand coordination, demonstrates the uniqueness of the hRtcB model. Rotation of GMP leads to the formation of an additional metal-ligand coordination (Mn-O). Umbrella sampling simulations of Mn binding in wild type and the catalytically inactive C122A mutant reveal a clear reduction of Mn binding ability in the mutant, thus explaining the loss of activity therein. Our results furthermore clearly show that the GTP binding site of the enzyme is a well-defined pocket that can be utilized as target site for in silico drug discovery.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , RNA Ligase (ATP)/química , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Domínio Catalítico , Humanos , Manganês/química , Manganês/metabolismo , RNA Ligase (ATP)/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181192, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715506

RESUMO

Barnacles are sessile macro-invertebrates, found along rocky shores in coastal areas worldwide. The euryhaline bay barnacle Balanus improvisus (Darwin, 1854) (= Amphibalanus improvisus) can tolerate a wide range of salinities, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the osmoregulatory capacity of this truly brackish species are not well understood. Aquaporins are pore-forming integral membrane proteins that facilitate transport of water, small solutes and ions through cellular membranes, and that have been shown to be important for osmoregulation in many organisms. The knowledge of the function of aquaporins in crustaceans is, however, limited and nothing is known about them in barnacles. We here present the repertoire of aquaporins from a thecostracan crustacean, the barnacle B. improvisus, based on genome and transcriptome sequencing. Our analyses reveal that B. improvisus contains eight genes for aquaporins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they represented members of the classical water aquaporins (Aqp1, Aqp2), the aquaglyceroporins (Glp1, Glp2), the unorthodox aquaporin (Aqp12) and the arthropod-specific big brain aquaporin (Bib). Interestingly, we also found two big brain-like proteins (BibL1 and BibL2) constituting a new group of aquaporins not yet described in arthropods. In addition, we found that the two water-specific aquaporins were expressed as C-terminal splice variants. Heterologous expression of some of the aquaporins followed by functional characterization showed that Aqp1 transported water and Glp2 water and glycerol, agreeing with the predictions of substrate specificity based on 3D modeling and phylogeny. To investigate a possible role for the B. improvisus aquaporins in osmoregulation, mRNA expression changes in adult barnacles were analysed after long-term acclimation to different salinities. The most pronounced expression difference was seen for AQP1 with a substantial (>100-fold) decrease in the mantle tissue in low salinity (3 PSU) compared to high salinity (33 PSU). Our study provides a base for future mechanistic studies on the role of aquaporins in osmoregulation.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Osmorregulação/fisiologia , Salinidade , Thoracica/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Aquaporinas/genética , Éxons , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Glicerol/metabolismo , Íntrons , Modelos Moleculares , Osmorregulação/genética , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Thoracica/genética , Thoracica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma , Água/metabolismo
18.
Microb Cell ; 5(1): 42-55, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29354649

RESUMO

Microbial cell factories with the ability to maintain high productivity in the presence of weak organic acids, such as acetic acid, are required in many industrial processes. For example, fermentation media derived from lignocellulosic biomass are rich in acetic acid and other weak acids. The rate of diffusional entry of acetic acid is one parameter determining the ability of microorganisms to tolerance the acid. The present study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae is strongly affected by the alcohols ethanol and n-butanol. Ethanol of 40 g/L and n-butanol of 8 g/L both caused a 65% increase in the rate of acetic acid diffusion, and higher alcohol concentrations caused even greater increases. Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane dynamics in the presence of alcohols demonstrated that the partitioning of alcohols to the head group region of the lipid bilayer causes a considerable increase in the membrane area, together with reduced membrane thickness and lipid order. These changes in physiochemical membrane properties lead to an increased number of water molecules in the membrane interior, providing biophysical mechanisms for the alcohol-induced increase in acetic acid diffusion rate. n-butanol affected S. cerevisiae and the cell membrane properties at lower concentrations than ethanol, due to greater and deeper partitioning in the membrane. This study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion can be strongly affected by compounds that partition into the cell membrane, and highlights the need for considering interaction effects between compounds in the design of microbial processes.

19.
ACS Omega ; 2(4): 1710-1719, 2017 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30023642

RESUMO

Bacterial adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribosylating toxins are encoded by several human pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (exotoxin A (ETA)), Corynebacterium diphtheriae (diphtheria toxin (DT)), and Vibrio cholerae (cholix toxin (CT)). The toxins modify eukaryotic elongation factor 2, an essential human enzyme in protein synthesis, thereby causing cell death. Targeting external virulence factors, such as the above toxins, is a promising alternative for developing new antibiotics, while at the same time avoiding drug resistance. This study aims to establish a reliable computational methodology to find a "silver bullet" able to target all three toxins. Herein, we have undertaken a detailed analysis of the active sites of ETA, DT, and CT, followed by the determination of the most appropriate selection of the size of the docking sphere. Thereafter, we tested two different approaches for normalizing the docking scores and used these to verify the best target (toxin) for each ligand. The results indicate that the methodology is suitable for identifying selective as well as multitoxin inhibitors, further validating the robustness of inverse docking for target-fishing experiments.

20.
ACS Omega ; 2(5): 1836-1849, 2017 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30023646

RESUMO

Eg5 is a mitotic kinesin protein that plays an important role in the formation and maintenance of the bipolar spindle during the mitotic phase. Due to its potentially reduced side effects in cancer therapy, Eg5 is considered to be an attractive target for developing anticancer inhibitors. Herein, we report a computational modeling study involving biphenyl-type inhibitors known to interact with the α4/α6 allosteric pocket of Eg5. Compared to the well-known α2/L5/α3 allosteric inhibitors, biphenyl-type inhibitors show a unique activity profile. In the Eg5-PVZB1194 (a biphenyl-type inhibitor) crystal structure, loop L11, which is located in the entrance of the α4/α6 allosteric-binding pocket, is missing due to crystal-packing effects. To better understand the role of this flexible loop upon biphenyl-type inhibitor-binding, MD simulations were performed to observe the L11 conformations from different states. It was demonstrated that L11 was more stabilized and showed less fluctuation when PVZB1194 was bound to Eg5. Residue Asn287 from L11 forms hydrogen bonding to the sulfone group of PVZB1194, whereby L11 moves inward to the α4/α6 allosteric pocket and moves away from the pocket in absence of the inhibitor. Pharmacophore, three-dimensional (3D)-QSAR, and ADME studies of biphenyl-type inhibitors of Eg5 were also performed. A best pharmacophore model, DDRRH.6, was generated, having correlation coefficients in the 3D-QSAR study of R2 = 0.81 and Q2 = 0.64. Furthermore, docking studies were carried out to observe the interaction between the remaining biphenyl-type inhibitors with Eg5. In addition, on the basis of fragment docking, a structure-based pharmacophore was generated, which shares good overlap of the DHRR features of the pharmacophore model DDHRR.6. The structure-based pharmacophore also contains extra hydrogen-bond acceptors and hydrophobic groups, features which provide possibilities in developing new or improved series of compounds.

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