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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a rare large-vessel arteritis that primarily affects the aorta and its major branches. The aim of this study was to describe the value of high frequency ultrasound for monitoring of inflammatory activity. METHODS: Twenty-five patients, range 11-71 years, diagnosed with TA were investigated with duplex ultrasound (DUS) including follow-up studies. Twenty-five healthy controls were also investigated. Nine patients had newly diagnosed active TA. Sixteen patients had stable/inactive disease at baseline DUS, and TA was diagnosed median 4·5 years previously. Intima-media thickness (IMT), vessel and lumen diameter were measured in the carotid arteries, central neck arteries and the aortic arch. The vessel walls were studied qualitatively. The Takayasu ultrasound index was created for inflammatory activity scoring. RESULTS: Intima-media thickness in common carotid artery (CCA) was (median and 25-75 percentile parenthetic) 2·3 mm (1·7-2·9) in clinically active TA, 1·2 mm (1·1-1·6) in clinically stable TA (P<0·001) and 0·5 mm (0·5-0·6) in healthy controls (P<0·001). Clinically active TA had prominent increase in IMT and/or increased vessel diameter, and/or intramural arteries, and/or hypoechogenic areas interpreted as oedema in the vessel wall. TA in clinical remission was characterized by increased IMT with medium to high echogenicity with or without fibrotic stripes. The Takayasu ultrasound index was higher in patients with active disease versus treated disease, 2·55 (1·60-3·05) versus 1·30 (1·00-1·58), (P = 0·003). CONCLUSION: DUS is an excellent tool to monitor inflammatory changes in the vessel wall in TA. Further DUS studies in larger patient populations are warranted.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Considering growing evidence of mucosal involvement in RA induction, this study investigated circulating free secretory component (SC) in patients with either recent-onset RA or with ACPA and musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: Two prospective cohorts were studied: TIRA-2 comprising 452 recent-onset RA patients with 3 years of clinical and radiological follow-up, and TIRx patients (n = 104) with ACPA IgG and musculoskeletal pain followed for 290 weeks (median). Blood donors and three different chronic inflammatory diseases served as controls. Free SC was analysed by sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: Serum levels of free SC were significantly higher in TIRA-2 patients compared with TIRx and all control groups (P < 0.01). Among TIRx patients who subsequently developed arthritis, free SC levels were higher compared with all control groups (P < 0.05) except ankylosing spondylitis (P = 0.74). In TIRA-2, patients with ACPA had higher baseline levels of free SC compared with ACPA negative patients (P < 0.001). Free SC status at baseline did not predict radiographic joint damage or disease activity over time. In TIRx, elevated free SC at baseline trendwise associated with arthritis development during follow-up (P = 0.066) but this disappeared when adjusting for confounders (P = 0.72). Cigarette smoking was associated with higher levels of free SC in both cohorts. CONCLUSION: Serum free SC levels are increased in recent-onset RA compared with other inflammatory diseases, and associate with ACPA and smoking. Free SC is elevated before arthritis development among ACPA positive patients with musculoskeletal pain, but does not predict arthritis development. These findings support mucosal engagement in RA development.

4.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 137: 1-8, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533023

RESUMO

AIMS: The microsomal triglyceride transport protein (MTTP) is critical for assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and is most abundant in the liver and intestine. Surprisingly, MTTP is also expressed in the heart. Here we tested the functional relevance of cardiac MTTP expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We combined clinical studies, advanced expression analysis of human heart biopsies and analyses in genetically modified mice lacking cardiac expression of the MTTP-A isoform of MTTP. RESULTS: Our results indicate that lower cardiac MTTP expression in humans is associated with structural and perfusion abnormalities in patients with ischemic heart disease. MTTP-A deficiency in mice heart does not affect total MTTP expression, activity or lipid concentration in the heart. Despite this, MTTP-A deficient mice displayed impaired cardiac function after a myocardial infarction. Expression analysis of MTTP indicates that MTTP expression is linked to cardiac function and responses in the heart. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that MTTP may play an important role for the heart function in conjunction to ischemic events.

5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(11): 1808-1814, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factor V (FV) is a circulating protein primarily synthesized in the liver, and mainly present in plasma. It is a major component of the coagulation process. OBJECTIVE: To detect novel genetic loci participating to the regulation of FV plasma levels. METHODS: We conducted the first Genome Wide Association Study on FV plasma levels in a sample of 510 individuals and replicated the main findings in an independent sample of 1156 individuals. RESULTS: In addition to genetic variations at the F5 locus, we identified novel associations at the PLXDC2 locus, with the lead PLXDC2 rs927826 polymorphism explaining ~3.7% (P = 7.5 × 10-15 in the combined discovery and replication samples) of the variability of FV plasma levels. In silico transcriptomic analyses in various cell types confirmed that PLXDC2 expression is positively correlated to F5 expression. SiRNA experiments in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line confirmed the role of PLXDC2 in modulating factor F5 gene expression, and revealed further influences on F2 and F10 expressions. CONCLUSION: Our study identified PLXDC2 as a new molecular player of the coagulation process.

6.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Age is a risk factor for organ damage, adverse events, and mortality in microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). However, the relationship between treatment and damage, hospitalizations, and causes of death in elderly patients is largely unknown. METHODS: Consecutive patients from Sweden, England, and the Czech Republic diagnosed between 1997 and 2013 were included. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of MPA or GPA and age 75 years or more at diagnosis. Treatment with cyclophosphamide, rituximab, and corticosteroids the first three months was registered. Outcomes up to two years from diagnosis included vasculitis damage index (VDI), hospitalization, and cause of death. RESULTS: Treatment data was available for 167 of 202 patients. At two years, 4% had no items of damage. There was a positive association between VDI score at two years and Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score at onset, and a negative association with treatment using cyclophosphamide or rituximab. Intravenous methylprednisolone dose was associated with treatment-related damage. During the first year, 69% of patients were readmitted to hospital. MPO-ANCA positivity and lower creatinine levels decreased the odds for readmission. The most common cause of death was infection, and this was associated with cumulative oral prednisolone dose. CONCLUSION: Immunosuppressive treatment with cyclophosphamide or rituximab in elderly patients with MPA and GPA was associated with development of less permanent organ damage and was not associated with hospitalization. However, higher doses of corticosteroids during the first three months was associated with treatment-related damage and fatal infections.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217765, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of the 108 Schizophrenia (SZ) risk-loci discovered through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), 96 are not altering the sequence of any protein. Evidence linking non-coding risk-SNPs and genes may be established using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). However, other approaches such allelic expression quantitative trait loci (aeQTL) also may be of use. METHODS: We applied both the eQTL and aeQTL analysis to a biobank of deeply sequenced RNA from 680 dorso-lateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC) samples. For each of 340 genes proximal to the SZ risk-SNPs, we asked how much SNP-genotype affected total expression (eQTL), as well as how much the expression ratio between the two alleles differed from 1:1 as a consequence of the risk-SNP genotype (aeQTL). RESULTS: We analyzed overlap with comparable eQTL-findings: 16 of the 30 risk-SNPs known to have gene-level eQTL also had gene-level aeQTL effects. 6 of 21 risk-SNPs with known splice-eQTL had exon-aeQTL effects. 12 novel potential risk genes were identified with the aeQTL approach, while 55 tested SNP-pairs were found as eQTL but not aeQTL. Of the tested 108 loci we could find at least one gene to be associated with 21 of the risk-SNPs using gene-level aeQTL, and with an additional 18 risk-SNPs using exon-level aeQTL. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the aeQTL strategy complements the eQTL approach to susceptibility gene identification.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 40(30): 2495-2503, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081038

RESUMO

AIMS: Radiotherapy-induced cardiovascular disease is an emerging problem in a growing population of cancer survivors where traditional treatments, such as anti-platelet and lipid-lowering drugs, have limited benefits. The aim of the study was to investigate vascular inflammatory patterns in human cancer survivors, replicate the findings in an animal model, and evaluate whether interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibition could be a potential treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Irradiated human arterial biopsies were collected during microvascular autologous free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction and compared with non-irradiated arteries from the same patient. A mouse model was used to study the effects of the IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, on localized radiation-induced vascular inflammation. We observed significant induction of genes associated with inflammasome biology in whole transcriptome analysis of irradiated arteries, a finding supported by elevated protein levels in irradiated arteries of both, pro-caspase and caspase-1. mRNA levels of inflammasome associated chemokines CCL2, CCL5 together with the adhesion molecule VCAM1, were elevated in human irradiated arteries as was the number of infiltrating macrophages. A similar pattern was reproduced in Apoe-/- mouse 10 weeks after localized chest irradiation with 14 Gy. Treatment with anakinra in irradiated mice significantly reduced Ccl2 and Ccl5 mRNA levels and expression of I-Ab. CONCLUSION: Anakinra, administered directly after radiation exposure for 2 weeks, ameliorated radiation induced sustained expression of inflammatory mediators in mice. Further studies are needed to evaluate IL-1 blockade as a treatment of radiotherapy-induced vascular disease in a clinical setting.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934548

RESUMO

Autophagy serves as a cell survival mechanism which becomes dysregulated under pathological conditions and aging. Aortic valve thickening and calcification causing left ventricular outflow obstruction is known as calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). CAVS is a chronic and progressive disease which increases in incidence and severity with age. Currently, no medical treatment exists for CAVS, and the role of autophagy in the disease remains largely unexplored. To further understand the role of autophagy in the progression of CAVS, we analyzed expression of key autophagy genes in healthy, thickened, and calcified valve tissue from 55 patients, and compared them with nine patients without significant CAVS, undergoing surgery for aortic regurgitation (AR). This revealed a upregulation in autophagy exclusively in the calcified tissue of CAVS patients. This difference in autophagy between CAVS and AR was explored by LC3 lipidation in valvular interstitial cells (VICs), revealing an upregulation in autophagic flux in CAVS patients. Inhibition of autophagy by bafilomycin-A1 led to a decrease in VIC survival. Finally, treatment of VICs with high phosphate led to an increase in autophagic activity. In conclusion, our data suggests that autophagy is upregulated in the calcified tissue of CAVS, serving as a compensatory and pro-survival mechanism.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Autofagia , Calcinose/patologia , Regulação para Cima , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo
10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1033-1043, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820038

RESUMO

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart defect (CHD), affecting 1-2% of the population. BAV is associated with thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs). Deleterious copy number variations (CNVs) were found previously in up to 10% of CHD cases. This study aimed at unravelling the contribution of deleterious deletions or duplications in 95 unrelated BAV/TAA patients. Seven unique or rare CNVs were validated, harbouring protein-coding genes with a role in the cardiovascular system. Based on the presence of overlapping CNVs in patients with cardiovascular phenotypes in the DECIPHER database, the identification of similar CNVs in whole-exome sequencing data of 67 BAV/TAA patients and suggested topological domain involvement from Hi-C data, supportive evidence was obtained for two genes (DGCR6 and TBX20) of the seven initially validated CNVs. A rare variant burden analysis using next-generation sequencing data from 637 BAV/TAA patients was performed for these two candidate genes. This revealed a suggestive genetic role for TBX20 in BAV/TAA aetiology, further reinforced by segregation of a rare TBX20 variant with the phenotype within a BAV/TAA family. To conclude, our results do not confirm a significant contribution for deleterious CNVs in BAV/TAA as only one potentially pathogenic CNV (1.05%) was identified. We cannot exclude the possibility that BAV/TAA is occasionally attributed to causal CNVs though, or that certain CNVs act as genetic risk factors by creating a sensitised background for BAV/TAA. Finally, accumulative evidence for TBX20 involvement in BAV/TAA aetiology underlines the importance of this transcription factor in cardiovascular disease.

11.
Vet Microbiol ; 230: 123-129, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827377

RESUMO

Immunosuppressive viral diseases have a great economic importance in the poultry industry due to the increased susceptibility to secondary infections. Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) is one of the major immunosuppressive diseases in chickens. In addition, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) of subtype H9N2 and infectious bronchitis (IB) viruses are among the most frequently reported respiratory viral diseases in poultry worldwide. In the present study, specific pathogen free chickens were used to understand the impact of CAV on secondary infection with LPAI-H9N2 or IB viruses. Clinical outcomes, viral shedding dynamics, and cytokine levels wereassessed. The results exhibit that chickens previously infected with CAV produceconsiderablyhigher titresof LPAI-H9N2 or IB viruses in the oropharyngeal swabs (P < 0.05), tracheas and kidneys. In addition, the immunologic effect of CAV provokedthe development of clinical signs of LPAI-H9N2 and IB virus infections. Moreover, results suggested that pre-infection with CAV directly correlated with elevated levels of IL-6 and IFNγ. These findings underline the importance of CAV pre-infection on LPAI-H9N2 or IB infection in chickens, and indicate that co-circulation of CAV can contribute to the spread and evolution of LPAI H9N2 and IB viruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Vírus da Anemia da Galinha/imunologia , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
12.
J Med Virol ; 91(5): 724-730, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609070

RESUMO

Seoul virus (SEOV) is the etiologic agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. It is carried by brown rats (Rattus norvegicus), a commensal rodent that closely cohabitates with humans in urban environments. SEOV has a worldwide distribution, and in Europe, it has been found in rats in UK, France, Sweden, and Belgium, and human cases of SEOV infection have been reported in Germany, UK, France, and Belgium. In the search of hantaviruses in brown rats from the Netherlands, we found both serological and genetic evidence for the presence of SEOV in the local wild rat population. To further decipher the relationship with other SEOV variants globally, the complete genome of SEOV in the Netherlands was recovered. SEOV sequences obtained from three positive rats (captured at close trapping locations at the same time) were found highly similar. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that two lineages of SEOV circulate in Europe. Strains from the Netherlands and UK, together with the Baxter strain from US, constitute one of these two, while the second includes strains from Europe and Asia. Our results support a hypothesis of diverse routes of SEOV spread into Europe. These findings, combined with other indications on the expansion of the spatial European range of SEOV, suggest an increased risk of this virus for the public health, highlighting the need for increased surveillance.

13.
Biotechnol Prog ; 35(3): e2775, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629859

RESUMO

High capacity magnetic protein A agarose beads, LOABeads PrtA, were used in the development of a new process for affinity purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from non-clarified CHO cell broth using a pilot-scale magnetic separator. The LOABeads had a maximum binding capacity of 65 mg/mL and an adsorption capacity of 25-42 mg IgG/mL bead in suspension for an IgG concentration of 1 to 8 g/L. Pilot-scale separation was initially tested in a mAb capture step from 26 L clarified harvest. Small-scale experiments showed that similar mAb adsorptions were obtained in cell broth containing 40 × 106 cells/mL as in clarified supernatant. Two pilot-scale purification runs were then performed on non-clarified cell broth from fed-batch runs of 16 L, where a rapid mAb adsorption ≥96.6% was observed after 1 h. This process using 1 L of magnetic beads had an overall mAb yield of 86% and 16 times concentration factor. After this single protein A capture step, the mAb purity was similar to the one obtained by column chromatography, while the host cell protein content was very low, <10 ppm. Our results showed that this magnetic bead mAb purification process, using a dedicated pilot-scale separation device, was a highly efficient single step, which directly connected the culture to the downstream process without cell clarification. Purification of mAb directly from non-clarified cell broth without cell separation can provide significant savings in terms of resources, operation time, and equipment, compared to legacy procedure of cell separation followed by column chromatography step. © 2019 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 35: e2775, 2019.

14.
Arch Oral Biol ; 97: 109-115, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that modulation of jaw sensorimotor control by intraoral dental appliance can reduce postural sway during quiet standing and hence improve standing balance, in patients with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and non-trauma neck pain. DESIGN: Postural sway during quiet standing with feet together was examined in 54 WAD patients (40 females) and 10 non-trauma patients (8 females) using wireless 3D movement recording technique. Recordings were performed alternating without and with intraoral dental appliance, and with closed eyes and open eyes, respectively. In this protocol the participants served as their own controls. A reference group of 30 healthy subjects (17 females) was also recorded. Each recording lasted 120 s, followed by 3-5 min of rest. Speed, acceleration and perimeter of postural sway area were documented. RESULTS: In the patients, but not in the healthy group, the intraoral dental appliance instantly and significantly reduced standing postural sway in recordings with closed and open eyes. CONCLUSIONS: The prompt reduction in standing postural sway from intervention by intraoral dental appliance i.e. improved standing balance, suggests a potent effect on the postural control system by modulation of the jaw sensorimotor system, probably involving reflex transmission. The result opens for new insight into mechanisms behind postural control and the pathophysiology of balance disorders, and adds to the knowledge on plasticity of the nervous system. It may help developing new procedures for assessment and management of impaired balance in WAD and non-trauma neck pain patients.


Assuntos
Cervicalgia/fisiopatologia , Placas Oclusais , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Posição Ortostática , Traumatismos em Chicotada/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
J Appl Toxicol ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426514

RESUMO

Radiological methods for screening, diagnostics and therapy are often used in healthcare; however, it has recently been reported that developmental exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation (IR) causes neurotoxicity. Environmental chemicals also have the potential to affect the developing brain and the concomitant effects caused by IR and chemicals are of high interest today. We therefore aim to investigate if low-dose IR can interact with the known neurotoxicant paraquat to induce neurotoxicity in the neonatal mouse model. Using the same model, we also aim to investigate if fractionated low-dose IR can be as neurotoxic as higher acute doses. Male mice were exposed to a single dose of paraquat (0.2 or 0.02 mg/kg) on postnatal day 10 and 11. Two hours following paraquat exposure, mice were whole body irradiated with 100 or 300 mGy gamma radiation (137 Cs). Behavioural observations were performed at 2 and 3 months of age. Following behavioural testing, we evaluated striatal dopaminergic gene transcription. Animals co-exposed to IR and paraquat generally displayed altered spontaneous behaviour compared to controls and single agent exposed mice. Stronger effects by combined exposure were also observed on adult memory and learning. However, dopaminergic gene transcript levels remained unchanged by treatment. Co-exposure to low-dose IR and paraquat can interact to exacerbate neurotoxic effects and to impair cognitive function. Furthermore, fractionation of the radiation dose was observed to be as potent as higher acute exposure for induction of developmental neurotoxicity.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 2018 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) have a significant genetic contribution and commonly co-exist. To compare and contrast genetic determinants of the two diseases, we investigated associations of the LPA and 9p21 loci, i.e. the two strongest CAD risk loci, with risk of AVS. METHODS: We genotyped the CAD-associated variants at the LPA (rs10455872) and 9p21 loci (rs1333049) in the GeneCAST (Genetics of Calcific Aortic STenosis) Consortium and conducted a meta-analysis for their association with AVS. Cases and controls were stratified by CAD status. External validation of findings was undertaken in five cohorts including 7880 cases and 851,152 controls. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis including 4651 cases and 8231 controls the CAD-associated allele at the LPA locus was associated with increased risk of AVS (OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.24-1.52, p = 6.9 × 10-10) with a larger effect size in those without CAD (OR 1.53; 95%CI 1.31-1.79) compared to those with CAD (OR 1.27; 95%CI 1.12-1.45). The CAD-associated allele at 9p21 was associated with a trend towards lower risk of AVS (OR 0.93; 95%CI 0.88-0.99, p = 0.014). External validation confirmed the association of the LPA risk allele with risk of AVS (OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.27-1.47), again with a higher effect size in those without CAD. The small protective effect of the 9p21 CAD risk allele could not be replicated (OR 0.98; 95%CI 0.95-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the association of the LPA locus with risk of AVS, with a higher effect in those without concomitant CAD. Overall, 9p21 was not associated with AVS.

17.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455415

RESUMO

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a common congenital heart defect (population incidence, 1-2%)1-3 that frequently presents with ascending aortic aneurysm (AscAA)4. BAV/AscAA shows autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance and male predominance. Causative gene mutations (for example, NOTCH1, SMAD6) are known for ≤1% of nonsyndromic BAV cases with and without AscAA5-8, impeding mechanistic insight and development of therapeutic strategies. Here, we report the identification of variants in ROBO4 (which encodes a factor known to contribute to endothelial performance) that segregate with disease in two families. Targeted sequencing of ROBO4 showed enrichment for rare variants in BAV/AscAA probands compared with controls. Targeted silencing of ROBO4 or mutant ROBO4 expression in endothelial cell lines results in impaired barrier function and a synthetic repertoire suggestive of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. This is consistent with BAV/AscAA-associated findings in patients and in animal models deficient for ROBO4. These data identify a novel endothelial etiology for this common human disease phenotype.

18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2242, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356862

RESUMO

In mice, B1 and marginal zone (MZ) B-cells play an important role in prevention of autoimmunity through production of regulatory cytokines and natural antibodies. There is limited knowledge about the human counterparts of these cells. We therefore investigated functions of MZ-like B-cells and the frequency of circulating MZ-like and B1-like B-cells in healthy controls (HC), as well as in patients with autoimmune vasculitis to learn more about the role of these cells in autoimmune disease. After stimulation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of class B in vitro, MZ-like B-cells were the main producers of IgM whereas switched memory B-cells primarily produced IgG and IgA. TNF and IL-10 were produced by both MZ-like and switched memory B-cells. Neither antibody nor TNF/IL-10 production by the B-cell subsets differed between patients and HC. Patients with autoimmune vasculitis, irrespective of disease activity, had lower percentage and absolute numbers of circulating MZ-like B-cells, and lower absolute numbers of B1-like B-cells. The percentage of B1-like B-cells was reduced during active disease. These findings remained significant when the analysis was confined to active treatment-naïve patients (disease onset).Our results suggest that human innate-like B-cells might have a physiological role in prevention of autoimmunity.

19.
Laryngoscope ; 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Postoperative tinnitus and taste disturbances after myringoplasty are more common than previously reported. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from the Swedish National Quality Registry for Myringoplasty. METHODS: The analysis was performed on extracted data from all counties in Sweden collected from database A from 2002 to 2012 and database B from 2013 to 2016. Tinnitus and taste disturbance complications 1 year after myringoplasty were analyzed in relation to gender, age, procedure, and success rate. In database A, physicians reported tinnitus and taste disturbances. In database B, patients reported the complications. RESULTS: A major difference was found when the complications were reported by physicians compared to when the complications were reported by patients. In database A, tinnitus was reported in 1.2% of the patients and taste disturbances in 0.5%. In database B, the frequencies were 12.3% and 11.2%, respectively. Tinnitus and taste disturbances were more frequent after conventional myringoplasty compared to those after fat grafting and were more frequent after primary compared to those after revision surgery when reported by physicians. Patients, however, reported the same frequency of tinnitus after fat graft myringoplasty compared to that after conventional myringoplasty (12.0% vs. 12.6%) and fewer taste disturbances after revision surgery. In follow-up assessments, complications persisted after surgery over a long time period. CONCLUSION: Tinnitus and taste disturbances are more common after myringoplasty when patients report their symptoms than when physicians report the symptoms. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b. Laryngoscope, 2018.

20.
Atheroscler Suppl ; 35: e6-e13, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172576

RESUMO

Cellular and molecular mechanisms of thoracic aortic aneurysm are still not clear and therapeutic approaches are mostly absent. The role of endothelial cells in aortic wall integrity is emerging from recent studies. Although Notch pathway ensures endothelial development and integrity, and NOTCH1 mutations have been associated with thoracic aortic aneurysms, the role of this pathway in aneurysm remains elusive. The purpose of the present work was to study functions of Notch genes in endothelial cells of patients with sporadic thoracic aortic aneurysm. Aortic endothelial cells were isolated from aortic tissue of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm and healthy donors. Gene expression of Notch and related BMP and WNT/ß-catenin pathways was estimated by qPCR; WNT/ß-catenin signaling was studied by TCF-luciferase reporter. To study the stress-response the cells were subjected to laminar shear stress and the expression of corresponding genes was estimated by qPCR. Analyses of mRNA expression of Notch genes, Notch target genes and Notch related pathways showed that endothelial cells of aneurysm patients have dysregulated Notch/BMP/WNT pathways compared to donor cells. Activity of Wnt pathway was significantly elevated in endothelial cells of the patients. Cells from patients had attenuated activation of DLL4, SNAIL1, DKK1 and BMP2 in response to shear stress. In conclusion endothelial cells of the patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm have dysregulated Notch, BMP and WNT/ß-catenin related signaling. Shear stress-response and cross-talk between Notch and Wnt pathways that normally ensures aortic integrity and resistance of endothelial cells to stress is impaired in aneurysmal patients.

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