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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Epidemics lead to an increase in occupational stress and psychological strain among healthcare workers. However, the impact of a pandemic outbreak on healthcare systems is yet to be clearly defined. Therefore, this work aims to describe and analyze specific areas of workload among different groups of healthcare workers during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A sample of N = 8088 persons working in the German-speaking healthcare sector participated in the VOICE/egePan online survey, which addressed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic during the second quarter of 2020. We used 15 self-constructed items, based on the work of Matsuishi et al. (2012), to identify potential COVID-19-specific topics. RESULTS: N = 7542 records of healthcare workers were analyzed. Of these, 60.80% reported, retrospectively, an increase in stress since the outbreak of the pandemic. Problem areas tended to be indicated more frequently by the women surveyed than by the men. Nurses, paramedics and medical technicians reported the highest fear of infecting others while physicians reported the highest fear of physical or mental exhaustion. With respect to age, older respondents indicated less fear and felt more protected. Men and people living alone were more likely to use dysfunctional coping strategies. Migrants reported a higher fear of becoming infected or infecting others as well as they reported about increased levels of smoking. DISCUSSION: Retrospectively, the COVID-19 pandemic led to an increase in stress among healthcare workers. Problem areas have different focuses with regard to different living situations, environmental conditions and professions. In order to lay the best basis for healthy and efficient work, it seems necessary to take measures especially tailored to the needs of different groups of healthcare workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a continuing burden on society and the health system. The vaccination willingness among healthcare workers is of particular interest, as these groups play a key role in the pandemic response. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated how the willingness of healthcare workers in Germany to get vaccinated depends on sociodemographic, occupational, and COVID-19-specific characteristics, as well as mental health. METHODS: Between November 2020 and January 2021, 6217 employees in the German healthcare system were questioned about their vaccination willingness, sociodemographic, occupational, COVID-19-specific, and psychosocial characteristics using the online VOICE survey within the framework of the University Medicine Network (NUM). RESULTS: The vaccination willingness of the sample group was 65.3%. A higher vaccination willingness was associated with male gender; age > 40 years; having no children or no migration background; not working in direct patient care; belonging to a COVID-19 risk group or professional group of physicians and psychologists in comparison with nursing staff; feeling sufficiently informed about COVID-19 and protected by the measures of the national or local authorities and the employer; fear of infection; and lack of signs of depression. Physicians showed the highest willingness to get vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: During the study period, an overall moderate vaccination willingness against COVID-19 in the health sector was described. Information about the disease and vaccination, especially for younger people, females, and non-physicians, adequate protective measures and prevention of depressive symptoms could increase the vaccination willingness.

3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 143: 302-308, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530341

RESUMO

Patients with binge eating disorder (BED) display recurring episodes of eating large amounts of food in a short period of time, especially during negative mood states. However, the psychological processes linking negative mood to binge eating behavior have not been sufficiently explored. This study investigated the effects of experimentally inducing a negative (sad) mood state upon reaction times in a computerized Approach-Avoidance-Task (AAT) using images of foods and compared to a neutral control procedure in which negative mood was not induced. Differences in reaction times between "pulling" and "pushing away" food cues in the AAT were considered surrogates for fast, automatic (i.e., implicit) preferences ("bias") for either the approach or avoidance of foods. Obese patients with BED (n = 40), weight-matched (obese) individuals (n = 40), and norm-weight controls (n = 29) were asked to approach ("pull") or avoid ("push") images of high- and low-calorie foods following the induction of a negative mood state vs. the neutral control procedure. Sample size was within the common range of previous investigations of the kind. Similar to previous findings, obese patients with BED exhibited an avoidance bias (i.e., faster reaction times in "pushing" compared to "pulling") during the neutral control condition. However, a contrast analysis revealed that negative mood was associated with decreased avoidance bias in obese patients with BED, but not in obese and norm-weight controls. Mood status exerted no effect on BED patients' self-reported (i.e., explicit) ratings of the urge to consume foods. These findings may help to advance current understanding of how negative (sad) mood states may affect binge eating behaviors. Implications of these findings for developing novel treatment approaches are discussed.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257387, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated, if migration status, and additional sociodemographic and clinical factors, are associated with somatization and depressiveness at admission and with remission after inpatient psychotherapy. METHODS: Multiple linear and binary logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors for severity of somatoform and depressive symptoms at admission of inpatient psychotherapy (T0), and for remission after inpatient psychotherapy (T1). We tested the association between symptoms concerning somatization (PHQ-15: Patient-Health-Questionnaire Somatization Module) and depression (PHQ-9: Patient-Health-Questionnaire Depression Module) and several sociodemographic and clinical factors in 263 patients at admission. For remission after treatment, we additionally included severity of symptoms at admission, number of diagnoses and duration of treatment in the regression models. Remission after treatment was defined as response plus a post value of less than 10 points in the respective questionnaire. Clinical relevance was interpreted using effect sizes (regression coefficients, Odds Ratio (OR)) and Confidence Intervals (CI). FINDINGS: Significant and clinically relevant predictors for high symptom severity at T0 were lower education (ß = -0.13, p = 0.04), pretreatment(s) (ß = 0.205, p = 0.002) and migration status (ß = 0.139, p = 0.023) for somatization, and potential clinically relevant predictors (|ß|>0.1) for depression were living alone (ß = -0.116, p = 0.083), pretreatment(s) (ß = 0.118, p = 0.071) and migration status (ß = 0.113, p = 0.069). At T1 patients with pretreatment(s) (OR = 0.284 [95% CI: 0.144, 0.560], p<0.001) and multiple diagnoses (OR = 0.678 [95% CI: 0.472, 0.973], p = 0.035) were significantly and clinically relevant less likely to show a remission of depressive symptoms. In addition, a potentially clinically meaningful effect of migration status on remission of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.562 [95% CI: 0.264, 1.198], p = 0.136) cannot be ruled out. For somatoform symptoms pretreatment(s) (OR = 0.403, [95% CI: 0.156, 1.041], p = 0.061) and education (OR = 1.603, [95% CI: 0.670, 3.839], p = 0.289) may be regarded as clinically relevant predictors for remission. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that migration status has a clinically relevant influence on severity of somatoform and depressive symptoms at admission. Clinical relevance of migration status can also be assumed regarding the remission of depression. Migration status and further factors affecting the effectiveness of the treatment should be analyzed in future research among larger samples with sufficient power to replicate these findings.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444576

RESUMO

The Syrian conflict has led to a mass migration of Syrians to other countries and exposed them to many possible traumatic events and stressors in their country of origin and in the resettlement process. The possibility of positive psychological effects of adverse life events is less documented among Syrian refugees. Thus, the current study aimed to develop preliminary evidence for the identifying factors: traumatic experiences, post-migration stressors and coping strategies that are associated with post-traumatic growth (PTG) of Syrian refugees residing in Turkey. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used in the current study to assess the associations among these factors. Data were obtained from Syrian refugees residing in the governorates of Hatay and Mardin. A total of 528 Syrians, aged between 18-77 years (M = 35.60, SD = 11.65) participated in this cross-sectional study. Results from the SEM indicated that past traumatic experiences and post-migration stressors were indirectly related to PTG. The results from the current study provide support for that the association between refugees' traumatic experiences, post-migration stressors and PTG appear to be explained through the presence of coping strategies which could be addressed in the psychotherapies and psychosocial interventions for refugees to promote positive psychological change. Future studies should address the effects of post-migration stressors on PTG in detail.


Assuntos
Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Síria , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255211, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310616

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in severe detrimental effects on the mental well-being of health care workers (HCW). Consequently, there has been a need to identify health-promoting resources in order to mitigate the psychological impact of the pandemic on HCW. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the association of sense of coherence (SOC), social support and religiosity with self-reported mental symptoms and increase of subjective burden during the COVID-19 pandemic in HCW. METHODS: Our sample comprised 4324 HCW of four professions (physicians, nurses, medical technical assistants (MTA) and pastoral workers) who completed an online survey from 20 April to 5 July 2020. Health-promoting resources were assessed using the Sense of Coherence Scale Short Form (SOC-3), the ENRICHD Social Support Inventory (ESSI) and one item on religiosity derived from the Scale of Transpersonal Trust (TPV). Anxiety and depression symptoms were measured with the PHQ-2 and GAD-2. The increase of subjective burden due to the pandemic was assessed as the retrospective difference between burden during the pandemic and before the pandemic. RESULTS: In multiple regressions, higher SOC was strongly associated with fewer anxiety and depression symptoms. Higher social support was also related to less severe mental symptoms, but with a smaller effect size, while religiosity showed minimal to no correlation with anxiety or depression. In professional group analysis, SOC was negatively associated with mental symptoms in all groups, while social support only correlated significantly with mental health outcomes in physicians and MTA. In the total sample and among subgroups, an increase of subjective burden was meaningfully associated only with a weaker SOC. CONCLUSION: Perceived social support and especially higher SOC appeared to be beneficial for mental health of HCW during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the different importance of the resources in the respective occupations requires further research to identify possible reasons.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Pandemias , Senso de Coerência , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Oncol Res Treat ; 44(7-8): 382-389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the establishment of a nationwide certification system for cancer centers in Germany, the availability of psycho-oncological services for cancer patients has increased substantially. However, little is known about the specific intervention techniques that are applied during sessions in an acute care hospital, since a standardized taxonomy is lacking. With this study, we aimed at the investigation of psycho-oncological intervention techniques and the development of a comprehensive and structured taxonomy thereof. METHODS: In a stepwise procedure, a team of psycho-oncologists generated a data pool of interventions and definitions that were tested in clinical practice during a pilot phase. After an adaptation of intervention techniques, interrater reliability (IRR) was attained by rating 10 previously recorded psycho-oncological sessions. A classification of interventions into superordinate categories was performed, supported by cluster analysis. RESULTS: Between April and June 2017, 980 psycho-oncological sessions took place. The experts agreed on a total number of 22 intervention techniques. An IRR of 89% for 2 independent psycho-oncological raters was reached. The 22 techniques were classified into 5 superordinate categories. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: We developed a comprehensive and structured taxonomy of psycho-oncological intervention techniques in an acute care hospital that provides a standardized basis for systematic research and applied care. We expect our work to be continuously subjected to further development: future research should evaluate and expand our taxonomy to other contexts and care settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Psico-Oncologia , Alemanha , Hospitais , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1187, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders are one of the leading causes for sickness absence and early retirement due to reduced health. Furthermore, a treatment gap for common mental disorders has been described worldwide. Within this study, psychotherapeutic consultation at work defined as a tailored, module-based and work-related psychotherapeutic intervention will be applied to improve mental health care. METHODS: This study comprises a randomised controlled multicentre trial with 1:1 allocation to an intervention and control group. In total, 520 employees with common mental disorders shall be recruited from companies being located around five study centres in Germany. Besides care as usual, the intervention group will receive up to 17 sessions of psychotherapy. The first session will include basics diagnostics and medical indication of treatment and the second session will include work-related diagnostics. Then, participants of the intervention group may receive work-related psychotherapeutic consultation for up to ten sessions. Further psychotherapeutic consultation during return to work for up to five sessions will be offered where appropriate. The control group will receive care as usual and the first intervention session of basic diagnostics and medical indication of treatment. After enrolment to the study, participants will be followed up after nine (first follow-up) and fifteen (second follow-up) months. Self-reported days of sickness absence within the last 6 months at the second follow-up will be used as the primary outcome and self-efficacy at the second follow-up as the secondary outcome. Furthermore, a cost-benefit assessment related to costs of common mental disorders for social insurances and companies will be performed. DISCUSSION: Psychotherapeutic consultation at work represents a low threshold care model aiming to overcome treatment gaps for employees with common mental disorders. If successfully implemented and evaluated, it might serve as a role model to the care of employees with common mental disorders and might be adopted in standard care in cooperation with sickness and pension insurances in Germany. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The friaa project was registered at the German Clinical Trial Register (DRKS) at 01.03.2021 (DRKS00023049): https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00023049 .


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Alemanha , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Autoeficácia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071826

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe psychiatric condition with key symptoms of low mood and lack of motivation, joy, and pleasure. Recently, the acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)/ceramide system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD. ASM is a lysosomal glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin, an abundant component of membranes, into the bioactive sphingolipid ceramide, which impacts signaling pathways. ASM activity is inhibited by several common antidepressant drugs. Human and murine studies have confirmed that increased ASM activity and ceramide levels are correlated with MDD. To define a molecular marker for treatment monitoring, we investigated the mRNA expression of SMPD1, which encodes ASM, in primary cell culture models, a mouse study, and a human study with untreated MDD patients before and after antidepressive treatment. Our cell culture study showed that a common antidepressant inhibited ASM activity at the enzymatic level and also at the transcriptional level. In a genetically modified mouse line with depressive-like behavior, Smpd1 mRNA expression in dorsal hippocampal tissue was significantly decreased after treatment with a common antidepressant. The large human study showed that SMPD1 mRNA expression in untreated MDD patients decreased significantly after antidepressive treatment. This translational study shows that SMPD1 mRNA expression could serve as a molecular marker for treatment and adherence monitoring of MDD.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , RNA Mensageiro , Esfingomielina Fosfodiesterase/genética , Animais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Células Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
10.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 128(9): 1301-1310, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988765

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe mental disorder that can develop after a traumatic event. PTSD has been reported to be associated with activation of the innate immune system, as measured by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. While it is well known that PTSD patients display increased levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) when compared with healthy controls, the relationship between cytokine secretion and treatment outcome has been hardly investigated yet. The aim of this study was to assess the potential association of inflammatory activation and therapy outcome in PTSD. Before therapeutic intervention, we applied the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) as a method to elicit psychosocial stress and an acute inflammatory response. IL-6 levels were measured in blood plasma of PTSD patients at different time points before and after the TSST. Severity of depressive, trauma-related, and somatic symptoms was assessed before and 8 weeks after trauma-focused treatment in a multimodal day clinic setting. We showed that high reactivity of IL-6 to psychosocial stress at the beginning of the therapy was associated with a negative therapy outcome in PTSD, especially regarding depressive symptoms. This study suggests plasma IL-6 reactivity as a potential molecular marker to predict treatment outcome in PTSD.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 896, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have already proven high rates of common mental disorders in Syrian refugees. Nevertheless, little is known about the patterns of somatic distress among this refugee population. For this reason, we aimed to examine the prevalence, co-occurrence, and risk factors of somatic distress among Syrian refugees in Germany. METHODS: This study analyzes the second measurement point (N = 116) of a prospective register-based survey among 200 adult Syrian refugees with residence permission in Germany. The survey consisted of information on sociodemographic and migration-specific characteristics, health care utilization, traumatic life events, acculturative stress (Barcelona Immigration Stress Scale (BISS); subscales: perceived discrimination, intercultural contact stress, homesickness, and general psychosocial stress), and self-reported outcomes of somatic distress (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15)), depression (PHQ-9), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7), and post-traumatic symptoms (Essen Trauma Inventory (ETI)). RESULTS: Almost half of the respondents (49.1%) were identified as being at risk of somatic distress (PHQ-15 score ≥ 6), and even 24.1% being bothered by moderate-to-severe levels of somatic distress (PHQ-15 score ≥ 10). The most robust associations with somatic distress were found for female gender, the amount of health care utilization, multiple trauma exposures, general psychosocial stress, and self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms. High comorbidities with somatic distress were shown for all of the common mental disorders studied. CONCLUSIONS: The presented study reveals a significant risk of somatic distress among this displaced population and highlights implications for policy and health care providers.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síria
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting mental health worldwide, particularly among healthcare workers (HCWs). Risk and protective factors for depression and generalized anxiety in healthcare workers need to be identified to protect their health and ability to work. Social support and optimism are known protective psychosocial resources, but have not been adequately studied in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare workers in Germany. METHODS: Within the first wave of the VOICE study (n = 7765), a longitudinal web-based survey study among healthcare workers in Germany, we assessed symptoms of depression (PHQ-2) and generalized anxiety (GAD-2), social support (ENRICHD Social Support Inventory; ESSI), and generalized optimism as well as sociodemographic, occupational, and COVID-19 related variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between the constructs. RESULTS: The analyses revealed that higher levels of social support and optimism were associated with lower levels of depression and generalized anxiety. They showed a higher association with depression and generalized anxiety than demographic or occupational risk factors such as female gender and direct contact with infected individuals. CONCLUSION: Psychosocial resources such as social support and optimism appear to contribute to successful coping with the COVID-19 pandemic and should be considered in future studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Proteção , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social
13.
J Psychosom Res ; 144: 110415, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional web-based study was to examine self-reported mental distress, psychosocial burdens, working conditions and potential risk and protective factors for depressive and anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in health care workers (HCW). METHODS: In the largest survey on mental health of HCW conducted during the first wave of COVID-19 in Europe (N = 8071 HCW), we investigated depressive (Patient Health Questionnaire-2, PHQ-2), and anxiety symptoms (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2, GAD-2), working conditions, and psychosocial burden of 3678 HCW of three health care professions in hospitals: physicians (n = 1061), nurses (n = 1275), and medical technical assistants (MTA, n = 1342). RESULTS: The prevalence of clinically significant levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 17.4% and 17.8% for physicians, 21.6% and 19.0% for nurses, and 23.0% and 20.1% for MTA, respectively. All three professions demonstrated significantly elevated PHQ-2 and GAD-2 scores, when compared with general German population before the pandemic, but lower scores in relation to that during the pandemic. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with insufficient recovery during leisure time, increased alcohol consumption, and less trust in colleagues in difficult situations at work. In addition, elevated anxiety scores were related to increased fear of becoming infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic HCW demonstrated a lower burden of mental distress compared to the general population. Nevertheless, a high percentage of HCW demonstrates psychosocial distress, so that the establishment of regular mental health screening and prevention programmes for HCW is indicated.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Hospitais , Saúde Mental , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Fatores de Proteção , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Fatores de Risco
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 497100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132923

RESUMO

Background: Studies show significant alterations in insular cortical thickness in patients with somatoform pain disorder (SPD). Additionally, associations between childhood maltreatment and morphometric alterations in insular cortex have been observed. Since patients with SPD often report about adverse childhood experiences, we were interested in the interrelationship of exposure to childhood maltreatment and insular cortical thickness in patients with SPD. Methods: Fifteen adult patients with SPD (ICD-10 F 45.40/41, DSM-Code 307.80) and thirteen healthy adult controls underwent T1-weighted MR brain imaging. In the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis we compared whole brain cortical thickness between patients and controls using a Student's two-sampled t-test (p < .05). Then we performed a secondary analysis to detect differences in cortical thickness levels in the insular cortex between both groups. For further analysis of differences in insular cortical thickness we used gender, age, depressive symptoms [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9], and whole brain cortical thickness as nuisance covariates. Subsequently we explored associations between insular cortical thickness, symptom severity (PHQ-15) and past experiences of childhood maltreatment (CTQ) in both groups. Results: Patients showed reduced insular cortical thickness in a subregion of right Brodmann area (BA) 13 (anterior part of the insular cortex), whereas whole brain cortical thickness did not differ between groups. The between-group difference in the identified insular subregion of right BA 13 was not diminished by any of the covariates. This implies that the reduction in cortical thickness in the identified insular subregion might be due to a specific group effect. The effect sizes indicate that the group of patients experienced more childhood maltreatment than the control group. Nonetheless, significant correlations of insular cortical thickness with symptom severity and childhood maltreatment in the total collective could not be demonstrated for the group of patients. Conclusions: Our data suggest that alterations in the identified insular subregion of right BA 13 are associated with somatoform pain, independent of gender, age, or coincident depression levels. To identify significant associations of insular cortical thickness and experiences of childhood maltreatment in patients with SPD investigations within larger samples are highly recommended.

15.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e038637, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033024

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In heart transplant recipients (HTRs), non-adherence (NA) to immunosuppressive (IS) medication and to recommended lifestyle behaviours are a common phenomenon and associated with higher risk of allograft rejection, organ loss and mortality. Risk factors for NA are highly diverse and still insufficiently researched. Precise measures of NA and an accurate understanding of its aetiology are of undisputable importance to detect patients at risk and intervene accordingly. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy and concordance of different measures for NA as well as to determine potential risk factors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single-centre prospective observational trial. HTRs who are at least aged 18 are no less than 6 months post-transplant and receive tacrolimus (Prograf or Advagraf), cyclosporine (Sandimmun) or everolimus (Certican) as their prescribed IS medication are eligible for participation. We only include patients during the phase of medication implementation. At study enrolment, we assess depression, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy, social support, attachment, experiences and attitudes towards IS medication, emotional responses after transplantation, satisfaction with information about IS medication and perceptions and beliefs about medications. We further ask patients to rate their lifestyle behaviours concerning alcohol, smoking, diet, physical activity, sun protection and appointment keeping via questionnaires. Three different measurement methods for NA are applied at T0: self-reports, physician's estimates and IS trough levels. NA is monitored prospectively using an electronic multicompartment pillbox (MEMS, VAICA) over a 3-month period. Meanwhile, participants receive phone calls every second week to obtain additional self-reports, resulting in a total of seven measurement points. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Clinical Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Erlangen (Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nürnberg). Written informed consent is attained from all participants. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00020496.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração , Estilo de Vida , Adesão à Medicação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/psicologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Psychosom Res ; 138: 110260, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032024
17.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 14: 1389-1401, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821087

RESUMO

Background: Non-adherence (NA) after renal transplantation poses a major risk for allograft rejection, graft loss, and patient mortality. Yet, there is still ambiguity about its etiology and its possible relationships with patient-related factors. In order to prevent poor outcomes after transplantation, it is crucial to gain a more refined understanding of potential determinants, to identify patients at risk, and to intervene accordingly. The objective of this study was to assess potential risk factors of NA by prospectively applying electronic monitoring. Materials and Methods: This was a single-center prospective observational study. Prior to study initiation, sociodemographic, biomedical, and psychosocial variables (depression, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy, social support, attachment, experiences and attitudes towards immunosuppressive medication, emotional responses after organ transplantation, satisfaction with information about immunosuppressive medication, and perceptions and beliefs about medications) were assessed. Thereafter, immunosuppressive adherence behavior was measured prospectively via electronic monitoring (EM, VAICA©) during a 3-month period to receive the percentage frequency of Taking and Timing Adherence (±2h, ±30min) for each patient. Focus of this study was the phase of medication implementation. Results: A total of 78 patients participated in our study (mean age 55.28, 56% male). We found rates of 99.39% for Taking Adherence, 98.34% for Timing Adherence ±2h, and 93.34% for Timing Adherence ±30min, respectively.  Multiple regression analyses revealed that the type of medication could significantly predict Taking Adherence. Patients receiving Advagraf© (once daily) depicted better Taking Adherence than patients receiving Prograf© (twice daily) (p=0.04). No associations were found for Timing Adherence (±2h, ±30min). Sociodemographic, biomedical, or psychosocial variables were not found to be associated with adherence behavior. Discussion: In highly adherent populations, only a few factors can be altered to improve adherence. Changing the immunosuppressive regimen from twice-daily to once-daily could be an option for optimizing adherence. However, risk factors for NA could be different in a less adherent population.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare illness concepts and coping strategies among native German cancer patients and those with a Turkish migration background. METHODS: Guideline-based, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 German (♂: 8, ♀: 3) and 11 Turkish (♂: 2, ♀: 9) cancer patients. The transcripts were evaluated using a qualitative content analysis in accordance with Mayring. RESULTS: We identified eight categories of illness concepts: stressful life events, environmental influences, the will of God, medical factors, fate, trauma, health behaviour, and psychological causes. German patients frequently attributed their illness to environmental influences, persistent stress, or medical factors, whereas Turkish patients blamed persistent stress, the will of God, or trauma. The last two categories are not found among German patients. We classified the coping strategies into 11 main categories: social support, activity, patient competence, fighting spirit/positive thinking, use of health services/alternative healing methods, lifestyle, emotional coping, cognitive coping, religious coping, spiritual coping, and culture-specific methods for patients of Turkish origin. For German patients, activities as well as social support played primary roles in coping. Turkish patients also often used social support. However, in contrast to the German patients, they are less active and use much more religious coping and culture-specific means. In addition, negative emotions occur more often when processing the illness than in the German patients. CONCLUSION: Common illness representations and coping strategies could be found for Turkish and German patients, but also specific ones for the respective group. It is particularly noticeable that German patients attach more importance to medical factors and try more actively to cope with the illness. For Turkish patients, cultural and religious factors play an important role, which should also be considered in treatment.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Características Culturais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/etnologia , Religião , Apoio Social , Turquia/etnologia
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e036466, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792437

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although a high percentage of patients with cancer experience severe psychological distress, few of them receive psycho-oncological care, largely due to barriers on the side of patients and healthcare providers that pose great challenges to delivering such care. In response, low-threshold, self-guided eHealth interventions can enable patients with cancer to deal independently and effectively with disease-related challenges and distress. Mindfulness and Skills-Based Distress Reduction in Oncology Training, nicknamed Make It Training, is one such innovative, self-guided eHealth intervention. In our study, we propose to assess different characteristics of such patients in order to define target populations for Make It Training, evaluate the intervention in terms of its usability, feasibility and sustainability and gather longitudinal data concerning the intervention's efficacy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Self-guided and web-based Make It Training consists of eight 30 min modules involving the use of techniques of mindfulness therapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy to be completed in a 4-month period. In our observational study, adult patients with cancer who possess adequate German language skills and provide their informed consent will be recruited at Essen, Erlangen and Tübingen University Hospitals at outpatient oncological institutions and via online channels. Patients will undergo a baseline online assessment (T0), an assessment directly after completing the intervention (T1) and assessments 3 and 6 months later (T2 and T3, respectively). With the results of those assessments, we will perform descriptive analyses of their sociodemographic and medical data, compare means and conduct regression analyses. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Ethics Committees of the University Hospitals Essen, Erlangen and Tübingen have approved the study (19-8643-BO, 27_19 B, 293/2018BO1). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00017119.


Assuntos
Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Atenção Plena , Neoplasias , Adulto , Humanos , Internet , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Neoplasias/terapia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estresse Psicológico/terapia
20.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 715, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848908

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the degree of depressive symptoms and life satisfaction (LS) as well as the association between acculturation and depressive symptoms among a large sample of persons with Turkish migration background in Germany, taking into account gender- and migration-related differences. Methods: This study was part of a pretest for a large national epidemiological cohort study in Germany. Acculturation was measured using the Frankfurt Acculturation Scale (FRACC). Based on the median split of the two subscales, four acculturative styles according to Berry (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) were determined. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the depression module (PHQ-9) from the Patient Health Questionnaire. LS was assessed with a single item on a scale from 1 = bad to 5 = excellent. Differences in levels of depressive symptoms and LS in relation to gender and generation of migration were tested with analysis of covariance, controlling for age. Gender-stratified multiple linear regression analyses were also conducted for depressive symptoms as criterion variable. Results: 328 Turkish migrants participated (61.3% women). The cut-off-value of ≥10 for the PHQ-9 was achieved by 33.2% of the women and 26.4% of the men (p=0.209, φ=0.071). In female migrants, the age-adjusted mean score for depressive symptoms was 7.81 (SD=6.42), in males 6.70 (SD=6.41) (p=0.137, η2=0.007). After controlling for unemployment status, women showed a trend for being more frequently depressed than men (p=0.055, φ=0.117) and also demonstrated a trend for higher levels of depressive symptoms (p=0.072, η2=0.012). No significant gender-specific difference was found concerning age-adjusted mean score for LS (p=0.547, η2=0.001), also when controlled for unemployment status (p=0.322, η2=0.004). In both sexes, the second generation demonstrated a significantly higher age-adjusted mean score for LS of small/medium effect size than the first generation. In women, separation as acculturation style (linear regression coefficient (B=4.42, 95% CI=1.68, 7.17, p=0.002; reference: integration), having no partnership (B=2.56, 95% CI=0.26, 4.86, p=0.03) and lower education (B=-2.28, 95% CI=-4.54, -0.02, p=0.048) were associated with higher severity of depressive symptoms; in men, separation as acculturation style (B=4.01, 95% CI=0.70, 7.31, p=0.018; reference: integration) and employment status (B=-3.32, 95% CI=-5.71, -0.92, p=0.007) were related to depression levels. Conclusions: Separation as acculturation style is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (for both genders). Gender-sensitive health promotion programs should target separated migrants to improve their integration into the German society.

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