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1.
J Electrocardiol ; 71: 28-31, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026678

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A reliable electrocardiographic predictor of ventricular fibrillation (VF) in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is lacking so far. Previous experimental/simulation study suggested a terminal T-wave inversion (TTWI) in ischemia-related ECG leads corresponding to anterior infarct localization as an independent predictor of reperfusion VF (rVF). This T-wave characteristic has never been tested as a rVF predictor in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to test if terminal T-wave inversion (TTWI) at admission ECG (before reperfusion) can serve as a predictor of ventricular fibrillation during reperfusion (rVF) in patients with anterior STEMI undergoing primary PCI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Study population included consecutive patients with anterior infarct localization admitted for primary PCI (n = 181, age 65 [57; 76] years, 66% male). Of those, 14 patients had rVF (rVF group, age 59 [47; 76] years, 64% male) and patients without rVF comprised the No-rVF group (n = 167, age 65 [57; 76] years, 66% male). Association of TTWI with rVF was analyzed using logistic regression analysis adjusted for relevant clinical and electrocardiographic covariates. The prevalence of TTWI in rVF group was 62% comparing to 23% in the No-rVF group, p = 0.005. TTWI was associated with increased risk of rVF (OR 5.51; 95% CI 1.70-17.89; p = 0.004) and remained a significant predictor after adjustment for age, gender, history of MI prior to index admission, VF before reperfusion, Tpeak-Tend, maximal ST elevation, and QRS duration (OR 23.49; 95% CI 3.14-175.91; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The terminal T-wave inversion in anterior leads before PCI independently predicted rVF in patients with anterior MI thus confirming the previous experimental/simulation findings.

3.
Lancet Digit Health ; 4(1): e37-e45, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients have an estimated mortality of 15-20% within the first year following myocardial infarction and one in four patients who survive myocardial infarction will develop heart failure, severely reducing quality of life and increasing the risk of long-term mortality. We aimed to establish the accuracy of an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm in predicting 1-year mortality and admission to hospital for heart failure after myocardial infarction. METHODS: In this nationwide population-based study, we used data for all patients admitted to hospital for myocardial infarction and discharged alive from a coronary care unit in Sweden (n=139 288) between Jan 1, 2008, and April 1, 2017, from the Swedish Web system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART) nationwide registry; these patients were randomly divided into training (80%) and testing (20%) datasets. We developed an ANN using 21 variables (including age, sex, medical history, previous medications, in-hospital characteristics, and discharge medications) associated with the outcomes of interest with a back-propagation algorithm in the training dataset and tested it in the testing dataset. The ANN algorithm was then validated in patients with incident myocardial infarction enrolled in the Western Denmark Heart Registry (external validation cohort) between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2016. The predictive ability of the model was evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and Youden's index was established as a means of identifying an empirical dichotomous cutoff, allowing further evaluation of model performance. FINDINGS: 139 288 patients who were admitted to hospital for myocardial infarction in the SWEDEHEART registry were randomly divided into a training dataset of 111 558 (80%) patients and a testing dataset of 27 730 (20%) patients. 30 971 patients with myocardial infarction who were enrolled in the Western Denmark Heart Registry were included in the external validation cohort. A first event, either all-cause mortality or admission to hospital for heart failure 1 year after myocardial infarction, occurred in 32 308 (23·2%) patients in the testing and training cohorts only. For 1-year all-cause mortality, the ANN had an AUROC of 0·85 (95% CI 0·84-0·85) in the testing dataset and 0·84 (0·83-0·84) in the external validation cohort. The AUROC for admission to hospital for heart failure within 1 year was 0·82 (0·81-0·82) in the testing dataset and 0·78 (0·77-0·79) in the external validation dataset. With an empirical cutoff the ANN algorithm correctly classified 73·6% of patients with regard to all-cause mortality and 61·5% of patients with regard to admission to hospital for heart failure in the external validation cohort, ruling out adverse outcomes with 97·1-98·7% probability in the external validation cohort. INTERPRETATION: Identifying patients at a high risk of developing heart failure or death after myocardial infarction could result in tailored therapies and monitoring by the allocation of resources to those at greatest risk. FUNDING: The Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation, Swedish Scientific Research Council, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, ALF Agreement on Medical Education and Research, Skane University Hospital, The Bundy Academy, the Märta Winkler Foundation, the Anna-Lisa and Sven-Eric Lundgren Foundation for Medical Research.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871376

RESUMO

AIMS : According to the 2019 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines on chronic coronary syndromes (CCS), adding a P2Y12 inhibitor or rivaroxaban to aspirin should be considered in high-risk patients. We estimated the proportion of patients eligible for treatment with the ESC criteria and examined if a recently validated risk score (CHADS-P2A2RC) could improve risk prediction. METHODS AND RESULTS : We included 61 338 CCS patients undergoing first-time coronary angiography in Western Denmark (2003-16) and classified them according to the ESC criteria and the CHADS-P2A2RC score. The ESC criteria identified 33.9% as high risk, 53.3% as moderate risk, and 12.8% as low risk. The CHADS-P2A2RC score identified 24.9% as high risk (≥4 points), 48.1% as moderate risk (2-3 points), and 27.0% as low risk (≤1 points). Major adverse cardiovascular events per 100 person-years were 4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.6-5.0] in patients considered high risk with both schemes, 2.1 (95% CI 2.0-2.2) in patients considered high risk with the ESC but low-to-moderate risk with the CHADS-P2A2RC criteria, 3.8 (95% CI 3.6-4.1) in patients considered low-to-moderate risk with the ESC but high risk with the CHADS-P2A2RC criteria, and 1.5 (95% CI 1.5-1.6) in patients considered low-to-moderate risk with both schemes. The CHADS-P2A2RC score enabled correct downward risk reclassification of 5161 patients (8%) without events, yielding an improved specificity of 9.7%, a loss of sensitivity of 4.4%, and an overall net reclassification index of 0.053. CONCLUSION : Based on the 2019 ESC guidelines, dual antithrombotic treatment should be considered in one-third of CCS patients. The CHADS-P2A2RC score improved risk classification and may particularly identify low-risk patients with limited benefit from treatment.

5.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 137, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) and left ventricular (LV) early diastolic velocity (e') are key metrics of systolic and diastolic function, but not often measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Its derivation is possible with manual, precise annotation of the mitral valve (MV) insertion points along the cardiac cycle in both two and four-chamber long-axis cines, but this process is highly time-consuming, laborious, and prone to errors. A fully automated, consistent, fast, and accurate method for MV plane tracking is lacking. In this study, we propose MVnet, a deep learning approach for MV point localization and tracking capable of deriving such clinical metrics comparable to human expert-level performance, and validated it in a multi-vendor, multi-center clinical population. METHODS: The proposed pipeline first performs a coarse MV point annotation in a given cine accurately enough to apply an automated linear transformation task, which standardizes the size, cropping, resolution, and heart orientation, and second, tracks the MV points with high accuracy. The model was trained and evaluated on 38,854 cine images from 703 patients with diverse cardiovascular conditions, scanned on equipment from 3 main vendors, 16 centers, and 7 countries, and manually annotated by 10 observers. Agreement was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for both clinical metrics and by the distance error in the MV plane displacement. For inter-observer variability analysis, an additional pair of observers performed manual annotations in a randomly chosen set of 50 patients. RESULTS: MVnet achieved a fast segmentation (<1 s/cine) with excellent ICCs of 0.94 (MAPSE) and 0.93 (LV e') and a MV plane tracking error of -0.10 ± 0.97 mm. In a similar manner, the inter-observer variability analysis yielded ICCs of 0.95 and 0.89 and a tracking error of -0.15 ± 1.18 mm, respectively. CONCLUSION: A dual-stage deep learning approach for automated annotation of MV points for systolic and diastolic evaluation in CMR long-axis cine images was developed. The method is able to carefully track these points with high accuracy and in a timely manner. This will improve the feasibility of CMR methods which rely on valve tracking and increase their utility in a clinical setting.

6.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(12): e008969, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bivalirudin was not superior to unfractionated heparin in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention and no planned use of GPI (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors) in contemporary clinical practice of radial access and potent P2Y12-inhibitors in the VALIDATE-SWEDEHEART randomized clinical trial (Bivalirudin Versus Heparin in STEMI and NSTEMI Patients on Modern Antiplatelet Therapy-Swedish Web-System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies Registry). METHODS: In this prespecified separately powered subgroup analysis, we included patients with ST-segment-elevation MI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with the primary composite end point of all-cause death, MI, or major bleeding event within 180 days. RESULTS: Among the 6006 patients enrolled in the trial, 3005 patients with ST-segment-elevation MI were randomized to receive bivalirudin or heparin. The mean age was 66.8 years. According to protocol recommendations, 87% were treated with potent oral P2Y12-inhibitors before start of angiography and radial access was used in 90%. GPI was used in 51 (3.4%) and 74 (4.9%) of patients randomized to receive bivalirudin and heparin, respectively. The primary end point occurred in 12.5% (187 of 1501) and 13.0% (196 of 1504; hazard ratio [HR], 0.95 [95% CI, 0.78-1.17], P=0.64) with consistent results in all major subgroups. All-cause death occurred in 3.9% versus 3.9% (HR, 1.00 [0.70-1.45], P=0.98), MI in 1.7% versus 2.2% (HR, 0.76 [0.45-1.28], P=0.30), major bleeding in 8.3% versus 8.0% (HR, 1.04 [0.81-1.33], P=0.78), and definite stent thrombosis in 0.5% versus 1.3% (HR, 0.42 [0.18-0.96], P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ST-segment-elevation MI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with radial access and receiving current recommended treatments with potent P2Y12-inhibitors rate of the composite of all-cause death, MI, or major bleeding was not lower in those randomized to receive bivalirudin as compared with heparin. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02311231.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Hirudinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Am J Cardiol ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774287

RESUMO

Early ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) are associated with increased in-hospital mortality but do not influence the long-term prognosis in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Recent data advocate a differential approach to the type of arrhythmia and indicate long-term mortality hazard associated with monomorphic VT. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of early monomorphic VT compared to nonmonomorphic VT/VF in a nonselected cohort of STEMI patients. Consecutive STEMI patients admitted for primary percutaneous coronary intervention from 2007 to 2010 were included. Clinical characteristics were obtained from the Swedish national SWEDEHEART registry. The occurrence and type of early VT/VF were verified in medical records. All-cause mortality 8 years after STEMI was assessed using the Swedish Cause of Death Register. A total of 2,277 STEMI patients were included (age 66 ± 12 years, 70% male), among them 35 (1.5%) with early monomorphic VT and 115 (5.1%) with nonmonomorphic VT/VF. Patients with monomorphic VT had similar clinical characteristics compared to those with nonmonomorphic VT/VF. In total, 22 patients (63%) with monomorphic VT and 43 (37%) with nonmonomorphic VT/VF died by 8 years of follow-up (p = 0.011). Monomorphic VT was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to nonmonomorphic VT/VF in univariate analysis (HR 2.03, 95% CI 1.21 to 3.39, p = 0.007) and after adjustment for age and history of myocardial infarction (MI) (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.97, p = 0.041). Early monomorphic VT in STEMI is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to nonmonomorphic VT/VF and deserves further studies to refine risk stratification strategies.

8.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(11): e010849, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, the optimal timing of P2Y12 inhibitors' administration is uncertain. We compared pretreatment versus treatment in the catheterization laboratory (In-Cathlab) in a real-world population. METHODS: In Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry, all patients with chronic coronary syndrome undergoing coronary angiography and ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention, between 2006 and 2017 were identified. Pretreatment was defined as P2Y12 inhibitor administration before coronary angiography, outside the catheterization laboratory. Outcomes were net adverse clinical events including death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or bleeding within 30 days of the index procedure and in-hospital bleeding. RESULTS: We included 26 814 patients, 8237 in the In-Cathlab, and 18 577 in the pretreatment group. In-Cathlab treatment compared with pretreatment was associated with lower risk for net adverse clinical event (4.2 versus 5.1%, adjusted hazard ratio 0.79 [0.63-0.99]), bleeding (2.3 versus 2.6%, adjusted hazard ratio, 0.76 [0.57-1.01]). and in-hospital bleeding (1.9 versus 2.1%, adjusted odds ratio, 0.70 [0.51-0.96]). The risk for death, myocardial infarction, or stroke did not significantly differ between the groups. Among the In-Cathlab treated patients, 41% received ticagrelor or prasugrel and 59% clopidogrel. Treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel was associated with higher risk for net adverse clinical events (5.4% versus 3.4%, adjusted hazard ratio, 1.66 [1.12-2.48]), bleeding (3.4 versus 1.6%, adjusted hazard ratio, 2.14 [1.34-3.42]), and in-hospital bleeding (2.9 versus 1.2%, adjusted odds ratio, 2.24 [1.29-3.90]) but similar risk for death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, compared with clopidogrel. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic coronary syndrome undergoing coronary angiography and ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention, pretreatment with P2Y12 inhibitors, before arrival to the catheterization laboratory, was not associated with improved clinical outcomes but was associated with increased risk for bleeding. Our data support clopidogrel administration in the catheterization laboratory as the standard of care. Graphic Abstract: A graphic abstract is available for this article.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Angioplastia , Angiografia Coronária , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Int J Cardiol ; 344: 54-59, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary physiology is a routine diagnostic tool when assessing whether coronary revascularization is indicated. The iFR-SWEDEHEART trial demonstrated similar clinical outcomes when using instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) or fractional flow reserve (FFR) to guide revascularization. The objective of this analysis was to assess a cost-minimization analysis of iFR-guided compared with FFR-guided revascularization. METHODS: In this cost-minimization analysis we used a decision-tree model from a healthcare perspective with a time-horizon of one year to estimate the cost difference between iFR and FFR in a Nordic setting and a United States (US) setting. Treatment pathways and health care utilizations were constructed from the iFR-SWEDEHEART trial. Unit cost for revascularization and myocardial infarction in the Nordic setting and US setting were derived from the Nordic diagnosis-related group versus Medicare cost data. Unit cost of intravenous adenosine administration and cost per stent placed were based on the average costs from the enrolled centers in the iFR-SWEDEHEART trial. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were carried out to test the robustness of the result. RESULTS: The cost-minimization analysis demonstrated a cost saving per patient of $681 (95% CI: $641 - $723) in the Nordic setting and $1024 (95% CI: $934 - $1114) in the US setting, when using iFR-guided compared with FFR-guided revascularization. The results were not sensitive to changes in uncertain parameters or assumptions. CONCLUSIONS: IFR-guided revascularization is associated with significant savings in cost compared with FFR-guided revascularization.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Angiografia Coronária , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Medicare , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e022984, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514849

RESUMO

Background The clinical importance of intraprocedural stent thrombosis (IPST) during percutaneous coronary intervention in the contemporary era of potent oral P2Y12 inhibitors is not established. The aim of this study was to assess IPST and its association with clinical outcome in patients with myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with contemporary antithromboticmedications. Methods and Results The VALIDATE-SWEDEHEART study (Bivalirudin Versus Heparin in ST-Segment and Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Patients on Modern Antiplatelet Therapy in the Swedish Web System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies Registry Trial) included 6006 patients with myocardial infarction, treated with potent P2Y12 inhibitors during percutaneous coronary intervention. IPST, defined as a new or worsening thrombus related to a stent deployed during the procedure, was reported by the interventional cardiologist in 55 patients (0.9%) and was significantly associated with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction presentation, longer stents, bailout glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, and final Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow <3. The primary composite end point included cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, out-of-laboratory definite stent thrombosis and target vessel revascularization within 30 days. Secondary end points were major bleeding and the individual components of the primary composite end point. Patients with versus without IPST had significantly higher rates of the primary composite end point (20.0% versus 4.4%), including higher rates of cardiovascular death, target vessel revascularization, and definite stent thrombosis, but not myocardial infarction or major bleeding. By multivariable analysis, IPST was independently associated with the primary composite end point (hazard ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 2.05-7.12; P<0.001). Conclusions IPST is a rare but dangerous complication during percutaneous coronary intervention, independently associated with poor prognosis, even in the current era of potent antiplatelet agents. Future treatment studies are needed to reduce the rate of IPST and to improve the poor outcome among these patients. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02311231.

11.
Circulation ; 144(12): 916-929, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of coronary atherosclerosis using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), in addition to coronary artery calcification (CAC) scoring, may help inform prevention strategies. We used CCTA to determine the prevalence, severity, and characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis and its association with CAC scores in a general population. METHODS: We recruited 30 154 randomly invited individuals age 50 to 64 years to SCAPIS (the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study). The study includes individuals without known coronary heart disease (ie, no previous myocardial infarctions or cardiac procedures) and with high-quality results from CCTA and CAC imaging performed using dedicated dual-source CT scanners. Noncontrast images were scored for CAC. CCTA images were visually read and scored for coronary atherosclerosis per segment (defined as no atherosclerosis, 1% to 49% stenosis, or ≥50% stenosis). External validity of prevalence estimates was evaluated using inverse probability for participation weighting and Swedish register data. RESULTS: In total, 25 182 individuals without known coronary heart disease were included (50.6% women). Any CCTA-detected atherosclerosis was found in 42.1%; any significant stenosis (≥50%) in 5.2%; left main, proximal left anterior descending artery, or 3-vessel disease in 1.9%; and any noncalcified plaques in 8.3% of this population. Onset of atherosclerosis was delayed on average by 10 years in women. Atherosclerosis was more prevalent in older individuals and predominantly found in the proximal left anterior descending artery. Prevalence of CCTA-detected atherosclerosis increased with increasing CAC scores. Among those with a CAC score >400, all had atherosclerosis and 45.7% had significant stenosis. In those with 0 CAC, 5.5% had atherosclerosis and 0.4% had significant stenosis. In participants with 0 CAC and intermediate 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease according to the pooled cohort equation, 9.2% had CCTA-verified atherosclerosis. Prevalence estimates had excellent external validity and changed marginally when adjusted to the age-matched Swedish background population. CONCLUSIONS: Using CCTA in a large, random sample of the general population without established disease, we showed that silent coronary atherosclerosis is common in this population. High CAC scores convey a significant probability of substantial stenosis, and 0 CAC does not exclude atherosclerosis, particularly in those at higher baseline risk.

12.
Clin Biochem ; 98: 17-23, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in biomarkers reflective of pathobiology and prognosis between ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are incompletely understood and may offer insights for tailoring of treatment. METHODS: This registry-based study included 538 STEMI and 544 NSTEMI patients admitted 2008-2014. Blood samples were collected day 1-3 after admission and 175 biomarkers were analyzed using Proximity Extension Assay and Multiple Reaction Monitoring mass spectrometry. Adjusted Lasso analysis (penalized logistic regression model) was used to select biomarkers that discriminated STEMI from NSTEMI patients. Biomarkers identified by the Lasso analysis were then evaluated in adjusted Cox regressions for associations with death or major adverse cardiovascular events. RESULTS: Biomarkers strongly discriminated STEMI and NSTEMI when considered simultaneously in adjusted Lasso analysis (c-statistic 0.764). Eleven biomarkers independently discriminated STEMI and NSTEMI; seven showing higher concentrations in STEMI: myoglobin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, serum amyloid A-1 and A-2 protein, ST2 protein, interleukin-6 and chitinase-3-like protein 1; and four showing higher concentrations in NSTEMI: fibroblast growth factor 23, membrane-bound aminopeptidase P, tumor necrosis factor-related activation-induced cytokine and apolipoprotein C-I. During up to 6.6 years of prognostic follow-up, none of these biomarkers exhibited different associations with adverse outcome between STEMI and NSTEMI. CONCLUSIONS: In the acute setting, biomarkers indicated greater myocardial dysfunction and inflammation in STEMI, whereas they displayed a more diverse pathophysiologic pattern in NSTEMI patients. These biomarkers were similarly prognostic in STEMI and NSTEMI patients. The results do not support treating STEMI and NSTEMI patients differently based on the concentrations of these biomarkers.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(17): e017290, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465127

RESUMO

Background Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is a potentially life-threatening acute cardiac syndrome with a clinical presentation similar to myocardial infarction and for which the natural history, management, and outcome remain incompletely understood. Our aim was to assess the relative short-term mortality risk of TS, ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and to identify predictors of in-hospital complications and poor prognosis in patients with TS. Methods and Results This is an observational cohort study based on the data from the SCAAR (Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry). We included all patients (n=117 720) who underwent coronary angiography in Sweden attributed to TS (N=2898 [2.5%]), STEMI (N=48 493 [41.2%]), or NSTEMI (N=66 329 [56.3%]) between January 2009 and February 2018. We compared patients with TS to those with NSTEMI or STEMI. The primary end point was all-cause mortality at 30 days. Secondary outcomes were acute heart failure (Killip Class ≥2) and cardiogenic shock (Killip Class 4) at the time of angiography. Patients with TS were more often women compared with patients with STEMI or NSTEMI. TS was associated with unadjusted and adjusted 30-day mortality risks lower than STEMI (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR], 0.60; 95% CI, 0.48-0.76; P<0.001), but higher than NSTEMI (adjHR, 2.70; 95% CI, 2.14-3.41; P<0.001). Compared with STEMI, TS was associated with a similar risk of acute heart failure (adjHR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.91-1.76; P=0.16) but a lower risk of cardiogenic shock (adjHR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.89; P=0.02). The relative 30-day mortality risk for TS versus STEMI and NSTEMI was higher for smokers than nonsmokers (adjusted P interaction STEMI=0.01 and P interaction NSTEMI=0.01). Conclusions The 30-day mortality rate in TS was higher than in NSTEMI but lower than STEMI despite a similar risk of acute heart failure in TS and STEMI. Among patients with TS, smoking was an independent predictor of mortality.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482507

RESUMO

To assess (1) global longitudinal strain (GLS) by feature tracking cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in the sub-acute and chronic phases after ST-elevation infarction (STEMI) and compare to GLS in healthy controls, and (2) the evolution of GLS and regional longitudinal strain (RLS) over time, and their relationship to infarct location and size. Seventy-seven patients from the CHILL-MI-trial (NCT01379261) who underwent CMR 2-6 days and 6 months after STEMI and 27 healthy controls were included for comparison. Steady state free precession (SSFP) long-axis cine images were obtained for GLS and RLS, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images were obtained for infarct size quantifications. GLS was impaired in the sub-acute (- 11.8 ± 3.0%) and chronic phases (- 14.3 ± 2.9%) compared to normal GLS in controls (- 18.4 ± 2.4%; p < 0.001 for both). GLS improved from sub-acute to chronic phase (p < 0.001). GLS was to some extent determined by infarct size (sub-acute: r2 = 0.2; chronic: r2 = 0.2, p < 0.001). RLS was impaired in all 6 wall-regions in LAD infarctions in both the sub-acute and chronic phase, while LCx and RCA infarctions had preserved RLS in remote myocardium at both time points. Global longitudinal strain is impaired sub-acutely after STEMI and improvement is seen in the chronic phase, although not reaching normal levels. Global longitudinal strain is only moderately determined by infarct size. Regional longitudinal strain is most impaired in the infarcted region, and LAD infarctions have effects on the whole heart. This could explain why LAD infarcts are more serious than the other culprit vessel infarctions and more often cause heart failure.

17.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; 55(6): 340-344, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585998

RESUMO

Objectives: Christmas holidays have been associated with the highest incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). We wanted to assess possible triggers of MI during Christmas. Design: A nationwide, retrospective postal survey with case-control design. All individuals suffering an MI during the Christmas holidays 2018 and 2019 in Sweden were identified through the SWEDEHEART registry and a control group matched in age and gender with chronic coronary syndrome who did not seek medical attention during Christmas were asked for participation. Subjects completed a questionnaire asking them to rate 27 potential MI-triggers as having occurred more or less than usual. Results: A total of 189 patients suffering an MI on Christmas Eve, Christmas Day, or Boxing Day, and 157 patients in the control group responded to the questionnaire, representing response rates of 66% and 62%, respectively. Patients with MI on Christmas experienced more stress (37% vs. 21%, p = .002), depression (21% vs. 11%, p = .024), and worry (26% vs. 10%, p < .001) compared to the control group. The food and sweets consumption was increased in both groups, but to a greater extent in the control group (33% vs. 50%, p = .002 and 32% vs. 43%, p = .031). There were no increases in quarrels, anger, economic worries, or reduced compliance with medication. Conclusions: Patients suffering MI on Christmas holiday experienced higher levels of stress and emotional distress compared to patients with chronic coronary syndrome, possibly contributing to the phenomenon of holiday heart attack. Understanding what factors increase the number of MI on Christmas may help reduce the excess number of MIs and cardiovascular burden.

18.
Circulation ; 144(18): 1476-1484, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational and small, randomized studies suggest that influenza vaccine may reduce future cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We conducted an investigator-initiated, randomized, double-blind trial to compare inactivated influenza vaccine with saline placebo administered shortly after myocardial infarction (MI; 99.7% of patients) or high-risk stable coronary heart disease (0.3%). The primary end point was the composite of all-cause death, MI, or stent thrombosis at 12 months. A hierarchical testing strategy was used for the key secondary end points: all-cause death, cardiovascular death, MI, and stent thrombosis. RESULTS: Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the data safety and monitoring board recommended to halt the trial before attaining the prespecified sample size. Between October 1, 2016, and March 1, 2020, 2571 participants were randomized at 30 centers across 8 countries. Participants assigned to influenza vaccine totaled 1290 and individuals assigned to placebo equaled 1281; of these, 2532 received the study treatment (1272 influenza vaccine and 1260 placebo) and were included in the modified intention to treat analysis. Over the 12-month follow-up, the primary outcome occurred in 67 participants (5.3%) assigned influenza vaccine and 91 participants (7.2%) assigned placebo (hazard ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.52-0.99]; P=0.040). Rates of all-cause death were 2.9% and 4.9% (hazard ratio, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.39-0.89]; P=0.010), rates of cardiovascular death were 2.7% and 4.5%, (hazard ratio, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.39-0.90]; P=0.014), and rates of MI were 2.0% and 2.4% (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.50-1.46]; P=0.57) in the influenza vaccine and placebo groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination early after an MI or in high-risk coronary heart disease resulted in a lower risk of a composite of all-cause death, MI, or stent thrombosis, and a lower risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular death, as well, at 12 months compared with placebo. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02831608.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049380, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426466

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Most patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) have no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and better selection of patients to be referred for diagnostic tests is needed. The CAD-score is a non-invasive acoustic measure that, when added to pretest probability of CAD, has shown good rule-out capabilities. We aimed to test whether implementation of CAD-score in clinical practice reduces the use of diagnostic tests without increasing major adverse cardiac events (MACE) rates in patients with suspected CCS. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: FILTER-SCAD is a randomised, controlled, multicenter trial aiming to include 2000 subjects aged ≥30 years without known CAD referred for outpatient assessment for symptoms suggestive of CCS. Subjects are randomised 1:1 to either the control group: standard diagnostic examination (SDE) according to the current guidelines, or the intervention group: SDE plus a CAD-score. The subjects are followed for 12 months for the primary endpoint of cumulative number of diagnostic tests and a safety endpoint (MACE). Angina symptoms, quality of life and risk factor modification will be assessed with questionnaires at baseline, 3 months and 12 months after randomisation. The study is powered to detect superiority in terms of a reduction of ≥15% in the primary endpoint between the two groups with a power of 80%, and non-inferiority on the secondary endpoint with a power of 90%. The significance level is 0.05. The non-inferiority margin is set to 1.5%. Randomisation began on October 2019. Follow-up is planned to be completed by December 2022. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Danish Medical Agency (2019024326), Danish National Committee on Health Research Ethics (H-19012579) and Swedish Ethical Review Authority (Dnr 2019-04252). All patients participating in the study will sign an informed consent. All study results will be attempted to be published as soon as possible. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04121949; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Acústica , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
20.
Resuscitation ; 166: 74-82, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management (TTM) following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) prolongs the QT-interval but our knowledge of different temperatures and risk of arrhythmia is incomplete. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the QTc, QT-peak (QTp) and T-peak to T-end interval (TpTe) may be useful markers of ventricular arrhythmia in contemporary post cardiac arrest treatment. METHODS: An ECG-substudy of the TTM-trial (TTM at 33 °C vs. 36 °C) with serial ECGs from 680 (94%) patients. Bazett's (B) and Fridericia's (F) formula were used for heart rate correction of the QT, QTp and TpTe. Ventricular arrhythmia (VT/VF) were registered during the first three days of post cardiac arrest care. RESULTS: The QT, QTc and QTp intervals were prolonged more at 33 °C compared to 36 °C and restored to similar and lower levels after rewarming. The TpTe-interval remained between 92-100 ms throughout TTM in both groups. The QTc intervals were associated with ventricular arrhythmia, but not after adjustment for cardiac arrest characteristics. The QTp-interval was not associated with risk of ventricular arrhythmia. Heart rate corrected TpTe-intervals were associated with higher risk of arrhythmia (Odds ratio (OR): TpTe(B): 1.12 (1.02-1.23, p = 0.01 TpTe(F): 1.12 (1.02-1.23, p = 0.02) per 20 ms). Further a prolonged TpTe-interval ≥ 90 ms was consistently associated with higher risk (ORadjusted: TpTe(B): 2.05 (1.25-3.37), p < 0.01, TpTe(F): 2.14 (1.32-3.49), p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: TTM prolongs the QT-interval by prolongation of the QTp-interval without association to increased risk. The TpTe-interval is not significantly affected by core temperature, but heart rate corrected TpTe intervals are robustly associated with risk of ventricular arrhythmia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The TTM-trial is registered and accessible at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01020916).


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia
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