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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272779

RESUMO

In the last years, several attempts have been made to study specific biological markers of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). So far, no laboratory tests have been appropriately validated for the diagnosis and prognosis of these disorders. This study aimed to investigate the proteomic profile of the whole stimulated saliva of TMD myalgia patients in order to evaluate potential diagnostic and/or prognostic salivary candidate proteins which could be useful for the management of TMD. Twenty patients diagnosed with TMD myalgia according to the validated Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) and 20 matched healthy pain-free controls were enrolled. Saliva samples were collected in the morning. Comparative proteomic analysis was performed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis of the quantitative proteomics data revealed that 20 proteins were significantly altered in patients compared to controls. Among these proteins, 12 showed significantly increased levels, and 8 showed significantly decreased levels in patients with TMD myalgia compared to controls. The identified proteins are involved in metabolic processes, immune response, and stress response. This proteomic study shows that the salivary protein profile can discriminate patients with TMD myalgia from healthy subjects, but the protein signature has no correlation with the clinical features of TMD myalgia. Additional studies are needed to validate our observations in additional sample sets and to continue assessing the utility of saliva as a suitable sample for studying processes related to TMD myalgia.

2.
J Oral Rehabil ; 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277715

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate salivary levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), substance P (SP) and glutamate at five time points from morning to afternoon in a well-characterised healthy and pain-free individuals. Ten young adults were included. Unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva were collected from each participant repeatedly across the day. Blood samples were drawn in connection with the first and last saliva sample as reference standard. Levels of NGF and BDNF were determined using gel-free Western blot technology, glutamate levels were analysed using a colorimetric assay, and SP was determined using a commercially available ELISA. Salivary NGF and BDNF showed significant differences between the different collection times in both unstimulated (NGF; P = .006; BDNF; P = .026) and stimulated whole saliva (NGF; P = .006; BDNF; P = .019). The highest concentrations of the neuropeptides were expressed in the early morning, and they thereafter decreased across the day. In contrast, the expression of salivary glutamate and SP did not show any significant changes across the day. Plasma levels of NGF were higher in the evening sample (P = .028); otherwise, there were no significant differences for any of the other markers between morning and evening samples. NGF and BDNF in whole saliva showed a significant variation across the day. On the contrary, no variation in the levels of SP and glutamate was detected. These findings highlight the importance of consistency in the collection time and approach in biomarker studies using saliva.

3.
Lasers Surg Med ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-specific low back pain (LBP) is responsible for triggering increased biomarkers levels. In this way, photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) may be an interesting alternative to treat these patients. One of the possible biological mechanisms of PBMT involved to decrease pain intensity in patients with musculoskeletal disorders is modulation of the inflammatory mediators' levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PBMT compared with placebo on inflammatory mediators' levels and pain intensity in patients with chronic non-specific LBP. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospectively registered, randomized triple-blinded (volunteers, therapists, and assessors), placebo-controlled trial was performed. Eighteen patients with chronic non-specific LBP were recruited and treated with a single session of active PBMT or placebo PBMT. The primary outcome of the study was serum prostaglandin E2 levels and the secondary outcomes were tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 levels, and pain intensity. All outcomes were measured before and after 15 minutes of treatment session. RESULTS: PBMT was able to decrease prostaglandin E2 levels at post-treatment compared with placebo, with a mean difference of -1470 pg/ml, 95% confidence interval -2906 to -33.67 in patients with LBP. There was no difference between groups in the other measured outcomes. Patients did not report any adverse events. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that PBMT was able to modulate prostaglandin E2 levels, indicating that this may be one of the mechanisms involved in the analgesic effects of PBMT in patients with LBP. Trial registration number (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT03859505. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2020 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

4.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Physical exercise is increasingly being promoted by healthcare for chronic pain conditions with beneficial outcomes such as: pain and fatigue reduction, and increased quality of life. Nevertheless, knowledge about biochemical consequences of physical exercise in chronic pain is still relatively poor.The endocannabinoid system has been suggested to play a role for acute exercise-induced reward and pain inhibition. The aim of this study is to investigate the chronic outcomes of resistance exercise on levels of endocannabinoids and related lipids in fibromyalgia (FM). METHODS: This study examine the outcomes of a 15-week person-centered resistance exercise program on plasma levels of the lipid mediators; anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and stearoylethanolamide (SEA) sampled from 37 women with FM and 33 healthy controls. The associations between clinical scorings of pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and muscle strength with levels of these lipid mediators before and after the exercise program are also analysed. RESULTS: After the 15 weeks exercise program anandamide levels were significantly increased and SEA levels significantly decreased in FM. Pain intensity and depression scorings decreased and muscle strength increased, and in a multivariate context muscle strength was positively associated with 2-AG levels after the resistance exercise program in FM. CONCLUSIONS: The increased anandamide and decreased SEA in women with fibromyalgia after the 15 weeks program might point to a chronic effect of resistance exercise. Pain and depression scorings decreased in the fibromyalgia group after the program but no associations between pain, depression and lipid level changes were assured.

5.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(2): 150-157, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both temporomandibular disorders myalgia (TMDM) and fibromyalgia (FM) have been linked to central and peripheral changes in serotonin availability. The precursor of serotonin, tryptophan (TRP), is mainly catabolised via another pathway to produce kynurenine (KYN), but whether changes of this pathway are present in TMDM and FM are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore blood plasma concentrations of TRP and KYN in TMDM and FM in an attempt to identify novel associations for future research. METHODS: Plasma of 113 female participants (17 TMDM, 40 FM and 56 healthy pain-free controls) were analysed for TRP and KYN concentrations. The degradation of TRP via the KYN pathway was indicated by the KYN to TRP ratio (KYN/TRP). Pain intensities were assessed with the Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Psychological symptoms were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and General Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). RESULTS: In TMDM there was a negative correlation between TRP and pain intensity (rs  = -0.55 P = .023) and positive correlations between KYN/TRP and pain intensity (rs  = 0.59 P = .013). In FM, KYN/TRP was negatively correlated with anxiety symptoms (rs  = -0.36 P = .022) and a trend towards significantly lower TRP levels was found compared to controls (P = .05). CONCLUSION: The association between KYN/TRP and pain intensity as well as anxiety ratings in this small exploratory study may indicate that KYN/TRP could be a relevant indicator for symptom severity in TMDM and FM. Further investigations of the KYN pathway in chronic myalgia are warranted.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Feminino , Humanos , Cinurenina , Projetos Piloto , Triptofano
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15474, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664156

RESUMO

This study investigated if repeated buffered acidic saline infusions into the masseter muscles induced muscle pain and mechanical sensitization. Fourteen healthy men participated in this double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study. Two repeated infusions (day 1 and 3) were given in the masseter muscles with either a buffered acidic saline solution (pH 5.2) or an isotonic saline solution (pH 6) as control. After 10 days of wash-out, the experiment was repeated with the other substance. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT), pain intensity, maximum unassisted mouth opening (MUO), and pain drawings were assessed before, directly following, and after each infusion at 5, 15, and 30 min and on day 4 and 7. Fatigue and pain intensity were assessed after a one-minute chewing test 30 min after infusions and day 4 and 7. Acidic saline induced higher pain intensity than control day 3 up to 5 min after infusions, but did not affect PPT. The chewing test did not evoke higher fatigue during chewing or MUO or after acidic saline infusion compared to control. Repeated acidic saline infusions in the masseter muscles induced a short-lasting muscle pain without mechanical hyperalgesia or functional pain. Hence, this model might not be superior to already existing experimental muscle pain models.

7.
J Rehabil Med ; 51(10): 779-787, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of fibromyalgia includes central and peripheral factors. Neurotrophins, such as nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, are involved in peripheral and central nervous system development of pain and hyperalgesia. Few studies have examined circulating nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in fibromyalgia or have investigated whether exercise interventions affect the levels of these peptides. OBJECTIVES: To compare plasma levels of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in fibromy-algia and in healthy controls, to investigate correlations between levels of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and cytokines and clinical variables, and to investigate the effect of exercise on these levels. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 75 women with fibromyalgia participated in blood tests at baseline and after the 15-week intervention, and 25 healthy controls participated at baseline. Patients were randomized to a 15-week progressive resistance exercise intervention or a relaxation intervention. RESULTS: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor level was significantly higher (p < 0.001) and nerve growth factor level was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in fibromyalgia than in healthy controls. Neither resistance exercise nor relaxation interventions affected the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor or nerve growth factor. No significant correlations were found between brain-derived neurotrophic factor or nerve growth factor plasma levels in fibromyalgia and cytokine levels or clinical variables. CONCLUSION: Changes in circulating nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels may affect nociception/pain in fibromyalgia. Clinical improvements were achieved following the exercise intervention, but the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor were not normalized.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Fibromialgia , Fator de Crescimento Neural/sangue , Treinamento de Resistência , Feminino , Fibromialgia/sangue , Fibromialgia/terapia , Humanos
8.
Scand J Pain ; 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150362

RESUMO

Background and aims Although literature concerning chronic pain patients indicates that cognitive behavioural variables, specifically acceptance and fear of movement/(re)injury, are related to life impact, the relative roles of these factors in relation to pain characteristics (e.g. intensity and spreading) and emotional distress are unclear. Moreover, how these variables affect rehabilitation outcomes in different subgroups is insufficiently understood. This study has two aims: (1) to investigate how pain, cognitive behavioural, and emotional distress variables intercorrelate and whether these variables can regress aspects of life impact and (2) to analyse whether these variables can be used to identify clinically meaningful subgroups at baseline and which subgroups benefit most from multimodal rehabilitation programs (MMRP) immediately after and at 12-month follow-up. Methods Pain aspects, background variables, psychological distress, cognitive behavioural variables, and two life impact variables were obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP) for chronic pain patients. These data were analysed mainly using advanced multivariate methods. Results The study includes 22,406 chronic pain patients. Many variables, including acceptance variables, showed important contributions to the variation in clinical presentations and in life impacts. Based on the statistically important variables considering the clinical presentation, three clusters/subgroups of patients were identified at baseline; from the worst clinical situation to the relatively good situation. These clusters showed significant differences in outcomes after participating in MMRP; the subgroup with the worst situation at baseline showed the most significant improvements. Conclusions Pain intensity/severity, emotional distress, acceptance, and life impacts were important for the clinical presentation and were used to identify three clusters with marked differences at baseline (i.e. before MMRP). Life impacts showed complex relationships with acceptance, pain intensity/severity, and emotional distress. The most significant improvements after MMRP were seen in the subgroup with the lowest level of functioning before treatment, indicating that patients with complex problems should be offered MMRP. Implications This study emphasizes the need to adopt a biopsychosocial perspective when assessing patients with chronic pain. Patients with chronic pain referred to specialist clinics are not homogenous in their clinical presentation. Instead we identified three distinct subgroups of patients. The outcomes of MMRP appears to be related to the clinical presentation. Thus, patients with the most severe clinical presentation show the most prominent improvements. However, even though this group of patients improve they still after MMRP show a complex situation and there is thus a need for optimizing the content of MMRP for these patients. The subgroup of patients with a relatively good situation with respect to pain, psychological distress, coping and life impact only showed minor improvements after MMRP. Hence, there is a need to develop other complex interventions for them.

9.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 33(4): 389­398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247061

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate whether an international consensus exists among TMD experts regarding indications, performance, follow-up, and effectiveness of jaw exercises. METHODS: A questionnaire with 31 statements regarding jaw exercises was constructed. Fourteen international experts with some geographic dispersion were asked to participate in this Delphi study, and all accepted. The experts were asked to respond to the statements according to a 5-item verbal Likert scale that ranged from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree." The experts could also leave free-text comments, which was encouraged. After the first round, the experts received a compilation of the other experts' earlier responses. Some statements were then rephrased and divided to clarify the essence of the statement. Subsequently, the experts were then asked to answer the questionnaire (32 statements) again for the second round. Consensus was set to 80% agreement or disagreement. RESULTS: There is consensus among TMD experts that jaw exercises are effective and can be recommended to patients with myalgia in the jaw muscles, restricted mouth opening capacity due to hyperactivity in the jaw closing muscles, and disc displacement without reduction. The patients should always be instructed in an individualized jaw exercise program and also receive both verbal advice and written information about the treatment modality. CONCLUSION: This Delphi study showed that there is an international consensus among TMD experts that jaw exercises are an effective treatment and can be recommended to patients with TMD pain and disturbed jaw function.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Mialgia
10.
J Oral Rehabil ; 46(9): 800-806, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most common non-dental pain in the orofacial region is pain associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and jaw exercises are a common treatment in these cases. Since masticatory myofascial pain has components of an affective and cognitive nature, knowledge about the patients' experiences of the condition and treatment is important. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the patients' experiences of jaw exercises in the treatment of masticatory myofascial pain. METHODS: A questionnaire, containing 24 statements that should be answered according to a five-item verbal Likert scale, was sent to 150 consecutive patients with masticatory myofascial pain according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD after they had been treated with jaw exercises for 3-12 months. RESULTS: The response rate was 73% (n = 109), and 79% of the responders were women. 71% of the patients reported that it was easier to remember the jaw exercises if they put them in conjunction with an already established routine. Before examination, 49% of the patients suspected serious disease behind their symptoms, but these concerns were greatly relieved by the information provided. As a result, 78% reported that information about the underlying cause of their symptoms made them more involved in the treatment. Finally, 72% of the respondents reported that the jaw exercises were effective in reducing their symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Information about the cause of the symptoms and the treatment is important to reassure and make the patient involved in the treatment. Most patients report that jaw exercises are an effective treatment and they appreciated to have tools to tackle the problems themselves if the symptoms should return.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Dor Miofascial , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Terapia por Exercício , Dor Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Pain Res ; 12: 891-908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881099

RESUMO

Background: Chronic pain patients frequently suffer from psychological symptoms. There is no consensus concerning the prevalence of severe anxiety and depressive symptoms and the strength of the associations between pain intensity and psychological distress. Although an important aspect of the clinical picture is understanding how the pain condition impacts life, little is known about the relative importance of pain and psychological symptoms for individual's life impact. The aims of this study were to identify subgroups of pain patients; to analyze if pain, psychological distress, and life impact variables influence subgrouping; and to investigate how patients in the subgroups benefit from treatments. Methods: Background variables, pain aspects (intensity/severity and spreading), psychological distress (depressive and anxiety symptoms), and two life impact variables (pain interference and perceived life control) were obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation for chronic pain patients and analyzed mainly using advanced multivariate methods. Results: Based on >35,000 patients, 35%-40% had severe anxiety or depressive symptoms. Severe psychological distress was associated with being born outside Europe (21%-24% vs 6%-8% in the category without psychological distress) and low education level (20.7%-20.8% vs 26%-27% in the category without psychological distress). Dose relationships existed between the two psychological distress variables and pain aspects, but the explained variances were generally low. Pain intensity/severity and the two psychological distress variables were significantly associated (R 2=0.40-0.48; P>0.001) with the two life impact variables (pain interference and life control). Two subgroups of patients were identified at baseline (subgroup 1: n=15,901-16,119; subgroup 2: n=20,690-20,981) and the subgroup with the worst situation regarding all variables participated less in an MMRP (51% vs 58%, P<0.001) but showed the largest improvements in outcomes. Conclusion: The results emphasize the need to assess both pain and psychological distress and not take for granted that pain involves high psychological stress in the individual case. Not all patients benefit from MMRP. A better matching between common clinical pictures and the content of MMRPs may help improve results. We only partly found support for treatment resistance in patients with psychological distress burden.

12.
Cephalalgia ; 39(10): 1207-1218, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown it is possible to elicit a tension-type headache episode in 15 to 30% of healthy individuals following a tooth-clenching or stress-inducing task. Despite this, no studies have attempted to understand why some healthy individuals develop a headache episode while others do not. METHODS: The present randomized, single-blind, controlled study recruited 60 healthy participants who participated in a 30-minute tooth-clenching task and 10 participants who participated in a control task. Before the tasks, participants had their pericranial tenderness and pain modulation profiles (wind-up ratio and conditioned pain modulation) assessed. Two hours later, pericranial tenderness and pressure pain thresholds were assessed as well as any developing temporomandibular disorders. Pain diaries were kept for 24 hours to register any developing pain or headache. RESULTS: Participants with a decrease in pericranial tenderness after the tooth-clenching task were less likely to develop headache when compared to participants without. Pain modulation profiles could not predict who developed headache and who did not. Finally, no difference was found between groups for developing temporomandibular disorders. No difference in frequency of participants who developed headache was found between the tooth-clenching and the control task. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, it was shown that increased pericranial tenderness was not required to trigger an episode of tension-type headache in healthy participants. Furthermore, pain modulation profiles could not predict who developed headache and who did not. Finally, activation of descending inhibitory pathways, as assessed by decreases in pericranial tenderness, was protective against the development of headache. These findings provide new insights into the pathophysiology of experimentally-induced tension-type headache.

13.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 33(1): 14­24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129938

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate whether static jaw clenching can activate endogenous pain modulation and to compare the magnitude between healthy individuals and patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) myalgia. METHODS: Thirty-three healthy volunteers (17 women and 16 men) and 20 women with TMD myalgia participated. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was examined by recording pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in the masseter (MA) and brachioradialis (BR) muscles during tooth clenching until exhaustion. Pain and fatigue were assessed before and after clenching, and pain amplification was examined by applying a painful mechanical pressure at the MA for 2 minutes while assessing pain every 30 seconds. Analyses of data included repeated measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: In the contracting MA, PPTs increased over time in all three groups (P < .001), while PPTs in the relaxed BR increased only in the men (P = .045). Pain intensity and fatigue in the MA increased after contraction in all groups (P < .003) and was higher in the women with TMD than in the healthy women (P < .001). Only the women with TMD showed pain amplification (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Tooth clenching until exhaustion could activate EIH locally; ie, the magnitude of EIH in the MA was similar in women with TMD myalgia and pain-free women, indicating no deficient EIH in women with TMD. However, only women with TMD showed pain amplification during application of continuous painful pressure.


Assuntos
Bruxismo , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Masseter , Mialgia , Limiar da Dor
14.
J Headache Pain ; 19(1): 88, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since children and adolescents are frequently experiencing emotional and behavioral consequences due to pain, their parents should be aware of this emotional and behavioral status. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and describe the parents' reports of the emotional and behavioral status of children and adolescents with different types of temporomandibular disorders using the Child Behavior Checklist. METHODS: This Cross-sectional study comprises of 386 randomly selected children and adolescents that ages between 10 and 18 years in Jeddah. One day prior the clinical examination according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) Axis I and II, Arabic version of the Child Behavior Checklist scale was distributed to the parents of participant. According to the diagnosis, the participants were divided into three groups; non-TMD group, TMD-pain group, and TMD-painfree group. RESULTS: In regard to internalizing problems, the parents to the children and adolescents in the TMD-pain group rated a higher frequency of anxiety, depression and somatic complaints in their children than the parents of children in the non-TMD group (p < 0.05). Only one significant association regarding the externalizing problems was found for the aggressive behavior in the TMD-pain group. CONCLUSION: The parents rated that their children with TMD-pain suffer from emotional, somatic and aggressive behavior to a higher degree than healthy control subjects. Also, the parents believed that TMD-pain influenced their children's physical activities but not social activities.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Lista de Checagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Dor/psicologia , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/epidemiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/epidemiologia
15.
J Pain ; 19(11): 1318-1328, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29885369

RESUMO

Characterized by chronic widespread pain, generalized hyperalgesia, and psychological stress, fibromyalgia (FM) is difficult to diagnose and lacks effective treatments. Endocannabinoids-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and stearoylethanolamide (SEA)-are endogenous lipid mediators with analgesic and anti-inflammatory characteristics, in company with psychological modulating properties (eg, stress and anxiety), and are included in a new emerging "ome," the endocannabinoidome. This case-control study compared the concentration differences of AEA, OEA, PEA, SEA, and 2-AG in 104 women with FM and 116 healthy control subjects. All participants rated their pain, anxiety, depression, and current health status. The relationships between the lipid concentrations and the clinical assessments were investigated using powerful multivariate data analysis and traditional bivariate statistics. The concentrations of OEA, PEA, SEA, and 2-AG were significantly higher in women with FM than in healthy control subjects; significance remained for OEA and SEA after controlling for body mass index and age. 2-AG correlated positively with FM duration and body mass index, and to some extent negatively with pain, anxiety, depression, and health status. In FM, AEA correlated positively with depression ratings. The elevated circulating levels of endocannabinoidome lipids suggest that these lipids play a role in the complex pathophysiology of FM and might be signs of ongoing low-grade inflammation in FM. Although the investigated lipids are significantly altered in FM, their biological roles are uncertain with respect to the clinical manifestations of FM. Thus plasma lipids alone are not good biomarkers for FM. PERSPECTIVE: This study reports about elevated plasma levels of endocannabinoidome lipid mediators in FM. The lipids' suitability to work as biomarkers for FM in the clinic were low; however, their altered levels indicate that a metabolic asymmetry is ongoing in FM, which could serve as a baseline during explorative FM pain management.

16.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 19(1): 121, 2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health and physical capacity are commonly associated with disease, age, and socioeconomic factors. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the degree to which physical capacity, defined as muscle strength and walking ability, is decreased in women with fibromyalgia (FM), as compared to healthy women, who are matched for age and level of education. The secondary aim was to investigate whether muscle strength and walking ability are associated with age, symptom duration, activity limitations and, Body Mass Index (BMI) in women with FM and control subjects. METHODS: This controlled, cross-sectional, multi-center study comprised 118 women with FM and 93 age- and education-level-matched healthy women. The outcome measures were isometric knee-extension force, isometric elbow-flexion force, isometric hand-grip force, and walking ability. Differences between the groups were calculated, and for the women with FM analyses of correlations between the measures of physical capacity and variables were performed. RESULTS: The women with FM showed 20% (p < 0.001) lower isometric knee-extension force, 36% (p < 0.001) lower isometric elbow-flexion force, 34% (p < 0.001) lower isometric hand-grip force, and 16% lower walking ability (p < 0.001), as compared to the healthy controls. All measures of muscle strength in women with FM showed significant weak to moderate relationship to symptom duration (rs = - 0.23-0.32) and walking ability (rs = 0.25-0.36). Isometric knee-extension force correlated with activity limitations, as measured using the SF-36 Physical function subscale (rs=0.23, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Physical capacity was considerably decreased in the women with FM, as compared to the age- and education-level-matched control group. All measures of physical capacity showed a significant association with symptom duration. Knee-extension force and walking ability were significantly associated with activity limitations, age, and BMI. It seems important to address this problem and to target interventions to prevent decline in muscle strength. Assessments of muscle strength and walking ability are easy to administer and should be routinely carried out in the clinical setting for women with FM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identification number: NCT01226784 , Oct 21, 2010.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia/diagnóstico , Fibromialgia/epidemiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia/epidemiologia , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3220, 2018 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459715

RESUMO

Saliva is often neglected as a body fluid of diagnostic or prognostic value, even though generally well accepted by the patients. This is due to lack of a standardized collection procedure. The aim of this study was to identify the ideal saliva collection technique and develop new sensitive methods to detect and analyse markers related to pain in healthy pain-free subjects. Plasma and five different saliva collection approached was evaluated during strictly controlled conditions. Levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were determined using novel western blotting based technology. Glutamate and substance P (SP) was determined using commercial available methods. Several new isoforms were found for NGF, CGRP and BDNF in saliva. The isoform pattern showed significant variation in both expression and chemiluminescence levels between different collection methods. New sensitive methods to study pain related markers in saliva were developed in this study. Furthermore, we are first to demonstrate a correlation between the Glutamate concentration in stimulated whole saliva and blood. However, the fundamental conclusion drawn is the importance of consistency in the collection method.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Dor , Saliva/química , Adulto , Western Blotting , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/análise , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/análise , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Luminescência , Masculino , Fator de Crescimento Neural/análise , Plasma/química , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Substância P/análise , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 31(4): 353­361, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019476

RESUMO

AIMS: To deepen knowledge of how parents of children diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) perceive the orofacial manifestations of the disease, its treatments, and their encounters with dental care providers. METHODS: A total of 15 interviews with parents of JIA patients (3 to 16 years old) with orofacial pain were analyzed according to classic grounded theory. RESULTS: The main problem was identified as controlling an unpredictable life situation that includes a child with JIA. To solve this main problem, the parent was trying to comprehend, help, and speak for the child with disability, a solution that permeated their life situation. This was therefore identified as the core category, and the other categories (ie, ways parents responded to their situation) were reflecting on and re-evaluating the life situation, monitoring the child's symptoms and treatments, adapting everyday routines, seeking doctors and information, influencing school and society, and managing job and family finances. The main problem and the various categories formed a model reflecting how parents of children diagnosed with JIA act and think. CONCLUSION: It is extremely important for caregivers to understand the complexity of the life situation for parents whose children have been diagnosed with JIA. They must facilitate the parent's understanding of how this disease can influence the orofacial area and day-to-day care.

19.
J Rehabil Med ; 49(9): 744-750, 2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29068036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Resistance exercise results in health benefits in fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that mediate change in muscle strength in women with fibromyalgia as a result of resistance exercise. METHODS: Sixty-seven women with fibromyalgia (age range 25-64 years) were included. Tests of muscle strength and questionnaires related to pain, fear avoidance and physical activity were carried out. Multivariable stepwise regression was used to analyse explanatory factors for change and predictors for final values of knee-extension force, elbow-flexion force and hand-grip force. RESULTS: Change in knee-extension force was explained by fear avoidance beliefs about physical activity at baseline, together with change in pain intensity, knee-extension force at baseline, age and body mass index (BMI) (R2=0.40, p = 0.013). Change in elbow-flexion force was explained by pain intensity at baseline, together with baseline fear avoidance beliefs about physical activity, BMI and elbow-flexion force at baseline (R2 = 0.32, p = 0.043). Change in hand-grip force was explained by hand-grip force at baseline, change in pain intensity and baseline fear avoidance (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.009). Final muscle strength was predicted by the same variables as change, except pain. CONCLUSION: Pain and fear avoidance are important factors to consider in rehabilitation using resistance exercise for women with fibromyalgia.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Fibromialgia/reabilitação , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Dor/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 77(3): 184-189, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276724

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to study possible ethnic differences in steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) during the menstrual cycle. Serum levels of the ovarian steroids estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) and of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), SHBG, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone (T-ria) were all measured by immunoassay during the menstrual cycle in 15 Swedish and 11 West Asian regularly menstruating women. Testosterone (T-ms) was also measured by LC-MS/MS and so were 4-androstene-3,17-dione (A-4) and 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP). There were no ethnic differences in levels of ovarian steroids, gonadotrophins, A-4, 17-OHP and T-ms. DHEA were significantly higher and SHBG significantly lower in West Asian than in Swedish women. Surprisingly, T-ria was significantly higher in West Asian than in Swedish women and higher than T-ms (47% in Swedish and 107% in West Asian women). The difference (T-ria - T-ms) showed strong positive correlations to DHEA in the total and in West Asian but not in Swedish women, indicating an influence of DHEA/DHEAS metabolites on the T-ria results. In conclusion, ethnic differences in cross reacting steroids may cause erroneous results in one ethnic group by a steroid immunoassay having reasonable specificity in another. The reasons for the lower SHBG and the higher DHEA levels in West Asian women are not known. The results raise the question about establishing different reference values for certain analytes in different ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Androstenodiona/sangue , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Ciclo Menstrual , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estradiol/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Imunoensaio/normas , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Ciclo Menstrual/sangue , Ciclo Menstrual/etnologia , Valores de Referência
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