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1.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(7)2022 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878179

RESUMO

This study assessed the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) in mandibular range of motion and muscle tenderness to palpation in persistent myofascial pain (MFP) patients (ReBEC RBR-2d4vvv). Eighty consecutive female subjects with persistent MFP, were randomly divided into four groups (n = 20): three BoNT-A groups with different doses and a saline solution group (placebo control group). Treatments were injected bilaterally in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscle in a single session. Clinical measurements of mandibular movements included: pain-free opening, maximum unassisted and assisted opening, and right and left lateral excursions. Palpation tests were performed bilaterally in the masseter and temporalis muscle. Follow-up occurred 28 and 180 days after treatment. For the statistical analysis the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was used for groups comparisons. Regardless of dose, all parameters of mandibular range of motion significantly improved after 180 days in all BoNT-A groups, compared with the control group. Palpation pain over the masseter and temporalis muscles were significantly reduced in all BoNT-A groups regardless of dose, compared with the control group, after 28 and 180 days of treatment. Independent of doses, BoNT-A improved mandibular range of motion and muscle tenderness to palpation in persistent MFP patients.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Síndromes da Dor Miofascial , Feminino , Humanos , Mialgia , Síndromes da Dor Miofascial/tratamento farmacológico , Medição da Dor , Músculo Temporal , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35628904

RESUMO

The aims of this study were (1) to compare the levels and interactions of several plasma proteins in patients with myogenous temporomandibular disorders (TMDM) compared to healthy and pain-free controls, (2) to compare the levels and interactions in two TMDM subgroups, myalgia (MYA) and myofascial pain (MFP), and (3) to explore associations between the proteins and clinical data. Thirty-nine patients with TMDM (MFP, n = 25, MYA, n = 14), diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria for TMD (DC/TMD), aged 38 years, and sex-matched pain-free controls completed an extended DC/TMD Axis II questionnaire and the plasma concentration of 87 biomarkers were analyzed. Nine proteins separated TMDM from controls (p = 0.0174) and 12 proteins separated MYA from MFP (p = 0.019). Pain duration, characteristic pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, perceived stress, and insomnia severity were significantly associated with protein markers (p < 0.001 to p < 0.022). In conclusion, several plasma proteins were upregulated in TMDM and either upregulated or downregulated in MYA compared to MFP. Some proteins in TMDM were associated with pain variables, sleep disturbance, and emotional function. These results show that systemic differences in protein expression exist in patients with TMDM and that altered levels of specific plasma proteins are associated with different clinical variables.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3240, 2022 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217774

RESUMO

Monitoring the immune system's regulation and signaling using saliva could be of interest for clinicians and researchers. Saliva, a biofluid with close exchange with serum, is influenced by circadian variance and oral factors such as masticatory function. This study investigated the detectability and concentration of cytokines and chemokines in saliva in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as well as saliva flow and the influence of orofacial pain on saliva flow. Of the 60 participants (7-14 years old) enrolled, 30 had a diagnosis of JIA and active disease, and 30 were sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Demographic data and three validated questions regarding presence of orofacial pain and dysfunction were recorded. Stimulated whole saliva was collected and analyzed using a customized R&D bead-based immunoassay with 21 targeted biomarkers. Fourteen of these were detectable and showed similar levels in both children with JIA and controls: TNF-alpha, TNFRSF1B, MMP-2, MMP-3, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6R alpha, IL-8, S100A8, CCL2, CCL3, IL-10, CCL11, and CXCL9. In addition, there was no difference in salivary flow rate between groups, but there was an association between orofacial pain and reduced saliva flow rate for both groups.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol id: 2010/2089-31/2.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Dor Facial , Humanos , Saliva
4.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 54(2): 232-246, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex pain condition, and exercise is considered the first option of treatment. Few studies have examined the effect of exercise on molecular mechanisms in FM. The aim of this study was to analyze the plasma proteome in women with FM and healthy controls (CON) before and after 15 wk of resistance exercise. This study further investigated whether clinical and exercises-related outcomes correlated with identified plasma proteins in FM. METHODS: Plasma samples from 40 FM/25 CON (baseline) and 21 FM/24 CON (postexercise) were analyzed using shotgun proteomics. Clinical/background data were retrieved through questionnaires. Exercise-related variables and pressure pain thresholds were assessed using standardized instruments. Multivariate statistics were applied to analyze the proteomic profile at baseline and postexercise, and correlation with clinical/exercise-related data. RESULTS: Fifteen weeks of resistance exercises improved clinical symptoms and muscle strength, and affected circulating proteins related to immunity, stress, mRNA stability, metabolic processes, and muscle structure development in FM. Pressure pain threshold was related to a specific protein profile, with proteins involved in metabolic and immune response. Subgroups of FM based on plasma proteins, FM duration, and improved muscle strength were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise seems to affect circulating proteins, clinical characteristics, and muscle strength in FM. This study contributes to better understanding of systemic protein changes in FM compared with CON and how resistance exercise affects such changes.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia/terapia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Fibromialgia/sangue , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Oral Rehabil ; 49(1): 37-46, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) develop arthritis and deformity of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), many go undetected. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether findings from patient history and clinical examination using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) can be used to diagnose TMJ involvement. METHODS: As a part of the screening program, 59 consecutive JIA patients age 7-14 years underwent a clinical examination according to RDC/TMD including self-reported orofacial pain and pain related to jaw function, and cone beam computer tomography (CBCT). Data were obtained from the patient's medical charts. Patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of TMJ deformities on CBCT. RESULTS: Self-reported TMJ symptoms before inclusion were reported by 52% of children with and 18% of children without TMJ deformities on CBCT (p = .020). On a group level, the maximum unassisted (mouth) opening (MUO) with and without pain was within the normal range, but children with TMJ deformities showed a significantly smaller MUO with pain (p = .035). A diagnosis of osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis was more prevalent in children with TMJ deformities. CONCLUSION: Although there were few differences between children with and without radiographic TMJ deformities, self-reported previous TMJ symptoms and reduced MUO with pain could indicate the presence of TMJ involvement. However, radiographic examinations are needed to confirm TMJ involvement. Thus, this study indicates that the RDC/TMD protocol is a blunt tool when targeting TMJ involvement in JIA.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Adolescente , Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Artrite Juvenil/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Dor Facial/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Facial/etiologia , Humanos , Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15673, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341446

RESUMO

Nocifensive behavior induced by injection of glutamate or nerve growth factor (NGF) into rats masseter muscle is mediated, in part, through the activation of peripheral NMDA receptors. However, information is lacking about the mechanism that contributes to pain and sensitization induced by these substances in humans. Immunohistochemical analysis of microbiopsies obtained from human masseter muscle was used to investigate if injection of glutamate into the NGF-sensitized masseter muscle alters the density or expression of the NMDA receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) or NGF by putative sensory afferent (that express SP) fibers. The relationship between expression and pain characteristics was also examined. NGF and glutamate administration increased the density and expression of NR2B and NGF by muscle putative sensory afferent fibers (P < 0.050). This increase in expression was greater in women than in men (P < 0.050). Expression of NR2B receptors by putative sensory afferent fibers was positively correlated with pain characteristics. Results suggest that increased expression of peripheral NMDA receptors partly contributes to the increased pain and sensitivity induced by intramuscular injection of NGF and glutamate in healthy humans; a model of myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. Whether a similar increase in peripheral NMDA expression occurs in patients with painful TMDs warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Músculo Masseter , Substância P , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Masculino , Fator de Crescimento Neural , Nociceptores/metabolismo , Limiar da Dor , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Substância P/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13873, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230516

RESUMO

The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying NGF-induced masseter muscle sensitization and sex-related differences in its effect are not well understood in humans. Therefore, this longitudinal cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of NGF injection on the density and expression of substance P, NMDA-receptors and NGF by the nerve fibers in the human masseter muscle, to correlate expression with pain characteristics, and to determine any possible sex-related differences in these effects of NGF. The magnitude of NGF-induced mechanical sensitization and pain during oral function was significantly greater in women than in men (P < 0.050). Significant positive correlations were found between nerve fiber expression of NMDA-receptors and peak pain intensity (rs = 0.620, P = 0.048), and expression of NMDA-receptors by putative nociceptors and change in temporal summation pain after glutamate injection (rs = 0.561, P = 0.003). In women, there was a significant inverse relationship between the degree of NGF-induced mechanical sensitization and the change in nerve fiber expression of NMDA-receptors alone (rs = - 0.659, P = 0.013), and in combination with NGF (rs = - 0.764, P = 0.001). In conclusion, women displayed a greater magnitude of NGF-induced mechanical sensitization that also was associated with nerve fibers expression of NMDA-receptors, when compared to men. The present findings suggest that, in women, increased peripheral NMDA-receptor expression could be associated with masseter muscle pain sensitivity.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Injeções , Músculo Masseter/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Neural/farmacologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mastigação , Células Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Fibras Nervosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Nervosas/metabolismo , Dor/patologia , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Substância P/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Clin Med ; 10(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300304

RESUMO

The impact of comorbidities in fibromyalgia (FM) and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have been well documented, but whether TMD sub-diagnoses myalgia (MYA) and myofascial pain with referral (MFP) differ regarding comorbidity is unclear. We aimed to elucidate this by studying the presence and associations of comorbidities in FM, MFP and MYA. An extended version of the Diagnostic Criteria for TMD axis II questionnaire was used to examine demographics, pain and comorbidities in 81 patients with FM, 80 with MYA, and 81 with MFP. Patients with MFP and FM reported a higher percentage of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, perceived stress, and insomnia compared to MYA. Patients with FM had more IBS, depression, and somatic symptom disorder versus MFP. After adjusting for confounding variables, participants with anxiety, somatic symptoms disorder, pain catastrophizing, and perceived stress, as well as a greater number of comorbidities, were more likely to have MFP than MYA, whereas FM participants were more associated with IBS, somatic symptoms and insomnia compared to MFP. The number of comorbidities was significantly associated with widespread pain but not pain duration, body mass index or being on sick leave. In conclusion, patients with MFP were more similar to those with FM regarding comorbidity and should be differentiated from MYA in clinical settings and pain management.

9.
Pain Med ; 22(10): 2356-2365, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to thoroughly phenotype a group of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) patients. METHODS: Fifteen CTTH patients diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 and 15 healthy controls were included in this study. Furthermore, 70 healthy controls were included to establish normative values. Quantitative sensory testing (QST), including temporal summation of pain (TSP), conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and psychological and sleep variables, was assessed in a single session. TSP and CPM were then combined to build pain modulation profiles (PMP) for each individual. RESULTS: No difference was found between groups for PMP, TSP, and CPM. However, 10 CTTH patients showed a pronociceptive PMP, with 8 related to a deficient CPM and 2 to both a deficient CPM and increased TSP. Increased cold detection thresholds were the most common sensory disturbance found in CTTH patients. Significant differences were seen between groups for pain catastrophizing, depression, and sleep quality although not all patient's scores were above the clinically meaningful cutoffs. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, CTTH patients presented with different PMP. These PMP may be related to increased TSP, deficient CPM, alterations in thermal detection that may be related to autonomic dysregulation, or a combination of all three. Overall, this suggests that due to their heterogeneous pathophysiology, CTTH patients should be managed according to their underlying pathophysiology and not with a one-size-fits-all approach.


Assuntos
Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional , Humanos , Dor , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional/diagnóstico
10.
J Oral Rehabil ; 48(6): 654-665, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate if intramuscular injection of sterile water can be used as a human experimental pain model that resembles clinical craniofacial muscle pain and to analyse if the effects differ between sexes. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study included 30 healthy age-matched women and men (23.6 ± 2.4 years). At three sessions, with at least one week of washout in between, 0.2 mL of either sterile water (test-substance), hypertonic saline (58.5 mg/mL; active control) or isotonic saline (0.9 mg/mL; passive control) was randomly injected into the right masseter muscle. Pain intensity (VAS) was continuously assessed during 5 min whereafter pain duration (s) and pain area (au) were calculated; pressure pain thresholds (PPT;kPa) were recorded every 5 minutes during 30 minutes. RESULTS: Sterile water evoked pain of similar intensity (74.5 ± 49.9) as hypertonic saline (74.0 ± 50.5); whereas, isotonic saline evoked low-intensity pain (11.4 ± 23.4). The pain induced by sterile water and hypertonic saline had higher intensity (P < 0.001), longer duration (P < 0.001) and larger pain area (P < 0.001) than isotonic saline. There were no significant differences in any pain variable between sterile water and hypertonic saline. The PPT did not change significantly after any substance, except for in women 5 minutes after sterile water injection (P < 0.002). Pain duration was longer in the men for all substances (P < 0.006), while the pain area was larger in women after injection of hypertonic saline (P < 0.003). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that pain evoked by sterile water resembles clinical muscle pain and may offer a novel and simpler alternative to hypertonic saline injections.


Assuntos
Mialgia , Limiar da Dor , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Músculo Masseter , Medição da Dor , Solução Salina Hipertônica , Água , Adulto Jovem
11.
Lasers Surg Med ; 53(2): 236-244, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-specific low back pain (LBP) is responsible for triggering increased biomarkers levels. In this way, photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) may be an interesting alternative to treat these patients. One of the possible biological mechanisms of PBMT involved to decrease pain intensity in patients with musculoskeletal disorders is modulation of the inflammatory mediators' levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PBMT compared with placebo on inflammatory mediators' levels and pain intensity in patients with chronic non-specific LBP. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospectively registered, randomized triple-blinded (volunteers, therapists, and assessors), placebo-controlled trial was performed. Eighteen patients with chronic non-specific LBP were recruited and treated with a single session of active PBMT or placebo PBMT. The primary outcome of the study was serum prostaglandin E2 levels and the secondary outcomes were tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 levels, and pain intensity. All outcomes were measured before and after 15 minutes of treatment session. RESULTS: PBMT was able to decrease prostaglandin E2 levels at post-treatment compared with placebo, with a mean difference of -1470 pg/ml, 95% confidence interval -2906 to -33.67 in patients with LBP. There was no difference between groups in the other measured outcomes. Patients did not report any adverse events. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that PBMT was able to modulate prostaglandin E2 levels, indicating that this may be one of the mechanisms involved in the analgesic effects of PBMT in patients with LBP. Trial registration number (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT03859505. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2020 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Dinoprostona , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Dor Lombar/terapia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
12.
J Oral Rehabil ; 48(1): 1-9, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical care of chronic pain requires personalised understanding of the mechanisms involved. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most common chronic orofacial pain conditions, and oxidative stress has been proposed to be implicated in their pathophysiology, especially in arthrogenous TMD. However, few studies have explored oxidative stress in myogenous TMD (TMDM). OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to compare the salivary oxidative stress profiles between individuals with TMDM and healthy controls, and to explore associations of these markers with clinical characteristics. METHODOLOGY: Saliva samples were collected from 39 individuals with TMDM and 37 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Psychological stress levels and clinical characteristics were assessed in all participants. The samples were analysed for total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidative capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase activity (SODa). Comparisons between groups were performed using parametric and non-parametric tests depending on data distribution. RESULTS: Psychological stress was higher in TMDM compared to controls (P < .001). TAC levels were significantly higher (P < .05) whereas TOS levels were significantly lower (P < .05) in TMDM compared to controls. There were no differences in SODa levels between groups and no correlations were found between clinical characteristics and oxidative stress markers. CONCLUSION: Individuals with TMDM showed higher levels of antioxidative markers, but lower levels of oxidative markers. These results can be explained in part by chronicity and adaptation to the disease and other factors, such as psychological stress. Longitudinal studies must be conducted to clarify the role of oxidative stress in TMDM.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Estudos Transversais , Dor Facial , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Saliva
13.
J Oral Rehabil ; 48(1): 35-44, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In skeletal muscle, free nerve endings are mostly located within the connective tissue. However, the distribution of sensory afferent fibres in healthy human masseter muscle tissues has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: Primarily to investigate human masseter muscle nerve fibre densities as well as expression of NR2B receptors, substance P (SP) and nerve growth factor (NGF), and secondarily to compare this between a) nerve fibres associated with myocytes and within connective tissue; b) sexes; and c) ages. METHODS: Microbiopsies of the masseter muscle were obtained from 60 sex- and age-matched healthy participants. Biopsy sections were analysed using immunohistochemistry and were visualised with a Leica TCS SPE confocal microscope. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The density of nerve fibres within connective tissue was significantly greater than in nerve fibres associated with myocytes (P < .001). Nerve fibres within connective tissue expressed SP alone or together with NR2B significantly more often than those associated with myocytes (P < .001). The frequency of nerve fibres, which expressed SP alone or in combination with NR2B or NGF, was significantly greater in women than in men (P < .050). Moreover, the co-expression of the three markers together was inversely correlated with age in women (P < .002). CONCLUSIONS: There is a higher density and greater expression of sensory nerve fibres within the connective tissue than associated with myocytes in healthy human masseter muscle. This suggests that nerve fibres within connective tissue are more involved in nociception than nerve fibres associated with myocytes.


Assuntos
Músculo Masseter , Substância P , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Fibras Nervosas , Fator de Crescimento Neural
14.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 35(4): 278-287, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990496

RESUMO

AIMS: (1) To deepen knowledge on how specialized health care professionals (HCPs) reflect on encounters with children diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and (2) to outline a theory for orofacial care. METHODS: Grounded theory was used to discover the psychosocial processes involved in communication between HCPs, children, and parents, and this information was used to develop a theory about these processes. Using classic grounded theory, a total of 20 interviews with HCPs were analyzed. RESULTS: One main concern, "secure health and biopsychosocial development," permeated all care. A core category was identified as "create a responsive interaction with the child and family." The data that supported this core category helped to explain how the HCP responded to a patient to promote orofacial health. Based on the dentist's responses to the child, eight subcategories were identified: (1) secure confidential relationships; (2) convey disease-specific knowledge; (3) communicate healthy findings and form mutual insights at examination; (4) encourage health-promoting behaviors; (5) ensure follow-up; (6) share perspectives; (7) guide parenting; and (8) improve knowledge and networks. CONCLUSION: How the dentist shall best understand the needs of a child diagnosed with JIA requires further evaluation. To promote oral health, the child must feel safe, confirmed, and supported with knowledge. Also, further studies are needed on the dentist's collaboration with the pediatrician and the physiotherapist for contributing to overall health.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil , Artrite Juvenil/terapia , Criança , Emoções , Dor Facial/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Bucal
15.
Front Oral Health ; 2: 647924, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047998

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to monoaminergic neurotransmission, in particular the serotonergic pathway, contribute to pain perception in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) myalgia and if there is a correlation to jaw function as well as psychosocial factors such as stress, anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventeen individuals with TMD myalgia were included. A venous blood or saliva sample was taken for genetic analyses and genotyped regarding HTR2A (rs9316233) HTR3A (rs1062613), HTR3B (rs1176744), SERT (5-HTTLPR) and COMT (rs4680). A clinical examination according to Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) was performed and axis II data (psychosocial factors) were compared between participants with different genotypes for each gene using Kruskall-Wallis test. The characteristic pain intensity (CPI) was tested for correlations to scores for the Perceived Stress Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Patient Health Questionnaires using Spearman's rank correlation test with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. To further explore data factor analysis was performed to identify latent factors associated to the outcome variables. Results: Participants carrying at least one copy of the rare allele of the HTR2A (rs9316233) and HTR3A (rs1062613) had higher CPI compared with the participants with the homozygous common genotype (P = 0.042 and P = 0.024, respectively). Correlation analyses showed several significant positive correlations between CPI on one hand, and self-reported psychosocial distress and jaw function on the other hand for several genotypes that mostly were weak to moderate. The factor analysis identified two latent variables. One was positively correlated to the HTR3B gene, jaw function and self-reported parafunctions, and the other was positively correlated to psychological distress and negatively correlated to SERT. Conclusion: Taken together, the polymorphism rs1062613 in the HTR3A gene contributes to pain intensity in TMD myalgia. This together with positive interactions between pain variables and psychological factors in genotypes strengthens that pain and psychological distress are related. Further research is needed to explore this as well as the influence of gene-to-gene interactions on pain and psychological distress.

16.
Front Oral Health ; 2: 675709, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048020

RESUMO

Background: Several studies have reported an association between temporomandibular disorder pain (TMD-P) and emotional disorders in children and adolescents. However, no studies have reported if self-reported TMD-P in Saudi Arabia is associated with psychosocial symptoms. Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the association between self-reported TMD-P with depression, anxiety and somatic problems in children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The hypothesis was that there is an association between self-reported TMD-P and psychological symptoms among children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: The included participants were randomly selected boys and girls aged between 10 and 18 years, with a mean (SD) age of 14.0 (2.3) years. Out of 633 children and adolescents that were invited to participate, 509 voluntarily agreed to participate, and 466 completed all questionnaires. The questionnaires included items retrieved from the Youth Self Report (YSR) and Axis II of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) besides demographic data, medical history, and presence of oral parafunctions. To assess the presence of self-reported TMD-Pain, each participant was verbally asked two validated questions regarding the presence of TMD-P and dysfunction (2Q-TMD). Results: Self-reported TMD-P in children and adolescents was significantly associated with anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, and social problems (P < 0.0001). Further, the frequencies of anxiety, depression, and somatic disorders were more evident among children and adolescents who suffered from TMD-P (P < 0.0001). The odds of reporting TMD-P in children and adolescents was 1.4 times for border line and clinical diagnosis scores for anxiety and withdrawal depression domains, and 2.6 times for the somatic symptoms' domains. However, in the multiple regression model after controlling for possible confounders, only somatic symptoms and social scores were significant. Moreover, self-reported TMD-P was twice as prevalent among girls compared to boys. Conclusion: This study reports a significant association between psychosocial burden and presence of self-reported TMD-Pain, with a stronger impact on girls than boys. There were significantly higher number of participants with self-reported TMD-P reporting a poor oral and general health. In addition, self-reported TMD-P was higher among those with borderline and clinically diagnosed anxiety/depression scores. Based on this finding, the current study supports that an early approach and recognition of children and adolescents with anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, and TMD problems. This could result in a lesser burden for these children and adolescents both in regard to pain and psychosocial implications with increased quality of life.

17.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 34(4): 364-373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290442

RESUMO

AIMS: To study the effect and cost-effectiveness of jaw exercise treatment in patients with masticatory myofascial pain. METHODS: A total of 97 patients with myofascial pain according to the RDC/TMD were randomized into three groups: (1) jaw exercises; (2) stabilization appliance; or (3) no treatment. After 3 months, the patients were evaluated according to the following instruments: pain intensity according to a visual analog scale (VAS); global improvement according to the Patient Global Impression of Change scale (PGIC); depression and anxiety according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); jaw function according to the Jaw Functional Limitation Scale (JFLS-20); consumption of analgesics; and frequency of tension-type headache. RESULTS: Pain intensity during jaw movement decreased significantly more in the jaw exercise group compared to the no treatment group (P < .001). There was no statistically significant difference between the jaw exercise and stabilization appliance groups in this aspect. The patients in the treatment groups reported greater improvement on the PGIC compared to the no treatment group (P < .001). There was a significant decrease in headache frequency (P = .028), consumption of analgesics (P = .007), and JFLS scores (P = .008) in the jaw exercise group compared to the no treatment group. In the jaw exercise group, patients had fewer appointments and a lower mean treatment time compared to the group that received stabilization appliance treatment. CONCLUSION: Jaw exercises are effective in reducing pain intensity, headache, and consumption of analgesics in patients with masticatory myofascial pain. Jaw exercises are also cost-effective when compared to treatment with a stabilization appliance.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Dor Facial , Dor Facial/terapia , Humanos , Arcada Osseodentária , Medição da Dor , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 105, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different pain syndromes may be characterized by different profiles of mediators reflecting pathophysiological differences, and these alterations may be measured in a simple saliva sample. The aims of the current study were to compare concentration of glutamate, serotonin (5-HT), nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and substance P (SP) in saliva and plasma from a well-defined group of patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders myalgia (TMD-myalgia) with a group of pain-free controls, and further investigate the relationship between these markers and clinical characteristics. METHODS: Patients diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria for TMD (n = 39), and matched healthy pain-free controls (n = 39) were included. Stimulated whole saliva and plasma samples were collected in the morning. Glutamate was analysed using a colorimetric assay, and 5-HT and SP were analysed by commercially available ELISA. Levels of NGF and BDNF were determined using multiplex electrochemiluminescence assay panel. RESULTS: Patients expressed higher salivary and plasma levels of glutamate (saliva: 40.22 ± 13.23 µmol/L; plasma: 30.31 ± 18.73 µmol/L) than controls (saliva: 33.24 ± 11.27 µmol/L; plasma: 20.41 ± 15.96 µmol/L) (p < 0.05). Salivary NGF (0.319 ± 0.261 pg/ml) and BDNF (3.57 ± 1.47 pg/ml) were lower in patients compared to controls (NGF: 0.528 ± 0.477 pg/ml; BDNF 4.62 ± 2.51 pg/ml)(p's < 0.05). Contrary, plasma BDNF, was higher in patients (263.33 ± 245.13 pg/ml) than controls (151.81 ± 125.90 pg/ml) (p < 0.05). 5-HT was undetectable in saliva. Neither plasma 5-HT, nor SP levels differed between groups. BDNF and NGF concentrations correlated to levels of psychological distress (p < 0.0005). CONCLUSION: The higher levels of salivary and plasma glutamate in patients with TMD-myalgia compared to controls strengthens its importance in the pathophysiology of TMD-myalgia. However, the lack of correlation to pain levels question its role as a putative biomarker. Patients with TMD-myalgia further had lower levels of salivary NGF and BDNF, but higher plasma BDNF. These results and their correlations to psychological distress warrant further investigations.


Assuntos
Saliva/metabolismo , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/sangue , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Substância P/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12508, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719459

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex pain condition where the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms are not fully elucidated. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the plasma proteome profile in women with FM compared to controls. The secondary aim was to investigate if plasma protein patterns correlate with the clinical variables pain intensity, sensitivity, and psychological distress. Clinical variables/background data were retrieved through questionnaires. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed using an algometer. The plasma proteome profile of FM (n = 30) and controls (n = 32) was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Quantified proteins were analyzed regarding group differences, and correlations to clinical parameters in FM, using multivariate statistics. Clear significant differences between FM and controls were found in proteins involved in inflammatory, metabolic, and immunity processes. Pain intensity, PPT, and psychological distress in FM had associations with specific plasma proteins involved in blood coagulation, metabolic, inflammation and immunity processes. This study further confirms that systemic differences in protein expression exist in women with FM compared to controls and that altered levels of specific plasma proteins are associated with different clinical parameters.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia/sangue , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Dor/sangue , Dor/psicologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Dor/fisiopatologia , Limiar da Dor , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais
20.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(9): 1184-1191, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that botulinum toxin A (BONT-A) is a safe and effective treatment in relieving pain in patients with persistent idiopathic dentoalveolar pain (PIDP). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to systematically evaluate all the available studies investigating the pain-relieving effects of BONT-A in patients with PIDP. METHODS: A systematic search with specific search terms was made in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. Two authors screened titles and abstracts and selected eligible studies for inclusion in the systematic review. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the 12 items Quality Assessment Tool for Observational studies (Pre-Post) Studies with No Control Group, and the level of evidence was assessed according to GRADE. RESULTS: Three observational studies of 3695 identified were included (445 overlapping studies; 3247 excluded studies). All studies were uncontrolled observational studies investigating the pain-relieving effect of BONT-A in patients with PIDP. The included studies had a fair quality (moderate risk of bias) and insufficient level of evidence. The pain reducing effect by BONT-A injections was in average 50% or more in two studies, in one study 3 out of 4 patients became almost pain free. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review shows that presently the level of scientific evidence is insufficient to evaluate the pain-relieving effect of BONT-A injections in patients with PIDP. There are indications that BONT-A injections could be a possible management option for patients with PIDP that seems to be safe and with few adverse events. There is a need for well-designed placebo-controlled, double-blind RCTs.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Manejo da Dor , Dor , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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