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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3965, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803924

RESUMO

Transition-metal dichalcogenides intercalated with 3d-transition metals within the van der Waals (vdW) gaps have been the focus of intense investigations owing to their fascinating structural and magnetic properties. At certain concentrations the intercalated atoms form ordered superstructures that exhibit ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic ordering. Here we show that the self-intercalated compound Cr1+δTe2 with δ ≈ 0.3 exhibits a new, so far unseen, three-dimensionally ordered (2×2×2) superstructure. Furthermore, high resolution X-ray diffraction reveals that there is an asymmetric occupation of the two inequivalent vdW gaps in the unit cell. The structure thus lacks inversion symmetry, which, thereby, allows for chiral non-collinear magnetic nanostructures. Indeed, Néel-type skyrmions are directly observed using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. The skyrmions are stable within the accessible temperature range (100-200 K) as well as in zero magnetic field. The diameter of the Néel skyrmions increases with lamella thickness and varies with applied magnetic field, indicating the role of long-range dipole fields. Our studies show that self-intercalation in vdW materials is a novel route to the formation of synthetic non-collinear spin textures.

2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2472, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513364

RESUMO

Spin-momentum locking in topological insulators and materials with Rashba-type interactions is an extremely attractive feature for novel spintronic devices and is therefore under intense investigation. Significant efforts are underway to identify new material systems with spin-momentum locking, but also to create heterostructures with new spintronic functionalities. In the present study we address both subjects and investigate a van der Waals-type heterostructure consisting of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 and a single Se-Ta-Se triple-layer (TL) of H-type TaSe2 grown by a method which exploits an interface reaction between the adsorbed metal and selenium. We then show, using surface x-ray diffraction, that the symmetry of the TaSe2-like TL is reduced from D3h to C3v resulting from a vertical atomic shift of the tantalum atom. Spin- and momentum-resolved photoemission indicates that, owing to the symmetry lowering, the states at the Fermi surface acquire an in-plane spin component forming a surface contour with a helical Rashba-like spin texture, which is coupled to the Dirac cone of the substrate. Our approach provides a route to realize chiral two-dimensional electron systems via interface engineering in van der Waals epitaxy that do not exist in the corresponding bulk materials.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(18): 4152-4158, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507411

RESUMO

We theoretically study the effect of low-frequency light pulses in resonance with phonons in the topological and magnetically ordered two-septuple layer (2-SL) MnBi2Te4 (MBT) and MnSb2Te4 (MST). These materials share symmetry properties and an antiferromagnetic ground state in pristine form but present different magnetic exchange interactions. In both materials, shear and breathing Raman phonons can be excited via nonlinear interactions with photoexcited infrared phonons using intense laser pulses that can be attained in the current experimental setups. The light-induced transient lattice distortions lead to a change in the sign of the effective interlayer exchange interaction and magnetic order accompanied by a topological band transition. Furthermore, we show that moderate antisite disorder, typically present in MBT and MST samples, can facilitate such an effect. Therefore, our work establishes 2-SL MBT and MST as candidate platforms for achieving non-equilibrium magneto-topological phase transitions.

4.
ACS Nano ; 16(3): 3573-3581, 2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156797

RESUMO

The f-driven temperature scales at the surfaces of strongly correlated materials have increasingly come into the focus of research efforts. Here, we unveil the emergence of a two-dimensional Ce Kondo lattice, which couples ferromagnetically to the ordered Co lattice below the P-terminated surface of the antiferromagnet CeCo2P2. In its bulk, Ce is passive and behaves tetravalently. However, because of symmetry breaking and an effective magnetic field caused by an uncompensated ferromagnetic Co layer, the Ce 4f states become partially occupied and spin-polarized near the surface. The momentum-resolved photoemission measurements indicate a strong admixture of the Ce 4f states to the itinerant bands near the Fermi level including surface states that are split by exchange interaction with Co. The temperature-dependent measurements reveal strong changes of the 4f intensity at the Fermi level in accordance with the Kondo scenario. Our findings show how rich and diverse the f-driven properties can be at the surface of materials without f-physics in the bulk.

5.
Adv Mater ; 34(11): e2108637, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048455

RESUMO

There is considerable interest in van der Waals (vdW) materials as potential hosts for chiral skyrmionic spin textures. Of particular interest is the ferromagnetic, metallic compound Fe3 GeTe2 (FGT), which has a comparatively high Curie temperature (150-220 K). Several recent studies have reported the observation of chiral Néel skyrmions in this compound, which is inconsistent with its presumed centrosymmetric structure. Here the observation of Néel type skyrmions in single crystals of FGT via Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) is reported. It is shown from detailed X-ray diffraction structure analysis that FGT lacks an inversion symmetry as a result of an asymmetric distribution of Fe vacancies. This vacancy-induced breaking of the inversion symmetry of this compound is a surprising and novel observation and is a prerequisite for a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya vector exchange interaction which accounts for the chiral Néel skyrmion phase. This phenomenon is likely to be common to many 2D vdW materials and suggests a path to the preparation of many such acentric compounds. Furthermore, it is found that the skyrmion size in FGT is strongly dependent on its thickness: the skyrmion size increases from ≈100 to ≈750 nm as the thickness of the lamella is increased from ≈90 nm to ≈2 µm. This extreme size tunability is a feature common to many low symmetry ferro- and ferri-magnetic compounds.

6.
Adv Mater ; 33(42): e2102935, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469013

RESUMO

Ferromagnetic topological insulators exhibit the quantum anomalous Hall effect, which is potentially useful for high-precision metrology, edge channel spintronics, and topological qubits.  The stable 2+ state of Mn enables intrinsic magnetic topological insulators. MnBi2 Te4 is, however, antiferromagnetic with 25 K Néel temperature and is strongly n-doped. In this work, p-type MnSb2 Te4 , previously considered topologically trivial, is shown to be a ferromagnetic topological insulator for a few percent Mn excess. i) Ferromagnetic hysteresis with record Curie temperature of 45-50 K, ii) out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy, iii) a 2D Dirac cone with the Dirac point close to the Fermi level, iv) out-of-plane spin polarization as revealed by photoelectron spectroscopy, and v) a magnetically induced bandgap closing at the Curie temperature, demonstrated by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), are shown. Moreover, a critical exponent of the magnetization ß ≈ 1 is found, indicating the vicinity of a quantum critical point. Ab initio calculations reveal that Mn-Sb site exchange provides the ferromagnetic interlayer coupling and the slight excess of Mn nearly doubles the Curie temperature. Remaining deviations from the ferromagnetic order open the inverted bulk bandgap and render MnSb2 Te4 a robust topological insulator and new benchmark for magnetic topological insulators.

7.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(42): 423001, 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182926

RESUMO

We present an efficient methodology to study spin waves in disordered materials. The approach is based on a Heisenberg model and enables calculations of magnon properties in spin systems with disorder of an arbitrary kind and concentration of impurities. Disorder effects are taken into account within two complementary approaches. Magnons in systems with substitutional (uncorrelated) disorder can be efficiently calculated within a single-site coherent potential approximation for the Heisenberg model. From the computation point of view the method is inexpensive and directly applicable to systems like alloys and doped materials. It is shown that it performs exceedingly well across all concentrations and wave vectors. Another way is the direct numerical simulation of large supercells using a configurational average over possible samples. This approach is applicable to systems with an arbitrary kind of disorder. The effective interaction between magnetic moments entering the Heisenberg model can be obtained from first-principles using a self-consistent Green function method within the density functional theory. Thus, our method can be viewed as an ab initio approach and can be used for calculations of magnons in real materials.

8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 5(5): 1700978, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876219

RESUMO

Quantum magnetic properties in a geometrically frustrated lattice of spin-1/2 magnet, such as quantum spin liquid or solid and the associated spin fractionalization, are considered key in developing a new phase of matter. The feasibility of observing the quantum magnetic properties, usually found in geometrically frustrated lattice of spin-1/2 magnet, in a perovskite material with controlled disorder is demonstrated. It is found that the controlled chemical disorder, due to the chemical substitution of Ru ions by Co-ions, in a simple perovskite CaRuO3 creates a random prototype configuration of artificial spin-1/2 that forms dimer pairs between the nearest and further away ions. The localization of the Co impurity in the Ru matrix is analyzed using the Anderson localization formulation. The dimers of artificial spin-1/2, due to the localization of Co impurities, exhibit singlet-to-triplet excitation at low temperature without any ordered spin correlation. The localized gapped excitation evolves into a gapless quasi-continuum as dimer pairs break and create freely fluctuating fractionalized spins at high temperature. Together, these properties hint at a new quantum magnetic state with strong resemblance to the resonance valence bond system.

9.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(30): 305801, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888709

RESUMO

Oxygen vacancies can be of utmost importance for improving or deteriorating physical properties of oxide materials. Here, we studied from first-principles the electronic and magnetic properties of oxygen vacancies in the double perovskite Sr2FeMoO6 (SFMO). We show that oxygen vacancies can increase the Curie temperature in SFMO, although the total magnetic moment is reduced at the same time. We found also that the experimentally observed valence change of the Fe ions from 3+ to 2+ in the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements is better explained by oxygen vacancies than by the assumed mixed valence state. The agreement of the calculated x-ray absorption spectra and XMCD results with experimental data is considerably improved by inclusion of oxygen vacancies.

10.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 5(4): 1700856, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721429

RESUMO

The nature of magnetic correlation at low temperature in two-dimensional artificial magnetic honeycomb lattice is a strongly debated issue. While theoretical researches suggest that the system will develop a novel zero entropy spin solid state as T → 0 K, a confirmation to this effect in artificial honeycomb lattice of connected elements is lacking. This study reports on the investigation of magnetic correlation in newly designed artificial permalloy honeycomb lattice of ultrasmall elements, with a typical length of ≈12 nm, using neutron scattering measurements and temperature-dependent micromagnetic simulations. Numerical modeling of the polarized neutron reflectometry data elucidates the temperature-dependent evolution of spin correlation in this system. As temperature reduces to ≈7 K, the system tends to develop novel spin solid state, manifested by the alternating distribution of magnetic vortex loops of opposite chiralities. Experimental results are complemented by temperature-dependent micromagnetic simulations that confirm the dominance of spin solid state over local magnetic charge ordered state in the artificial honeycomb lattice with connected elements. These results enable a direct investigation of novel spin solid correlation in the connected honeycomb geometry of 2D artificial structure.

11.
Nano Lett ; 18(3): 1564-1574, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29365269

RESUMO

A rich class of spintronics-relevant phenomena require implementation of robust magnetism and/or strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) to graphene, but both properties are completely alien to it. Here, we for the first time experimentally demonstrate that a quasi-freestanding character, strong exchange splitting and giant SOC are perfectly achievable in graphene at once. Using angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we show that the Dirac state in the Au-intercalated graphene on Co(0001) experiences giant splitting (up to 0.2 eV) while being by no means distorted due to interaction with the substrate. Our calculations, based on the density functional theory, reveal the splitting to stem from the combined action of the Co thin film in-plane exchange field and Au-induced Rashba SOC. Scanning tunneling microscopy data suggest that the peculiar reconstruction of the Au/Co(0001) interface is responsible for the exchange field transfer to graphene. The realization of this "magneto-spin-orbit" version of graphene opens new frontiers for both applied and fundamental studies using its unusual electronic bandstructure.

12.
Adv Mater ; 29(10)2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28092134

RESUMO

A conducting 2D electron gas (2DEG) is formed at the interface between epitaxial LaFeO3 layers >3 unit cells thick and the surface of SrTiO3 single crystals. The 2DEG is exquisitely sensitive to cation intermixing and oxygen nonstoichiometry. It is shown that the latter thus allows the controllable formation of the 2DEG via ionic liquid gating, thereby forming a nonvolatile switch.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(31): 20440-7, 2016 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27447197

RESUMO

To actualize the high spintronic application potential of complex magnetic oxides, it is essential to fabricate these materials as thin films with the best possible magnetic and electrical properties. Sr2FeMoO6 is an outstanding candidate for such applications, but presently no thin film synthesis route, which would preserve the magnetic properties of bulk Sr2FeMoO6, is currently known. In order to address this problem, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study where we link the magnetic and half metallic properties of Sr2FeMoO6 thin films to lattice strain, Fe-Mo antisite disorder and oxygen vacancies. We find the intrinsic effect of strain on the magnetic properties to be very small, but also that an increased strain will significantly stabilize the Sr2FeMoO6 lattice against the formation of antisite disorder and oxygen vacancies. These defects, on the other hand, are recognized to drastically influence the magnetism of Sr2FeMoO6 in a nonlinear manner. On the basis of the findings, we propose strain manipulation and reductive annealing as optimization pathways for improving the spintronic functionality of Sr2FeMoO6.

14.
Nano Lett ; 16(7): 4535-43, 2016 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27248659

RESUMO

The implementation of future graphene-based electronics is essentially restricted by the absence of a band gap in the electronic structure of graphene. Options of how to create a band gap in a reproducible and processing compatible manner are very limited at the moment. A promising approach for the graphene band gap engineering is to introduce a large-scale sublattice asymmetry. Using photoelectron diffraction and spectroscopy we have demonstrated a selective incorporation of boron impurities into only one of the two graphene sublattices. We have shown that in the well-oriented graphene on the Co(0001) surface the carbon atoms occupy two nonequivalent positions with respect to the Co lattice, namely top and hollow sites. Boron impurities embedded into the graphene lattice preferably occupy the hollow sites due to a site-specific interaction with the Co pattern. Our theoretical calculations predict that such boron-doped graphene possesses a band gap that can be precisely controlled by the dopant concentration. B-graphene with doping asymmetry is, thus, a novel material, which is worth considering as a good candidate for electronic applications.

15.
Sci Rep ; 6: 24411, 2016 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27076097

RESUMO

We predict a fast domain wall (DW) motion induced by a thermal gradient across a nanoscopic ferromagnetic stripe of MnBi. The driving mechanism is an exchange torque fueled by magnon accumulation at the DWs. Depending on the thickness of the sample, both hot-to-cold and cold-to-hot DW motion directions are possible. The finding unveils an energy efficient way to manipulate DWs as an essential element in magnetic information processing such as racetrack memory.

16.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(1): 016003, 2016 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657257

RESUMO

A standard local density approximation and its self-interaction corrected version are applied to study spontaneous magnetization, promoted by localized p electron holes, of polar oxygen-terminated ZnO surfaces. The electronic properties and magnetic exchange interactions of three different facets are calculated. It is demonstrated that partially filled oxygen p orbitals of the polar surfaces exhibit magnetic moment formation and long range magnetic order leading to the occurrence of a ferromagnetic ground state. Monte Carlo simulations predict Curie temperatures above room temperature. In contrast to isolated defects in bulk materials, applying correlation corrections to the localized p-like surface states does not lead to a collapse of magnetic interaction: as the weakening of the magnetic interaction, caused by the reduced electronic overlap, is compensated by a strengthening due to an increase of the magnetic moments, the ferromagnetism can principally persist above room temperature, provided a large hole concentration exists.

17.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 27(43): 435202, 2015 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26447352

RESUMO

For a reliable fully-relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green function method, an accurate solution of the underlying single-site scattering problem is necessary. We present an extensive discussion on numerical solutions of the related differential equations by means of standard methods for a direct solution and by means of integral equations. Our implementation is tested and exemplarily demonstrated for a spherically symmetric treatment of a Coulomb potential and for a Mathieu potential to cover the full-potential implementation. For the Coulomb potential we include an analytic discussion of the asymptotic behaviour of irregular scattering solutions close to the origin (r << 1).

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(4): 047002, 2015 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25679904

RESUMO

Inelastic tunneling spectroscopy of Pb islands on Cu(111) obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy below 1 K provides a direct access to the local Eliashberg function of the islands with high energy resolution. The Eliashberg function describes the electron-phonon interaction causing conventional superconductivity. The measured Eliashberg function strongly depends on the local thickness of the Pb nanostructures and shows a sharp maximum when quantum well states of the Pb islands come close to the Fermi energy. Ab initio calculations reveal that this is related to enhanced electron-phonon coupling at these thicknesses.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Chumbo/química , Modelos Teóricos , Fônons , Teoria Quântica , Cobre/química , Microscopia de Tunelamento/métodos
19.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 26(27): 274210, 2014 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24934388

RESUMO

We briefly describe the density functional theory (DFT)-based 'disordered local moment' (DLM) picture for magnetism at finite temperatures. It shows how relatively slowly fluctuating local moments can emerge from the interacting electrons of many materials. Such entities have rigid magnitudes and fluctuate their orientations from atomic site to atomic site on a timescale long compared to other electronic times. We illustrate this theory with calculations of the magnetocaloric effect in Gd where we find excellent agreement with experiments. Fluctuating moments do not appear to establish naturally over such small regions for some other materials. We show how the DFT-DLM theory can be extended to these materials with the use of the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker nonlocal coherent potential approximation (KKR-NLCPA) to allow for more extensive, slow magnetic fluctuations. We present the first application of this approach by revisiting the description of the magnetic fluctuations prevalent in the paramagnetic state of nickel. We find that local moments can emerge above Tc and that these form coherently over small clumps of atomic sites (4-8 sites).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Gadolínio/química , Campos Magnéticos , Modelos Químicos , Níquel/química , Simulação por Computador , Temperatura , Torque
20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 112(1): 016802, 2014 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24483917

RESUMO

A topological insulator is realized via band inversions driven by the spin-orbit interaction. In the case of Z2 topological phases, the number of band inversions is odd and time-reversal invariance is a further unalterable ingredient. For topological crystalline insulators, the number of band inversions may be even but mirror symmetry is required. Here, we prove that the chalcogenide Bi2Te3 is a dual topological insulator: it is simultaneously in a Z2 topological phase with Z2 invariants (ν0;ν1ν2ν3) = (1;0 0 0) and in a topological crystalline phase with mirror Chern number -1. In our theoretical investigation we show in addition that the Z2 phase can be broken by magnetism while keeping the topological crystalline phase. As a consequence, the Dirac state at the (111) surface is shifted off the time-reversal invariant momentum Γ; being protected by mirror symmetry, there is no band gap opening. Our observations provide theoretical groundwork for opening the research on magnetic control of topological phases in quantum devices.

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