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1.
J Food Biochem ; 44(3): e13155, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960484

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the possible effects of the antioxidant agent (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan on bortezomib-induced rat testis damage. We used five groups of rats; control, (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan (75 mg/kg), bortezomib group, bortezomib + (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan groups (injection of (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan after bortezomib and sacrificed at 48th or 72nd h). The effects of these substances were assessed by measuring the levels of the antioxidant enzymes and LPO, and by performing immunohistochemical analysis with NF-κB. The histology of testis was evaluated using aniline blue staining. (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan leads to significant reductions in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and increased levels of LPO in testes. Moreover, it increased the NF-κB immunopositivity significantly in testis, especially in Bortezomib + (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan group at 48th h. The histological changes were observed in the bortezomib and/or (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan groups. Our results demonstrated that testis damage caused by the treatment with bortezomib was not eliminated by (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan and shockingly it increased the damage. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The testis damage caused by the treatment with bortezomib was not eliminated by (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan and as a result, ß-1,3-(D)-glucan enhanced the toxicity by leading a decrease in the levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT, thus caused an elevation in the immunoreactivity of NF-κB and altered the histopathological changes by enhancing the toxic effects of bortezomib. The findings of the previous studies about the antioxidative activity of (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan are controversial. So, it is necessary to consider the cytotoxicity of (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan in testis tissue. Thus, more studies on testis tissue are necessary to confirm that (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan is safe as an antioxidant.

2.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 73(1): 1-7, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474702

RESUMO

In addition to tube drains, pleural empyema is treated with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. We aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of roflumilast combined with linezolid in a rat model of pleural empyema induced by Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 40 rats were divided into 7 groups: sham (n = 4), S. aureus inoculation (n = 6), S. aureus + 10 mg/kg linezolid (n = 6), S. aureus + 5 mg/kg roflumilast (n = 6), S. aureus + 10 mg/kg linezolid + 5 mg/kg roflumilast (n = 6), S. aureus + 10 mg/kg roflumilast (n = 6), and S. aureus + 10 mg/kg linezolid + 10 mg/kg roflumilast (n = 6). Animals were administered linezolid 1 h before and 12 h after inoculation with S. aureus. Roflumilast was administered orally as a single dose 30 min before inoculation with S. aureus. Compared to linezolid treatment alone, linezolid combined with 5 mg/kg roflumilast significantly improved TNF-α, IL-1ß, vasodilation/congestion, and tissue/pleural polynuclear leukocyte (PNL) infiltration (p < 0.05). Linezolid combined with 10 mg/kg roflumilast also provided a significant improvement in TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, endothelin-1, vasodilation/congestion, mesothelial cell damage, lung tissue PNL, and pleural PNL compared to linezolid alone (p < 0.05). Due to its anti-inflammatory effects and significant impact on recovery, roflumilast can be used in conjunction with antibiotherapy for the treatment of pleural empyema.

3.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 300(5): 1405-1412, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549220

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ovarian ischemia-reperfusion (IR) damage continues to be a serious infertility problem. The oxidative stress plays central role in the development of IR injuries. Activation of antioxidants decreases IR injuries; however, the efficacy of antioxidant agents remains controversial. Unfortunately, there has been no evidence for medicinal use of boric acid (BA) and propolis (Prop) on ovarian IR injury on rats so far. This study will provide to reveal the potential applications of the Prop and BA in ovarian IR therapy. METHODS: The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups: I-control, II-IR, 3 h of ischemia and 3 h of reperfusion, III and IV-a signal dose of oral BA (7 mg/kg) and Prop (100 mg/kg) alone 1 h before induction of IR, V-Prop and BA together 1 h before induction of IR. SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase), GSH (glutathione), MPO (myeloperoxidase), MDA (malondialdehyde), and IL-6 (interleukin-6) levels were quantified by ELISA and the TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), 8-OHdG (8-hydroxylo-2'-deoxyguanosin) and Caspase-3 expressions were performed by immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: BA and Prop pretreatment significantly reduced MPO, MDA, and IL-6 levels and pathologic score in IR rats, with no effects in control group. These agents used in therapy also decreased TNF-α, 8-OHdG and Caspase-3 protein expressions increased by IR. Furthermore, BA and Prop combination showed significant ameliorative effects on ovary injury caused by IR through acting as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic agent. CONCLUSION: BA and Prop alone and especially in combination could be developed as therapeutic agents against ovary IR injury.

4.
Inflammation ; 42(5): 1585-1594, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081527

RESUMO

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a fatal disease that includes inflammation formed by septic and non-septic causes. Reactive oxygen radicals (ROS) play a key role in ARDS pathophysiology and constitute the base of damage process. Antioxidant vitamins are used for inhibiting hazardous effects of radicals. Therefore, effects of antioxidant vitamins such as α-lipoic acid (ALA), vitamin E (VITE), and C (VITC) were investigated on oleic acid (OA)-induced ARDS rat model. Furthermore, high and low dose of methylprednisolone (HDMP, LDMP) was used for comparing effects of the vitamins. In this study, 42 male rats were divided to seven groups named control, OA, ALA, VITE, VITC, LDMP, and HDMP. OA was intravenously administered to all groups except control group and other compounds were orally administered (ALA, VITE, and VITC: 100 mg/kg, LDMP: 5 mg/kg, HDMP: 50 mg/kg) after OA injections. OA increased MDA level in lung tissue and TNF-α and IL-1ß cytokine levels in serum. ALA, VITE, VITC, and both dose of MP significantly decreased the cytokine levels. Although OA reduced SOD, CAT, and GSH levels in lung tissue, the vitamins and LDMP markedly enhanced the levels except for HDMP. Furthermore, OA showed thickening in bronchi and alveolar septum, hyperemia in vessels, and inflammatory cell infiltrations in lung tissue histopathological examinations. Antioxidant vitamins may be useful for premedication of ARDS and similar disorders. However, methylprednisolone was not found sufficient for being a therapeutic agent for ARDS.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/farmacologia , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Ácido Oleico , Pré-Medicação/métodos , Ratos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/induzido quimicamente
5.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 192(2): 214-221, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783919

RESUMO

Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury which causes kidney dysfunction is one of the most studied diseases directly linked to oxidative stress. In this regard, it is important to protect cells against damage by inducing antioxidant response. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic roles and possible mechanisms of propolis and boric acid in kidney I/R injury based on relevant basic research and clinical studies. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 50 min of ischemia followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Animals were randomly divided into a control group (the abdominal wall was just opened and closed), an I/R injury group, the propolis intervention group (200 mg/kg, intragastric administration, 1 h before ischemia), boric acid intervention group (14 mg/kg, intragastric administration 1 h before ischemia), and the propolis + boric acid intervention group (intragastric administration 1 h before ischemia). Kidney function, the antioxidant defensive system, and renal damage were assessed. In addition, the oxidative stress and inflammatory status were estimated in renal tissue. Furthermore, DNA damageand apoptosis were detected by immunohistochemistry. When compared with I/R group, propolis alone and especially propolis + boric acid groups significantly improved functional parameters. While the antioxidant response was increased, renal injury size and apoptosis were significantly decreased in both groups. Also, the MDA and TNF-α levels besides the 8-OHdG formation were downregulated. According to these outcomes, it can be said that especially propolis together with boric acid ameliorates kidney injury caused by I/R through acting as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic agent. In conclusion, propolis alone and its combination with boric acid could be developed as therapeutic agents against serious renal I/R injuries.

6.
Phytomedicine ; 55: 191-199, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Veratrum, hellebore is an important plant species of the Liliaceae family and jervine is the characteristic steroidal alkaloid constituent of Veratrum album. PURPOSE: In the current study, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of jervine isolated from NH4OH-benzene extract of V. album rhizomes were investigated on CAR induced paw edema in rats. METHODS/STUDY DESIGN: In inflammatory study, 50, 100, 200 and 400  mg/kg doses of jervine, 25  mg/kg doses of DIC and IND were orally administered, and the volume of the foots were measured up to their knee arthrosis by plethismometer. After one hour of the oral administration of the all treatments, 0.1 ml of CAR solution (1%) was injected into the foot of the all rat groups and the volume of the foots were measured during 5 h after CAR injection. GPx, SOD, GR, MPO, CAT enzymes activities and GSH, LPO levels of the supernatants of paw homogenates and inflammation biomarkers such as TNF-α and IL-1ß in the rats serums were also estimated. RESULTS: According to the present results, jervine exerted 50.4-73.5% anti-inflammatory effects in carrageenan induced paw edema. Inflammation biomarkers such as TNF-α, IL-1ß and MPO that increased by CAR injection were suppressed by the administrations of all doses of jervine, IND and DIC. In all paw tissues, LPO levels as indicator of oxidative tissue damage were found to be high in CAR-treated group and it was found to be decreased in all doses of jervine. CONCLUSION: Jervine, DIC and IND reduced the negative effects of CAR due to increasing effects on the SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx and GR antioxidants.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Veratrum/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carragenina/toxicidade , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Enzimas/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rizoma/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Veratrum/química , Alcaloides de Veratrum/administração & dosagem , Alcaloides de Veratrum/isolamento & purificação
8.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-13, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426792

RESUMO

Ethnopharmacological studies demonstrated that thymol (Thym) and oleuropein (Ole) have therapeutic potential for gastric ulcers. The molecular mechanism underlying the gastroprotective effects of these compounds have not been elucidated yet especially for their individual and combination use at high dose. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore their gastroprotective mechanisms on indomethacin (Indo)-induced gastric ulcer model. Ole (50,100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and Thym (50,100, 200, and 500 mg/kg) were orally administered to the rats 10 min before the induction of ulcer with Indo. The combination of 500 mg/kg doses of Ole and Thym were applied. The gastric mucosa was evaluated histopathologically. Moreover, TAC/TOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and caspase-3 levels were assessed by ELISA and the caspase-3 and TNF-α expressions were quantified by qRT-PCR. Indo-induced histopathological changes while Ole and Thym pretreatment prevented these effects. Unlike the 500 mg/kg dose of Ole treatment, the 500 mg/kg dose of Thym administration enhanced these damages. The decreased TAC, PGE2 levels and increased TOS, eNOS, TNF-α, caspase-3 levels were obtained in Indo group. However, these changes were reversed by Ole and Thym groups except the 500 mg/kg dose of Thym and the combination treatment groups. Similar trends were observed in the caspase-3 and TNF-α expression levels. These results demonstrated that enhanced inflammation, oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, and apoptotic activities were occurred in Indo, 500 mg/kg dose of Thym and the combination treatment groups while not in the other groups. The findings demonstrated the gastroprotective ability of Ole and low doses of Thym in gastric ulcer models.

9.
Acta Cir Bras ; 33(4): 375-385, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of melatonin on antioxidant capacity, inflammation and apoptotic cell death (through expression of cleaved-caspase 3) in lung tissue samples of diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control group) was made up of healthy rats. Group 2 (diabetes group) received streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days.Group 3 (diabetes plus melatonin group) received streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days and then they received melatonin at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day between 28thand 35thdays of the study. RESULTS: Tissue MDA and MPO levels were found to be significantly higher in diabetes group compared to control group (p<0.05) whilst administration of melatonin was found to significantly lower this increase down to normal levels (p<0.05). Bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was more severe in diabetics whereas administration of melatonin alleviated this hyperplasia. Cleaved caspase 3 activity was severe in hyperplastic BALT in diabetic rats however in lowered down to moderate level when melatonin was administered. CONCLUSION: The melatonin caused an increase in antioxidant capacity and decreased the expression of cleaved-caspase 3.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Caspase 3/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caspase 3/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Glutationa/análise , Imuno-Histoquímica , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Peroxidase/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estreptozocina , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(4): 375-385, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-886280

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of melatonin on antioxidant capacity, inflammation and apoptotic cell death (through expression of cleaved-caspase 3) in lung tissue samples of diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control group) was made up of healthy rats. Group 2 (diabetes group) received streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days.Group 3 (diabetes plus melatonin group) received streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days and then they received melatonin at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day between 28thand 35thdays of the study. Results: Tissue MDA and MPO levels were found to be significantly higher in diabetes group compared to control group (p<0.05) whilst administration of melatonin was found to significantly lower this increase down to normal levels (p<0.05). Bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was more severe in diabetics whereas administration of melatonin alleviated this hyperplasia. Cleaved caspase 3 activity was severe in hyperplastic BALT in diabetic rats however in lowered down to moderate level when melatonin was administered. Conclusion: The melatonin caused an increase in antioxidant capacity and decreased the expression of cleaved-caspase 3.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Caspase 3/análise , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Catalase/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina , Peroxidase/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Caspase 3/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/análise , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Malondialdeído/análise
11.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 46(sup2): 9-14, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523028

RESUMO

Cystitis is defined as an inflammation of the bladder caused by a bacterial infection, and it can be dangerous and painful when it spreads through the internal organs. In this study, antioxidant effects of hydroxylfasudil (HF) at the enzymatic and molecular level on kidney and liver tissues in cystitis rat model, which is caused by inflammation of the rat bladder with a protamine sulphate (PS), was examined. Quantitative changes of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, which are a marker for oxidative stress, were determined in rat kidney and liver tissues for each groups. And then molecular and biochemical impact of HF treatment on antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in cystitis model were studied. The results suggest that HF could be beneficial to the renal and hepatic antioxidant system. Thus, HF might be used as a novel therapeutics agent to eliminate interstitial cystitis.


Assuntos
1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Cistite/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Protaminas/farmacologia , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/farmacologia , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Catalase/metabolismo , Cistite/induzido quimicamente , Cistite/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Ann Hepatol ; 17(6): 980-991, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600301

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Indo is widely one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and one of the common toxic effects of this drug is hepatic failure. Thymol is a monoterpene phenol with many different pharmacological activities. However, up to now its hepatoprotective effects on Indo-induced gastric ulcer model in rats have not been explored yet. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty five Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups: control, ulcer control (30 mg/kg Indo), Indo + reference standard (50 mg/kg Rantidine), Indo + Thymol (75, 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg) groups. 10 minutes after the induction of ulcer with Indo; Thymol was orally administered to the rats. Liver function enzymes (AST, ALT and LDH) were measured from serum samples. TOS/TAC, TNF-α and PGE2 levels, eNOS and Caspase-3 activity were assessed from tissue homogenate samples. In addition, histopathologic analysis on liver sections was performed. RESULTS: Indo significantly increased the levels of hepatic enzymes, TNF-α and eNOS, and caspase-3 activation, while decreased PGE2 levels. Furthermore, it induced oxidative stress as evidenced by elevated TOS and decreased TAC levels. However, Thymol treatment induced a significant improvement in these parameters, especially in 250 mg/kg dose. On the other hand, treatment with Thymol 500 mg/kg dramatically affected the parameters much worse than the Indo treated group. CONCLUSION: The findings of the current study demonstrated that Thymol administration significantly ameliorated liver injury due to Indo toxicity. This effect of Thymol (250 mg/kg) may be mediated by its anti-oxidative or anti-inflammatory effect, and up-regulation the synthesis of PGE2.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Indometacina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Timol/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Citoproteção , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Feminino , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 19(12): 1214-1231, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28429624

RESUMO

The current systemic treatments of the various solid tumors involve Cisplatin (CIS)-based chemotherapy. Due to its cytotoxicity, this approach is limited. Moreover, the safety of CIS is only discussed especially in breast and stomach cancers. Therefore, we, for the first time, explored the restorative efficacy of oleuropein (OLE), in stomach and lung injuries induced by CIS. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: control CIS, OLE and CIS + OLE. Single dose of (7 mg/kg) CIS was administered intraperitoneally to CIS and CIS + OLE groups. After 24 h, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg OLE was given for three consecutive days to OLE and CIS + OLE groups. The 8-OH-dG, total oxidative/antioxidant status (TOS/TAS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated and histopathological analyses were performed on the studied tissues. The results indicated that CIS significantly increased 8-OH-dG, MDA and TOS levels and caused severe tissue damages. However, high dose of OLE induced a significant decrease in the 8-OH-dG, MDA levels, an increase in TAS levels and it restores CIS-induced tissue damages. We hope that the results of this study will provide an impetus for future studies on novel therapeutic strategies including the protective use of oleuropein in gastric and lung cancers due to chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Iridoides/farmacologia , Animais , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Malondialdeído , Estrutura Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 123(4): 219-224, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338341

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to purify carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes from human erythrocyte, isolate two natural products osajin (OSJ) and pomiferin (PMF) from Maclura pomifera fruits, and evaluate the in vitro effect of these natural metabolites on these isoenzymes. These natural products may be used as starting points for drug discovery (like drugs used in several therapeutic applications, including antiglaucoma activity). For the purification procedure, the Sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-sulphonamide affinity chromatography was used. Column chromatography and thin layer chromatography methods were used for isolation of OSJ and PMF from M. pomifera fruits and their chemical structures were elucidated by IR, 1D, and 2D NMR methods. We compared inhibitory effects of these natural products with inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds and found that these products demonstrated average inhibition effects. We thought that this study will give inspiration to scientists interested in this issue.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica II/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica I/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Humanos
15.
Chemosphere ; 166: 445-452, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27705832

RESUMO

We investigated changes in nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) activity, antioxidant responses and histopathological effects in the liver, gill and kidney tissues of rainbow trout exposed to nickel chloride (Ni). Two different concentrations (1 mg/L and 2 mg/L) were administrated to fish for 21 days. Tissues were taken from all fish for NFkB activity, histopathological examination and determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) enzyme activity and of lipid peroxidation (LPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels. The findings of this study indicated that Ni exposure led to a significant increase in LPO indicating peroxidative damage and antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT activity in tissues (p < 0.05), but 2 mg/Ni concentration caused a significant decrease in CAT activity in kidney tissues (p < 0.05). One of mechanism in the antioxidant defense system seems to be GSH, which increased in gill and kidney tissues of fish exposed to Ni (p < 0.05). NFkB immunopositivity was detected in all tissues. Ni exposure caused lamellar thickening, cellular infiltration in gill tissues, hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes in liver tissues, hyalinous accumulation within the glomeruli and tubular degeneration in kidney tissues. Our results suggested that Ni toxicity may disturb the biochemical and physiological functions of fish by causing changes in NFkB activity and oxidative and histopathological damage in the tissues of rainbow trout. This study can provide useful information for understanding of Ni-induced toxicity.


Assuntos
Fígado/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Níquel/toxicidade , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxirredução , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 49: 14-20, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27886567

RESUMO

Linuron is a widely used herbicide to control grasses and annual broad leaf weeds. It is known that linuron has toxic effects on different organisms. However, the toxic effects of linuron on aquatic organisms, especially fish, is completely unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate changes in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) activity, histopathological changes, antioxidant responses and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rainbow trout brain after exposure to linuron. Fish were exposed to 30µg/L, 120µg/L and 240µg/L concentrations of linuron for twenty-one days. Brain tissues were taken from fish for 8-OHdG and NFkB activity, histopathological examination and determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Our data indicated that high linuron concentrations caused a decrease in GSH levels, SOD and CAT activities in brain tissues (p<0.05). LPO levels were significantly increased by 240µg/L linuron. All concentrations caused a significant inhibition in brain AChE enzyme activity (p<0.05). Immunopositivity was detected for 8-OHdG and NFkB, and linuron exposure caused histopathological damage to the brain tissues. The results of this study can provide useful information for understanding of linuron-induced toxicity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Linurona/toxicidade , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
Iran J Basic Med Sci ; 19(5): 483-9, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27403254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the present study, our aim was to investigate the possible protective effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatotoxicity by using Hep3B human hepatoma cells. Specifically, the study examines the role of some proinflammatory markers and oxidative damage as possible mechanisms of LPS-associated cytotoxicity. Consequently, the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep3B was chosen as a model for investigation of LPS toxicity and the effect of EGCG on LPS-exposed cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Hep3B human hepatoma cells were used for this study. The cytotoxic effects of chemicals (EGCG and LPS), AST and ALT levels, SOD and CAT activities, GSH-Px level and TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels were detected by using different biochemical and molecular methods. LPS and EGCG were applied to cells at various times and doses. RESULTS: The highest treatment dose of EGCG (400 µM) led to a dramatic decrease in SOD level and increase in CAT and GSH levels. Additionally, the highest dose of EGCG also led to a dramatic increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels. On the other hand, effective doses of EGCG (200 and 100 µM) normalized all related parameters levels. CONCLUSION: LPS caused hepatotoxicity, but interestingly, a high dose of EGCG was found to be a cytotoxic agent in this study. However, other two doses of EGCG led to a decrease in both inflammatory cytokine levels and antioxidant enzyme levels. Further studies should examine the effect of EGCG on secondary cellular signaling pathways.

18.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 77: 169-175, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27430379

RESUMO

The central nervous system (CNS) begins developing in the intrauterine period, a process that continues until adulthood. Contact with chemical substances, drugs or environmental agents such as electromagnetic field (EMF) during adolescence therefore has the potential to disturb the development of the morphological architecture of components of the CNS (such as the hippocampus). The hippocampus is essential to such diverse functions as memory acquisition and integration and spatial maneuvering. EMF can result in severe damage to both the morphology of the hippocampus and its principal functions during adolescence. Although children and adolescents undergo greater exposure to EMF than adults, the information currently available regarding the effects of exposure to EMF during this period is as yet insufficient. This study investigated the 60-day-old male rat hippocampus following exposure to 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF throughout the adolescent period using stereological, histopathological and biochemical analysis techniques. Eighteen male Sprague Dawley rats aged 21days were assigned into control, sham and EMF groups on a random basis. No procedure was performed on the control group rats. The EMF group (EMFGr) was exposed to a 900-MHz EMF for 1h daily from beginning to end of adolescence. The sham group rats were held in the EMF cage but were not exposed to EMF. All rats were sacrificed at 60days of age. Their brains were extracted and halved. The left hemispheres were set aside for biochemical analyses and the right hemispheres were subjected to stereological and histopathological evaluation. Histopathological examination revealed increased numbers of pyknotic neurons with black or dark blue cytoplasm on EMFGr slides stained with cresyl violet. Stereological analyses revealed fewer pyramidal neurons in EMFGr than in the other two groups. Biochemical analyses showed an increase in malondialdehyde and glutathione levels, but a decrease in catalase levels in EMFGr. Our results indicate that oxidative stress-related morphological damage and pyramidal neuron loss may be observed in the rat hippocampus following exposure to 900-MHz EMF throughout the adolescent period.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Hipocampo/efeitos da radiação , Células Piramidais/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Peso Corporal , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/efeitos da radiação , Catalase/metabolismo , Contagem de Células , Telefone Celular , Citoplasma/efeitos da radiação , Citoplasma/ultraestrutura , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hipocampo/citologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 38(3): 228-37, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27144896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that apigenin may inhibit some cellular process of sepsis-induced spleen injury and simultaneously improve inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of apigenin in a polymicrobial sepsis rat model of by cecal ligation and puncture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 64 female Wistar albino rats were divided into 8 groups. The pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1-beta) and anti-inflammatory (tumor growth factor-beta and interleukin-10) cytokine levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CD3, CD68, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) positivity rates were detected by immunohistochemical methods. Oxidative stress parameters were measured by tissue biochemistry. RESULTS: Sepsis caused a significant increase in TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta levels whereas it reduced IL-10 level. Additionally, it led to an increase in CD3, CD68, and NF-κB positivity rates as well as oxidative stress parameters levels. However, apigenin inhibited the inflammation process, increased the IL-10 level and normalized the oxidative stress parameters. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with apigenin results in a significant reduction in the amount of inflammatory cells. The beneficial effect of apigenin on spleen injury also involved inhibition of NF-κB pathway, suppression of proinflammatory cytokines, and induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine production. Additionally, it led to a decrease in oxidative stress in spleen tissue. Taking everything into account, apigenin may be an alternative therapeutic option for prevention of sepsis-induced organ.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sepse/imunologia
20.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2016: 9050828, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26989334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation and oxidative stress (OxS) contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Patients with DKD were found to be more prone to CIN. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a proinflammatory cytokine, but its role in DKD and CIN is unknown. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were enrolled. The first group was comprised of healthy rats (HRs), whereas the other four groups were made up of diabetic rats (DRs), diabetic rats with contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN + DRs), melatonin-treated diabetic rats (MTDRs), and melatonin-treated CIN + DRs (MTCIN + DRs). All groups except the HRs received 50 mg/kg/day streptozotocin (STZ). CIN + DRs were constituted by administrating 1.5 mg/kg of intravenous radiocontrast dye on the 35th day. MTDRs and MTCIN + DRs were given 20 mg/kg/day of intraperitoneal injection of melatonin (MT) from the 28th day for the constitutive seven days. RESULTS: We observed increased IL-33 in the kidney tissue following induction of CIN in DRs. To determine whether MT is effective in preventing CIN, we administered MT in CIN + DRs and demonstrated that kidney tissue levels of OxS markers, inflammatory cytokines, and IL-33 were significantly diminished in MTCIN + DRs compared with other groups without MT treatment (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Inhibition of IL-33 with MT provides therapeutic potential in DKD with CIN.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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