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1.
J Autoimmun ; 108: 102397, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alveolar haemorrhage (AH) is considered an important cause of morbidity and early mortality in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of outcome in patients with AH-AAV and to evaluate outcome and causes of death in this subset. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 29 Italian Centers. Clinicians were asked to recruit all patients diagnosed with AAV-associated AH during the last 10 years, from 2007 to 2016. Univariate and multivariable analysis were performed. RESULTS: One-hundred and six patients were included (median age at onset of 55 years [IQR 42-67]). The majority were ANCA-positive (PR3 57.1%, MPO 33.7%) and 72.6% had also renal involvement. At presentation, anaemia was shown in 97 (92.4%) patients, hemoptysis in 54 (51.9%), respiratory failure in 68 (66.7%), of whom 48 (70.6%), requiring respiratory support. At the end of the 37 months [IQR 13-77] follow-up, 19/106 (17.9%) patients were dead. The main causes of death were active disease and infections. By stepwise regression analysis, age >65 years (HR 3.66 [95% CI 1.4-9.51], p = 0.008) and the need for respiratory support (HR 4.58 [95% CI 1.51-13.87], p = 0.007) at AH onset were confirmed to be predictive of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Predictors of outcome in AAV-AH were determined. Factors related to the patient's performance status and the severity of the lung involvement strongly influenced the outcome. Balancing harms and benefits for the individual patient in induction and maintenance treatment strategies is crucial.

2.
J Inflamm Res ; 12: 301-308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819587

RESUMO

Purpose: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can result from complex interactions between the affected person's genetic background and environment. Viral and bacterial infections may play a pathogenetic role in RA through different mechanisms of action. We aimed to evaluate the presence of antibodies (Abs) directed against two proteins of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in sera of RA subjects, which are crucial for the survival of the pathogen within macrophages. Moreover, we analyzed the correlation of immune response to both proteins with the following homologous peptides: BOLF1305-320, MAP_402718-32 and IRF5424-434 to understand how the synergic role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and MAP infection in genetically predisposed subjects may lead to a possible deregulation of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5). Materials and methods: The presence of Abs against protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) and protein kinase G (PknG) in sera from Sardinian RA patients (n=84) and healthy volunteers (HCs, n=79) was tested by indirect ELISA. Results: RA sera showed a remarkably high frequency of reactivity against PtpA in comparison to HCs (48.8% vs 7.6%; p<0.001) and lower but statistically significant responses towards PknG (27.4% vs 10.1%; p=0.0054). We found a significant linear correlation between the number of swollen joints and the concentrations of antibodies against PtpA (p=0.018). Furthermore, a significant bivariate correlation between PtpA and MAP MAP_402718-32 peptide has been found, suggesting that MAP infection may induce a secondary immune response through cross-reaction with IRF5 (R2=0.5). Conclusion: PtpA and PknG are strongly recognized in RA which supports the hypothesis that MAP infection may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA.

3.
Minerva Med ; 110(6): 530-545, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726814

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormones have multiple effects on lipid metabolism as well as on the cardiovascular system function. These negative cardiovascular effects have long been recognized in overt hypothyroidism but can be reversed by treatment with levothyroxine. EVIDENCES ACQUISITION: We performed on PubMed a literature search for the articles published until March 2019 by using the search terms "subclinical hypothyroidism," "cardiovascular disease," "cholesterol," "LDL," "HDL," "triglycerides," "coronary heart disease," "heart failure," "atherosclerosis," "all-cause mortality," "levothyroxine." EVIDENCES SYNTHESIS: Subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as an elevated thyrotropin (TSH) with a normal free thyroxine (FT4), is frequent in the general population and increase with age. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been linked to cardiovascular risk factors, dyslipidemia and increased atherosclerosis. Although some studies have demonstrated that lipids are elevated in subclinical hypothyroidism, other studies did not confirm these data. Clinical trials have also demonstrated there is no clear evidence that levothyroxine therapy in subjects with milder form (TSH<10 mU/L) of subclinical hypothyroidism could improve lipid status and the other cardiovascular risk factors. Nevertheless, TSH level seems the best predictor of cardiovascular disease, in particular when its levels are above 10 mU/L. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective studies are necessary to clarify the cardiovascular risk in patients with mild subclinical hypothyroidism and to assess the importance of treating elderly people in order to improve or counteract the correlated risks. However, until clinical recommendations will be updated, the decision to treat or not treat patients with subclinical hypothyroidism will still base on clinical judgment, clinical practice guidelines, and expert opinion.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Doenças Assintomáticas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Hormônios Tireóideos/fisiologia
4.
Microorganisms ; 7(10)2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597322

RESUMO

Environmental factors such as bacterial infections may play an important role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate pathogen of ruminants able to use the host's cholesterol for survival into macrophages and has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through a molecular mimicry mechanism. Here, we aimed at investigating the correlation between humoral reactivity against MAP and serum lipoprotein levels in subjects at T1DM risk (rT1DM) grouped by geographical background and in patients affected by MS or RA. Our results showed significant differences in HDL, LDL/VLDL and Total Cholesterol (TC) levels between patients and healthy controls (p < 0.0001). Patients positive to anti-MAP Abs (MAP+) had lower HDL levels in comparison with Abs negative (MAP-) subjects, while opposite trends were found for LDL/VLDL concentrations (p < 0.05). TC levels varied between MAP+ and MAP- patients in all three assessed diseases. These findings suggest the implication of anti-MAP Abs in fluctuations of lipoprotein levels highlighting a possible link with cardiovascular disease. Further studies will be needed to confirm these results in larger groups.

5.
Eur J Intern Med ; 69: 57-63, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the significance of the association between treatment with methotrexate (MTX) and liver stiffness in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: We enrolled 140 consecutive RA patients under MTX treatment (MTX-treated RA; mean treatment duration: 6.2 years; mean MTX cumulative dose: 4.67 g), 33 RA patients naive to MTX (MTX-naive RA) and 100 age and sex-matched healthy blood donors (HD). Liver stiffness was assessed by real time two-dimensional shear wave elastography, with values ≥7.1 Kilopascals (kPa) defining significant liver fibrosis. RESULTS: kPa values in HD (4.32 ±â€¯0.7) were lower than that in MTX-naive RA (4.92 ±â€¯0.8) and MTX-treated RA (4.85 ±â€¯0.9, p < .0005 for trend). On the contrary, the difference in kPa between MTX-naive and MTX-treated RA was not significant (p = .89). Similarly, liver stiffness was not significantly different across strata of cumulative MTX dose (4.95 ±â€¯0.7 kPa in MTX <1 g, 4.90 ±â€¯1.1 kPa in MTX 1-3 g and 4.80 ±â€¯0.9 in MTX >3 g, p = .610). Significant liver fibrosis was diagnosed in 4 patients in the MTX-treated RA (highest kPa value = 7.6; no liver function test abnormalities or clinical signs of hepatic failure) and in none in both the MTX-naive RA and HD groups (p = .145). CONCLUSION: Liver stiffness values, although within the normal range, are significantly higher in RA patients vs. controls, irrespective of MTX treatment. RA patients taking MTX do not have a higher prevalence of significant liver fibrosis when compared to MTX naive RA patients and the general population.

6.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To define the prevalence of prolonged QT interval and QT dispersion (QTd) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and in a control population. METHODS: QT interval corrected by Bazett's formula (QTc) was calculated from standard 12-lead ECGs in 963 subjects free of previous cardiovascular events (646 RA patients and 317 controls strictly matched for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors). RESULTS: RA patients (59.6±9.6 years, 68.1% females) had a long mean disease duration (10.6 years) and moderate disease activity (DAS28=3.68±1.23). QTc was 5 msec longer in RA patients than in controls (412±9 vs. 407±28 msec, p=0.013). However, the prevalence of QTc prolongation in RA patients and controls was not significantly different (5.3% vs. 6.3%, p=0.50). On the contrary, RA patients had a significantly greater QTd (42±26 vs. 35±18 msec, p<0.001) and a higher prevalence of increased QTd (33.3% vs. 18.3%, p<0.001) than controls. Furthermore, RA was independently associated to increased QTd [OR(95%CI)= 2.21(1.58-3.08), p=0.0001]. In the RA population, male gender and older age were independently associated with a higher prevalence of prolonged QTd. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of long-standing and moderately active RA patients, RA showed longer QTc but similar prevalence of prolonged QTc and an increased QTd with a 1.8-fold higher prevalence of increased QTd than the control population. Further studies in larger prospective cohorts are warranted to investigate whether QTd prolongation predicts sudden cardiac death and other adverse cardiovascular outcomes in RA.

7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(5)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142484

RESUMO

Diagnosis of postenteritic reactive arthritis (ReA) is a challenge and might have a broad range of differential diagnoses. A 50-year-old man was referred to our attention because of persistent inflammatory low back pain and asymmetric oligoarthritis. The clinical history was positive for diarrhoea in the previous 3 months. Inflammatory bowel disease, Whipple and celiac diseases were carefully excluded. In addition, serology, stool cultures, biopsies from the upper gastrointestinal tract yielded negative results for infections. A presumptive diagnosis of ReA was done and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug trial prescribed. Persistence of symptoms prompted us for a second look of the colon. Biopsy collected from the terminal ileum were cultured and surprisingly colonies of Hafnia alvei, a rod-shaped Enterobacteriaceae, were detected. Treatment with ciprofloxacin leads to fast symptoms resolution. Although enterocolitis from H. alvei has been rarely reported, the culture of intestinal specimens might be recommended in the work-up of patients with suspected postenteritic ReA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reativa/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico por imagem , Hafnia alvei , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reativa/diagnóstico por imagem , Ciprofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Enterocolite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterocolite/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Cintilografia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(5): 748-755, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the baseline characteristics of the patients enrolled in the QUality of life in patients with Axial SpondyloARthritis (QUASAR) study in terms of quality of life (QoL), disease activity, therapy adherence, and work ability in a real-world setting. METHODS: QUASAR is an Italian multicentre, prospective 12-month observational study, including consecutive adult patients classified as axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society criteria for axSpA. RESULTS: Of 512 patients enrolled in 23 rheumatology centres, 80.7% had ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 19.3% had non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA). Mean ages were 34.1±13.3 years at axSpA symptoms onset and 39.5±13.0 years at diagnosis. Of the patients, 51.4% presented with ≥1 extra articular manifestation (EAM); the most common were psoriasis (17.8%) and uveitis (16.4%). Patients with nr-axSpA and AS had similar EAM rates, disease activity, and QoL. Biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs; 83.2%) were the most commonly received medication, followed by conventional synthetic DMARDs (22.9%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; 16.6%). At baseline, higher treatment satisfaction was reported with bDMARDs which, together with NSAIDs, were associated with the best overall scores for disease activity, function, and QoL in the overall population and AS subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: QUASAR is the first Italian prospective study that comprehensively evaluated a large axSpA patient sample in a real-world setting. This interim analysis at baseline confirmed that i) patients with AS and nr-axSpA have similar QoL and disease burden, ii) nearly all axSpA patients receive treatment, and iii) bDMARDs and NSAIDs, overall, yield better disease activity and QoL.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Qualidade de Vida , Espondilartrite , Espondilite Anquilosante , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espondilartrite/fisiopatologia , Espondilartrite/psicologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/fisiopatologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5426, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932011

RESUMO

Raised circulating concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), have been reported in several rheumatic diseases (RDs). However, the strength of this relationship is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the magnitude and the robustness of the association between ADMA concentrations and RDs. We calculated standardized mean differences (SMD, with 95% confidence intervals, CI). Study heterogeneity was evaluated by meta-regressions and sensitivity analyses according to type of RDs, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory markers, and type of ADMA assessment methodology. Thirty-seven studies with a total of 2,982 subjects (1,860 RDs patients and 1,122 healthy controls) were included in our meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that ADMA concentrations were significantly higher in patients with RDs than in healthy controls (SMD = 1.27 µmol/L, 95% CI 0.94-1.60 µmol/L; p < 0.001). However, the between-studies heterogeneity was high. Differences in ADMA concentrations between controls and RDs patients were not significantly associated with inflammatory markers, increasing age, lipid concentrations, body mass index, blood pressure, or methodology used to assess ADMA. Furthermore, subgroup analysis showed no difference across RDs. This meta-analysis showed that, in the context of significant between-study heterogeneity, circulating concentrations of ADMA are positively related to RDs.

10.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 49(1): e13037, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a meta-analysis to review the available evidence regarding the associations between peripheral blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the presence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, from inception to January 2018, were searched for studies reporting on NLR and PLR in RA in comparison with healthy subjects. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. RESULTS: Thirteen NLR studies (1550 RA patients and 1128 healthy controls) and 8 PLR studies (380 RA patients and 305 healthy controls) were included in the meta-analysis. NLR and PLR were significantly higher in patients with RA when compared to controls (SMD = 0.79, 95% CI 0.55-1.03; P < 0.001 and SMD = 0.66, 95% CI 0.43-0.88; P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The NLR and PLR are significantly associated with the presence of RA. Further studies are required to ascertain the potential clinical use of these simple and relatively inexpensive markers in RA diagnosis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas
11.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 190(1): 1-10, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215191

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease; exogenous factors-including heavy metals-may have a role in the disease pathogenesis. In this context, a study on the quantification of Al, Cd, Hg, and Pb in blood and urine of 27 SSc patients and 30 controls was carried out. Main findings were that Al was significantly depleted in blood and increased in urine of SSc patients respect to controls; and Pb was found slightly increased in blood and significantly decreased in SSc group. In addition, higher Hg levels in urine were found in SSc subjects with the higher severity of the disease. Females showed the most marked differences in the levels of blood Al, blood Pb, and urine Cd between patients and controls. Smoking, hobby, ingestion of contaminated food, job exposure may contribute to the bodily levels of Al, Hg, Pb in SSc patients. The results indicated that low, chronic, and multiple exposures to heavy metals-also through habits, diet, and environment-may influence the risk for SSc.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/sangue , Metais Pesados/urina , Escleroderma Sistêmico/sangue , Escleroderma Sistêmico/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Alumínio/sangue , Alumínio/urina , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/urina , Masculino , Mercúrio/sangue , Mercúrio/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
12.
Drugs Context ; 7: 212557, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459819

RESUMO

About 20% of patients with a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease will experience further cardiovascular events despite maximal pharmacological treatment with cardioprotective drugs. This highlights the presence of residual cardiovascular risk in a significant proportion of patients and the need for novel, more effective therapies. These therapies should ideally target different pathophysiological pathways involved in the onset and the progression of atherosclerosis, particularly the inflammatory and immune pathways. Methotrexate is a first-line disease-modifying antirheumatic drug that is widely used for the management of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders. There is some in vitro and in vivo evidence that methotrexate might exert a unique combination of anti-inflammatory, blood pressure lowering, and vasculoprotective effects. Pending the results of large prospective studies investigating surrogate end-points as well as morbidity and mortality, repurposing methotrexate for cardiovascular risk management might represent a cost-effective strategy with immediate public health benefits. This review discusses the current challenges in the management of cardiovascular disease; the available evidence on the effects of methotrexate on inflammation, blood pressure, and surrogate markers of arterial function; suggestions for future research directions; and practical considerations with the use of methotrexate in this context.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204250, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behçet's disease (BD) is a polygenic immune-mediated disorder characterized by a close association with the HLA-B*51 allele. The HLA region has a strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) and carries several genetic variants (e.g. MIC-A, TNF-α genes) identified as associated to BD because of their LD with HLA-B*51. In fact, the HLA-B*51 is inherited as part of extended HLA haplotypes which are well preserved in patients with BD. Sardinian population is highly differentiated from other Mediterranean populations because of a distinctive genetic structure with very highly preserved HLA haplotypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In order to identify other genes of susceptibility to BD within the HLA region we investigated the distribution of human Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1 (AIF-1) gene variants among BD patients and healthy controls from Sardinia. Six (rs2736182; rs2259571; rs2269475; rs2857597; rs13195276; rs4711274) AIF-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and related extended haplotypes have been investigated as well as their LD within the HLA region and with HLA-B*51. Overall, 64 BD patients, 43 HLA-B*51 positive healthy controls (HC) and 70 random HC were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: HLA-B*51 was the only allele with significantly higher frequency (pc = 0.0021) in BD patients (40.6%) than in HC (9.8%). The rs2259571T AIF-1 variant had a significantly reduced phenotypic, but not allelic frequency in BD patients (72.1%; pc = 0.014) compared to healthy population (91.3%). That was likely due to the LD between HLA-B*51 and rs2259571G (pc = 9E-5), even though the rs2259571G distribution did not significantly differ between BD patients and HC. CONCLUSION: No significant difference in distribution of AIF-1 SNPs haplotypes was observed between BD patients and HC and between HLA-B*51 positive BD patients and HLA-B*51 positive HC. Taken together, these results suggest that AIF-1 gene is not associated with susceptibility to BD in Sardinia.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Behçet/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Antígeno HLA-B51/genética , Humanos , Itália , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos
14.
Rheumatol Int ; 38(7): 1179-1190, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732488

RESUMO

Coronary flow reserve (CFR), a measure of both obstructive coronary artery disease and microvascular dysfunction, has been evaluated in systemic rheumatic diseases (RDs), but a comprehensive critical appraisal of the available evidence is lacking. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies with small sample size investigating the associations between the presence of RDs and CFR to increase statistical power and accuracy. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar, from inception to March 2018, were searched for studies reporting on CFR in RDs in comparison to healthy subjects. Standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Meta-regressions and sensitivity analyses assessed study heterogeneity by type of RDs, age, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, systemic inflammation, and methodology used to evaluate CFR. Twenty-one studies (709 RDs patients and 650 healthy controls) were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that CFR values were significantly lower in patients with RDs than in healthy controls (SMD = - 1.51, 95% CI - 1.91, - 1.11; p < 0.001; I2 = 90.1%, p < 0.001). The between-group differences in CFR were not associated with inflammatory burden, age, lipids, body mass index, blood pressure, or assessment methods. Patients with prevalent autoimmune features (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus) showed a significantly lower CFR when compared to patients with mixed autoimmune and autoinflammatory features (e.g., psoriatic arthritis). This meta-analysis showed a significant impairment in CFR in patients with RDs with respect to the general population. Differences in pathogenetic mechanisms may influence the severity of CFR impairment in RDs.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Vasos Coronários , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia
15.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2018: 3424136, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670462

RESUMO

Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality are a challenge in management of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Higher risk of CV disease in SLE patients is mostly related to accelerated atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in SLE patients does not fully explain the increased CV risk. Despite the pathological bases of accelerated atherosclerosis are not fully understood, it is thought that this process is driven by the complex interplay between SLE and atherosclerosis pathogenesis. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a cornerstone in treatment of SLE patients and has been thought to exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects on disease activity, prevention of damage accrual, and mortality. Furthermore, HCQ is thought to protect against accelerated atherosclerosis targeting toll-like receptor signaling, cytokine production, T-cell and monocyte activation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. HCQ was also described to have beneficial effects on traditional CV risk factors, such as dyslipidemia and diabetes. In conclusion, despite lacking randomized controlled trials unambiguously proving the protection of HCQ against accelerated atherosclerosis and incidence of CV events in SLE patients, evidence analyzed in this review is in favor of its beneficial effect.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Fatores de Risco
16.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2018: 6548715, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483841

RESUMO

Objectives: To define the prevalence and determinants of peripheral microvascular endothelial dysfunction (ED) in a large series of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients free of previous cardiovascular events. Materials and Methods: Data from 874 RA patients enrolled in the EDRA study (Endothelial Dysfunction Evaluation for Coronary Heart Disease Risk Estimation in Rheumatoid Arthritis-ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02341066) were analyzed. Log-transformed reactive hyperemia index (Ln-RHI) was evaluated by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) using the EndoPAT2000 device: values of Ln-RHI < 0.51 were considered indicative of peripheral ED. Results: Peripheral microvascular ED was documented in one-third of RA patients (33.5%); in multiple logistic regression analysis, ACPA negativity and higher triglycerides concentrations were independently associated with the presence of peripheral ED [OR (95% CI) = 1.708 (1.218-2.396), p < 0.01 and OR (95% CI) = 1.005 (1.002-1.009), p < 0.01, respectively]. Multiple regression analysis showed a positive correlation between Ln-RHI values and systolic blood pressure and HDL cholesterol levels; furthermore, higher values of Ln-RHI were associated with ACPA positivity, while smoking habit was associated with lower Ln-RHI values. Conclusions: This study demonstrates for the first time a high prevalence of peripheral microvascular ED in patients with RA free of previous cardiovascular events that appear to be only partially driven by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The association between ACPA negativity and ED warrants further exploration.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1789, 2018 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379122

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a progressive joint damage due to largely unknown environmental factors acting in concert with risk alleles conferring genetic susceptibility. A major role has been attributed to viral infections that include past contacts with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and, more recently, to non-protein coding sequences of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) integrated in the human genome. Molecular mimicry between viral and self proteins is supposed to cause the loss of immune tolerance in predisposed hosts. There are evidences that anti-IL-2 antibodies (Abs) are present in subjects affected by autoimmune diseases and may be responsible for alterations in regulatory T cell responses. In this study, we evaluated the levels of Abs against IL-2, viral epitopes and interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) in 140 RA patients and 137 healthy controls (HCs). Ab reactivity reached the highest levels for IRF5, EBV and IL-2 (56%, 44% and 39%, respectively) in RA with significantly lower values among HCs (7-9%, p < 0.0001), which suggests a possible cross-reaction between IRF5/EBV homologous antigens and shifts in T cell balance disrupted by anti-IL-2 Abs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mimetismo Molecular/imunologia
18.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36(3): 376-381, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29352853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease characterised by a pro-inflammatory cytokines linked erosive joint damage and by humoral and cellular response against a broad range of self-peptides. Molecular mimicry between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and host peptides has long been regarded as an RA pathogenetic mechanism. Using bioinformatic analysis we identified high sequence homology among interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), EBV antigen BOLF1 and MAP antigen MAP_4027. Our objective was to evaluate the presence in sera of RA patients of antibodies (Abs) directed against human homologous IRF5 cross-reacting with BOLF1 and MAP_4027. METHODS: Frequency of reactivity against IRF5424-434, BOLF1305-320 and MAP_402718-32 was tested by indirect ELISA in sera from 71 RA patients and 60 healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: RA sera show a remarkable high frequency of reactivity against IRF5424-434 in comparison to HCs (69% vs. 8%; p<0.0001). Similarly, seroreactivity against BOLF1305-320 was more frequently detected in RA sera than in HCs counterpart (58% vs. 8%; p<0.0001). Frequency of Abs against MAP_402718-32 was 17% in RA sera vs. 5% in HCs with a p-value at the threshold level (p<0.051). Prevalence of Abs against at least one of the assessed epitopes reached 72% in RA patients and 15% among HCs. Levels of Abs in RA patients were significantly related to systemic inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: IRF5 is a potential autoimmune target of RA. Our results support the hypothesis that EBV and MAP infections may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA, igniting a secondary immune response that cross-reacts against RA self-peptides.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/imunologia , Mimetismo Molecular/imunologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/imunologia , Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
19.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2017: 9632846, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29430085

RESUMO

There is good epidemiological evidence that patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease states, particularly rheumatoid arthritis, have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality when compared to the general population. The presence of a chronic systemic proinflammatory state in this patient group disrupts the structural and functional integrity of the endothelium and the arterial wall, favouring the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. A significant role in the detrimental effects of inflammation on endothelial function and vascular homeostasis is played by specific proatherosclerotic cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have shown that treatment with methotrexate, a first-line disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD), is associated with a significant reduction in atherosclerosis-mediated cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, and mortality, when compared to other DMARDs. This suggests that methotrexate might exert specific protective effects against vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis in the context of autoimmune rheumatic disease. This review discusses the available evidence regarding the potential antiatherosclerotic effects of methotrexate through the inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 and provides suggestions for future experimental and human studies addressing this issue.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/fisiologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Citocinas/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
JAMA ; 316(18): 1906-1912, 2016 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27825009

RESUMO

Importance: Anakinra, an interleukin 1ß recombinant receptor antagonist, may have potential to treat colchicine-resistant and corticosteroid-dependent recurrent pericarditis. Objective: To determine the efficacy of anakinra for colchicine-resistant and corticosteroid-dependent recurrent pericarditis. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Anakinra-Treatment of Recurrent Idiopathic Pericarditis (AIRTRIP) double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal trial (open label with anakinra followed by a double-blind withdrawal step with anakinra or placebo until recurrent pericarditis occurred) conducted among 21 consecutive patients enrolled at 3 Italian referral centers between June and November 2014 (end of follow-up, October 2015). Included patients had recurrent pericarditis (with ≥3 previous recurrences), elevation of C-reactive protein, colchicine resistance, and corticosteroid dependence. Interventions: Anakinra was administered at 2 mg/kg per day, up to 100 mg, for 2 months, then patients who responded with resolution of pericarditis were randomized to continue anakinra (n = 11) or switch to placebo (n = 10) for 6 months or until a pericarditis recurrence. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were recurrent pericarditis and time to recurrence after randomization. Results: Eleven patients (7 female) randomized to anakinra had a mean age of 46.5 (SD, 16.3) years; 10 patients (7 female) randomized to placebo had a mean age of 44 (SD, 12.5) years. All patients were followed up for 12 months. Median follow-up was 14 (range, 12-17) months. Recurrent pericarditis occurred in 9 of 10 patients (90%; incidence rate, 2.06% of patients per year) assigned to placebo and 2 of 11 patients (18.2%; incidence rate, 0.11% of patients per year) assigned to anakinra, for an incidence rate difference of -1.95% (95% CI, -3.3% to -0.6%). Median flare-free survival (time to flare) was 72 (interquartile range, 64-150) days after randomization in the placebo group and was not reached in the anakinra group (P <.001). During anakinra treatment, 20 of 21 patients (95.2%) experienced transient local skin reactions: 1 (4.8%) herpes zoster, 3 (14.3%) transaminase elevation, and 1 (4.8%) ischemic optic neuropathy. No patient permanently discontinued the active drug. No adverse events occurred during placebo treatment. Conclusion and Relevance: In this preliminary study of patients with recurrent pericarditis with colchicine resistance and corticosteroid dependence, the use of anakinra compared with placebo reduced the risk of recurrence over a median of 14 months. Larger studies are needed to replicate these findings as well as to assess safety and longer-term efficacy. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02219828.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Ontário
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