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1.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 32, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957936

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Passive immunotherapies targeting Aß continue to be evaluated as Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics, but there remains debate over the mechanisms by which these immunotherapies work. Besides the amount of preexisting Aß deposition and the type of deposit (compact or diffuse), there is little data concerning what factors, independent of those intrinsic to the antibody, might influence efficacy. Here we (i) explored how constitutive priming of the underlying innate activation states by Il10 and Il6 might influence passive Aß immunotherapy and (ii) evaluated transcriptomic data generated in the AMP-AD initiative to inform how these two cytokines and their receptors' mRNA levels are altered in human AD and an APP mouse model. METHODS: rAAV2/1 encoding EGFP, Il6 or Il10 were delivered by somatic brain transgenesis to neonatal (P0) TgCRND8 APP mice. Then, at 2 months of age, the mice were treated bi-weekly with a high-affinity anti-Aß1-16 mAb5 monoclonal antibody or control mouse IgG until 6 months of age. rAAV mediated transgene expression, amyloid accumulation, Aß levels and gliosis were assessed. Extensive transcriptomic data was used to evaluate the mRNA expression levels of IL10 and IL6 and their receptors in the postmortem human AD temporal cortex and in the brains of TgCRND8 mice, the later at multiple ages. RESULTS: Priming TgCRND8 mice with Il10 increases Aß loads and blocks efficacy of subsequent mAb5 passive immunotherapy, whereas priming with Il6 priming reduces Aß loads by itself and subsequent Aß immunotherapy shows only a slightly additive effect. Transcriptomic data shows that (i) there are significant increases in the mRNA levels of Il6 and Il10 receptors in the TgCRND8 mouse model and temporal cortex of humans with AD and (ii) there is a great deal of variance in individual mouse brain and the human temporal cortex of these interleukins and their receptors. CONCLUSIONS: The underlying immune activation state can markedly affect the efficacy of passive Aß immunotherapy. These results have important implications for ongoing human AD immunotherapy trials, as they indicate that underlying immune activation states within the brain, which may be highly variable, may influence the ability for passive immunotherapy to alter Aß deposition.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2311, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875655

RESUMO

Selective vulnerability of different brain regions is seen in many neurodegenerative disorders. The hippocampus and cortex are selectively vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease (AD), however the degree of involvement of the different brain regions differs among patients. We classified corticolimbic patterns of neurofibrillary tangles in postmortem tissue to capture extreme and representative phenotypes. We combined bulk RNA sequencing with digital pathology to examine hippocampal vulnerability in AD. We identified hippocampal gene expression changes associated with hippocampal vulnerability and used machine learning to identify genes that were associated with AD neuropathology, including SERPINA5, RYBP, SLC38A2, FEM1B, and PYDC1. Further histologic and biochemical analyses suggested SERPINA5 expression is associated with tau expression in the brain. Our study highlights the importance of embracing heterogeneity of the human brain in disease to identify disease-relevant gene expression.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Autopsia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/genética , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Inibidor da Proteína C/genética , Inibidor da Proteína C/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249305, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861770

RESUMO

Genetic studies have shifted to sequencing-based rare variants discovery after decades of success in identifying common disease variants by Genome-Wide Association Studies using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism chips. Sequencing-based studies require large sample sizes for statistical power and therefore often inadvertently introduce batch effects because samples are typically collected, processed, and sequenced at multiple centers. Conventionally, batch effects are first detected and visualized using Principal Components Analysis and then controlled by including batch covariates in the disease association models. For sequencing-based genetic studies, because all variants included in the association analyses have passed sequencing-related quality control measures, this conventional approach treats every variant as equal and ignores the substantial differences still remaining in variant qualities and characteristics such as genotype quality scores, alternative allele fractions (fraction of reads supporting alternative allele at a variant position) and sequencing depths. In the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) exome dataset of 9,904 cases and controls, we discovered hidden variant-level differences between sample batches of three sequencing centers and two exome capture kits. Although sequencing centers were included as a covariate in our association models, we observed differences at the variant level in genotype quality and alternative allele fraction between samples processed by different exome capture kits that significantly impacted both the confidence of variant detection and the identification of disease-associated variants. Furthermore, we found that a subset of top disease-risk variants came exclusively from samples processed by one exome capture kit that was more effective at capturing the alternative alleles compared to the other kit. Our findings highlight the importance of additional variant-level quality control for large sequencing-based genetic studies. More importantly, we demonstrate that automatically filtering out variants with batch differences may lead to false negatives if the batch discordances come largely from quality differences and if the batch-specific variants have better quality.

4.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 9(1): 43, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726851

RESUMO

SORL1 is strongly associated with both sporadic and familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but a lack of information about alternatively spliced transcripts currently limits our understanding of the role of SORL1 in AD. Here, we describe a SORL1 transcript (SORL1-38b) characterized by inclusion of a novel exon (E38b) that encodes a truncated protein. We identified E38b-containing transcripts in several brain regions, with the highest expression in the cerebellum and showed that SORL1-38b is largely located in neuronal dendrites, which is in contrast to the somatic distribution of transcripts encoding the full-length SORLA protein (SORL1-fl). SORL1-38b transcript levels were significantly reduced in AD cerebellum in three independent cohorts of postmortem brains, whereas no changes were observed for SORL1-fl. A trend of lower 38b transcript level in cerebellum was found for individuals carrying the risk variant at rs2282649 (known as SNP24), although not reaching statistical significance. These findings suggest synaptic functions for SORL1-38b in the brain, uncovering novel aspects of SORL1 that can be further explored in AD research.

5.
Epilepsy Res ; 173: 106618, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of glioma-related seizures (GRS) is poorly understood. Here in, we aim to identify putative molecular pathways that lead to the development of GRS. METHODS: We determined brain transcriptome from intraoperative human brain tissue of patients with either GRS, glioma without seizures (non-GRS), or with idiopathic temporal lobe epilepsy (iTLE). We performed transcriptome-wide comparisons between disease groups tissue from non-epileptic controls (non-EC) to identify differentially-expressed genes (DEG). We compared DEGs to identify those that are specific or common to the groups. Through a gene ontology analysis, we identified molecular pathways enriched for genes with a Log-fold change ≥1.5 or ≤-1.5 and p-value <0.05 compared to non-EC. RESULTS: We identified 110 DEGs that are associated with GRS vs. non-GRS: 80 genes showed high and 30 low expression in GRS. There was significant overexpression of genes involved in cell-to-cell and glutamatergic signaling (CELF4, SLC17A7, and CAMK2A) and down-regulation of genes involved immune-trafficking (CXCL8, H19, and VEGFA). In the iTLE vs GRS analysis, there were 1098 DEGs: 786 genes were overexpressed and 312 genes were underexpressed in the GRS samples. There was significant enrichment for genes considered markers of oncogenesis (GSC, MYBL2, and TOP2A). Further, there was down-regulation of genes involved in the glutamatergic neurotransmission (vesicular glutamate transporter-2) in the GRS vs. iTLE samples. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a number of altered processes such as cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, inflammation-related, and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathogenesis of GRS. Our findings offer a new landscape of targets to further study in the fields of brain tumors and seizures.

6.
Acta Neuropathol ; 141(5): 667-680, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635380

RESUMO

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is the second most common neurodegenerative Parkinsonian disorder after Parkinson's disease, and is characterized as a primary tauopathy. Leveraging the considerable clinical and neuropathologic heterogeneity associated with PSP, we measured tau neuropathology as quantitative traits to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) within PSP to identify genes and biological pathways that underlie the PSP disease process. In 882 PSP cases, semi-quantitative scores for phosphorylated tau-immunoreactive coiled bodies (CBs), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), tufted astrocytes (TAs), and tau threads were documented from 18 brain regions, and converted to latent trait (LT) variables using the R ltm package. LT analysis utilizes a multivariate regression model that links categorical responses to unobserved covariates allowing for a reduction of dimensionality, generating a single, continuous variable to account for the multiple lesions and brain regions assessed. We first tested for association with PSP LTs and the top PSP GWAS susceptibility loci. Significant SNP/LT associations were identified at rs242557 (MAPT H1c sub-haplotype) with hindbrain CBs and rs1768208 (MOBP) with forebrain tau threads. Digital microscopy was employed to quantify phosphorylated tau burden in midbrain tectum and red nucleus in 795 PSP cases and tau burdens were used as quantitative phenotypes in GWAS. Top associations were identified at rs1768208 with midbrain tectum and red nucleus tau burden. Additionally, we performed a PSP LT GWAS on an initial cohort, a follow-up SNP panel (37 SNPs, P < 10-5) in an extended cohort, and a combined analysis. Top SNP/LT associations were identified at SNPs in or near SPTBN5/EHD4, SEC13/ATP2B2, EPHB1/PPP2R3A, TBC1D8, IFNGR1/OLIG3, ST6GAL1, HK1, CALB1, and SGCZ. Finally, testing for SNP/transcript associations using whole transcriptome and whole genome data identified significant expression quantitative trait loci at rs3088159/SPTBN5/EHD4 and rs154239/GHRL. Modeling tau neuropathology heterogeneity using LTs as quantitative phenotypes in a GWAS may provide substantial insight into biological pathways involved in PSP by affecting regional tau burden.

7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(3): 105581, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cilostazol has promise as an alternative to aspirin for secondary stroke prevention given its vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties in addition to platelet aggregation inhibition. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy and safety of cilostazol compared to aspirin for stroke prevention in patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1996 to 2019. Randomized clinical trials that compared cilostazol to aspirin and reported the endpoints of ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage and any bleeding were included. A random-effects estimate was computed based on the Mantel-Haenszel method. The pooled risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals were compared between cilostazol and aspirin. RESULTS: The search identified 5 randomized clinical trials comparing cilostazol vs. aspirin for secondary stroke prevention that collectively enrolled 7240 patients, all from Asian countries (3615 received cilostazol and 3625 received aspirin). Pooled results from the random-effects model showed that cilostazol was associated with significantly lower risk of recurrent ischemic stroke (RR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.87), intracranial hemorrhage (RR 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.65) and any bleeding (RR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that cilostazol is more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent ischemic stroke with lower risk of intracranial hemorrhage and other bleeding. Since all trials to date are from Asian countries, confirmatory trials of cilostazol for secondary stroke prevention in other populations are needed.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Cilostazol/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Cilostazol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , /epidemiologia , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico
8.
PLoS Genet ; 17(1): e1009224, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417599

RESUMO

Discovering drugs that efficiently treat brain diseases has been challenging. Genetic variants that modulate the expression of potential drug targets can be utilized to assess the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. We therefore employed Mendelian Randomization (MR) on gene expression measured in brain tissue to identify drug targets involved in neurological and psychiatric diseases. We conducted a two-sample MR using cis-acting brain-derived expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) from the Accelerating Medicines Partnership for Alzheimer's Disease consortium (AMP-AD) and the CommonMind Consortium (CMC) meta-analysis study (n = 1,286) as genetic instruments to predict the effects of 7,137 genes on 12 neurological and psychiatric disorders. We conducted Bayesian colocalization analysis on the top MR findings (using P<6x10-7 as evidence threshold, Bonferroni-corrected for 80,557 MR tests) to confirm sharing of the same causal variants between gene expression and trait in each genomic region. We then intersected the colocalized genes with known monogenic disease genes recorded in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and with genes annotated as drug targets in the Open Targets platform to identify promising drug targets. 80 eQTLs showed MR evidence of a causal effect, from which we prioritised 47 genes based on colocalization with the trait. We causally linked the expression of 23 genes with schizophrenia and a single gene each with anorexia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder within the psychiatric diseases and 9 genes with Alzheimer's disease, 6 genes with Parkinson's disease, 4 genes with multiple sclerosis and two genes with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis within the neurological diseases we tested. From these we identified five genes (ACE, GPNMB, KCNQ5, RERE and SUOX) as attractive drug targets that may warrant follow-up in functional studies and clinical trials, demonstrating the value of this study design for discovering drug targets in neuropsychiatric diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Descoberta de Drogas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transcriptoma/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/patologia
9.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480174

RESUMO

Intron retention (IR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of complex diseases such as cancers; its association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unexplored. We performed genome-wide analysis of IR through integrating genetic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data of AD subjects and mouse models from the Accelerating Medicines Partnership-Alzheimer's Disease project. We identified 4535 and 4086 IR events in 2173 human and 1736 mouse genes, respectively. Quantitation of IR enabled the identification of differentially expressed genes that conventional exon-level approaches did not reveal. There were significant correlations of intron expression within innate immune genes, like HMBOX1, with AD in humans. Peptides with a high probability of translation from intron-retained mRNAs were identified using mass spectrometry. Further, we established AD-specific intron expression Quantitative Trait Loci, and identified splicing-related genes that may regulate IR. Our analysis provides a novel resource for the search for new AD biomarkers and pathological mechanisms.

11.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 890, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are challenges in generating mRNA-Seq data from whole-blood derived RNA as globin gene and rRNA are frequent contaminants. Given the abundance of erythrocytes in whole blood, globin genes comprise some 80% or more of the total RNA. Therefore, depletion of globin gene RNA and rRNA are critical steps required to have adequate coverage of reads mapping to the reference transcripts and thus reduce the total cost of sequencing. In this study, we directly compared the performance of probe hybridization (GLOBINClear Kit and Globin-Zero Gold rRNA Removal Kit) and RNAse-H enzymatic depletion (NEBNext® Globin & rRNA Depletion Kit and Ribo-Zero Plus rRNA Depletion Kit) methods from 1 µg of whole blood-derived RNA on mRNA-Seq profiling. All RNA samples were treated with DNaseI for additional cleanup before the depletion step and were processed for poly-A selection for library generation. RESULTS: Probe hybridization revealed a better overall performance than the RNAse-H enzymatic depletion method, detecting a higher number of genes and transcripts without 3' region bias. After depletion, samples treated with probe hybridization showed globin genes at 0.5% (±0.6%) of the total mapped reads; the RNAse-H enzymatic depletion had 3.2% (±3.8%). Probe hybridization showed more junction reads and transcripts compared with RNAse-H enzymatic depletion and also had a higher correlation (R > 0.9) than RNAse-H enzymatic depletion (R > 0.85). CONCLUSION: In this study, our results showed that 1 µg of high-quality RNA from whole blood could be routinely used for transcriptional profiling analysis studies with globin gene and rRNA depletion pre-processing. We also demonstrated that the probe hybridization depletion method is better suited to mRNA sequencing analysis with minimal effect on RNA quality during depletion procedures.

12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if plasma concentrations of 5 surrogate markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and neuroinflammation are associated with disease status in African Americans. METHODS: We evaluated 321 African Americans (159 AD, 162 controls) from the Florida Consortium for African-American Alzheimer's Disease Studies (FCA3DS). Five plasma proteins reflecting AD neuropathology or inflammation (Aß 42, tau, IL6, IL10, TNFα) were tested for associations with AD, age, sex, APOE and MAPT genotypes, and for pairwise correlations. RESULTS: Plasma tau levels were higher in AD when adjusted for biological and technical covariates. APOEɛ4 was associated with lower plasma Aß 42 and tau levels. Older age was associated with higher plasma Aß 42, tau, and TNFα. Females had lower IL10 levels. Inflammatory proteins had strong pairwise correlations amongst themselves and with Aß 42. CONCLUSION: We identified effects of demographic and genetic variants on five potential plasma biomarkers in African Americans. Plasma inflammatory biomarkers and Aß 42 may reflect correlated pathologies and elevated plasma tau may be a biomarker of AD in this population.

13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma NfL (pNfL) levels are elevated in many neurological disorders. However, the utility of pNfL in a clinical setting has not been established. OBJECTIVE: In a cohort of diverse older participants, we examined: 1) the association of pNfL to age, sex, Hispanic ethnicity, diagnosis, and structural and amyloid imaging biomarkers; and 2) its association to baseline and longitudinal cognitive and functional performance. METHODS: 309 subjects were classified at baseline as cognitively normal (CN) or with cognitive impairment. Most subjects had structural MRI and amyloid PET scans. The most frequent etiological diagnosis was Alzheimer's disease (AD), but other neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders were also represented. We assessed the relationship of pNfL to cognitive and functional status, primary etiology, imaging biomarkers, and to cognitive and functional decline. RESULTS: pNfL increased with age, degree of hippocampal atrophy, and amyloid load, and was higher in females among CN subjects, but was not associated with Hispanic ethnicity. Compared to CN subjects, pNfL was elevated among those with AD or FTLD, but not those with neuropsychiatric or other disorders. Hippocampal atrophy, amyloid positivity and higher pNfL levels each added unique variance in predicting greater functional impairment on the CDR-SB at baseline. Higher baseline pNfL levels also predicted greater cognitive and functional decline after accounting for hippocampal atrophy and memory scores at baseline. CONCLUSION: pNfL may have a complementary and supportive role to brain imaging and cognitive testing in a memory disorder evaluation, although its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as a stand-alone measure is modest. In the absence of expensive neuroimaging tests, pNfL could be a used for differentiating neurodegenerative disease from neuropsychiatric disorders.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5781, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188183

RESUMO

The temporal molecular changes that lead to disease onset and progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still unknown. Here we develop a temporal model for these unobserved molecular changes with a manifold learning method applied to RNA-Seq data collected from human postmortem brain samples collected within the ROS/MAP and Mayo Clinic RNA-Seq studies. We define an ordering across samples based on their similarity in gene expression and use this ordering to estimate the molecular disease stage-or disease pseudotime-for each sample. Disease pseudotime is strongly concordant with the burden of tau (Braak score, P = 1.0 × 10-5), Aß (CERAD score, P = 1.8 × 10-5), and cognitive diagnosis (P = 3.5 × 10-7) of late-onset (LO) AD. Early stage disease pseudotime samples are enriched for controls and show changes in basic cellular functions. Late stage disease pseudotime samples are enriched for late stage AD cases and show changes in neuroinflammation and amyloid pathologic processes. We also identify a set of late stage pseudotime samples that are controls and show changes in genes enriched for protein trafficking, splicing, regulation of apoptosis, and prevention of amyloid cleavage pathways. In summary, we present a method for ordering patients along a trajectory of LOAD disease progression from brain transcriptomic data.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Algoritmos , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Degeneração Neural/genética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5540, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139712

RESUMO

APOE4 is the strongest genetic risk factor associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). To address the underlying mechanism, we develop cerebral organoid models using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with APOE ε3/ε3 or ε4/ε4 genotype from individuals with either normal cognition or AD dementia. Cerebral organoids from AD patients carrying APOE ε4/ε4 show greater apoptosis and decreased synaptic integrity. While AD patient-derived cerebral organoids have increased levels of Aß and phosphorylated tau compared to healthy subject-derived cerebral organoids, APOE4 exacerbates tau pathology in both healthy subject-derived and AD patient-derived organoids. Transcriptomics analysis by RNA-sequencing reveals that cerebral organoids from AD patients are associated with an enhancement of stress granules and disrupted RNA metabolism. Importantly, isogenic conversion of APOE4 to APOE3 attenuates the APOE4-related phenotypes in cerebral organoids from AD patients. Together, our study using human iPSC-organoids recapitulates APOE4-related phenotypes and suggests APOE4-related degenerative pathways contributing to AD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína E3/genética , Apolipoproteína E3/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Organoides/patologia , RNA/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
16.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 340, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046718

RESUMO

The availability of high-quality RNA-sequencing and genotyping data of post-mortem brain collections from consortia such as CommonMind Consortium (CMC) and the Accelerating Medicines Partnership for Alzheimer's Disease (AMP-AD) Consortium enable the generation of a large-scale brain cis-eQTL meta-analysis. Here we generate cerebral cortical eQTL from 1433 samples available from four cohorts (identifying >4.1 million significant eQTL for >18,000 genes), as well as cerebellar eQTL from 261 samples (identifying 874,836 significant eQTL for >10,000 genes). We find substantially improved power in the meta-analysis over individual cohort analyses, particularly in comparison to the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) Project eQTL. Additionally, we observed differences in eQTL patterns between cerebral and cerebellar brain regions. We provide these brain eQTL as a resource for use by the research community. As a proof of principle for their utility, we apply a colocalization analysis to identify genes underlying the GWAS association peaks for schizophrenia and identify a potentially novel gene colocalization with lncRNA RP11-677M14.2 (posterior probability of colocalization 0.975).

17.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090691

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The cytoprotective PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1)-parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PRKN) pathway selectively labels damaged mitochondria with phosphorylated ubiquitin (pS65-Ub) for their autophagic removal (mitophagy). Because dysfunctions of mitochondria and degradation pathways are early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mitophagy impairments may contribute to the pathogenesis. METHODS: Morphology, levels, and distribution of the mitophagy tag pS65-Ub were evaluated by biochemical analyses combined with tissue and single cell imaging in AD autopsy brain and in transgenic mouse models. RESULTS: Analyses revealed significant increases of pS65-Ub levels in AD brain, which strongly correlated with granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) and early phospho-tau deposits, but were independent of amyloid beta pathology. Single cell analyses revealed predominant co-localization of pS65-Ub with mitochondria, GVD bodies, and/or lysosomes depending on the brain region analyzed. DISCUSSION: Our study highlights mitophagy alterations in AD that are associated with early tau pathology, and suggests that distinct mitochondrial, autophagic, and/or lysosomal failure may contribute to the selective vulnerability in disease.

18.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 8(1): 172, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092647

RESUMO

Missense variants ABI3_rs616338-T and PLCG2_rs72824905-G were previously associated with elevated or reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), respectively. Despite reports of associations with other neurodegenerative diseases, there are few studies of these variants in purely neuropathologically diagnosed cohorts. Further, the effect of these mutations on neurodegenerative disease pathologies is unknown. In this study, we tested the effects of ABI3_rs616338-T and PLCG2_rs72824905-G on disease risk in autopsy cohorts comprised of 973 patients diagnosed neuropathologically with Lewy body disease (LBD-NP) and 1040 with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), compared to 3351 controls. LBD-NP patients were further categorized as high, intermediate and low likelihood of clinical dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB-CL) based on DLB Consortium criteria. We also tested for association with both Braak neurofibrillary tau tangle (nTotal = 2008, nPSP = 1037, nLBD-NP = 971) and Thal phase amyloid plaque scores (nTotal = 1786, nPSP = 1018, nLBD-NP = 768). Additionally, 841 PSP patients had quantitative tau neuropathology measures that were assessed for genetic associations. There was no statistically significant association with disease risk for either LBD-NP or PSP in our study. LBD intermediate category disease risk was significantly associated with ABI3_rs616338-T (OR = 2.65, 95% CI 1.46-4.83, p = 0.001). PLCG2_rs72824905-G was associated with lower Braak stage (ß = - 0.822, 95% CI - 1.439 to - 0.204, p = 0.009). This effect was more pronounced in the PSP (ß = - 0.995, 95% CI - 1.773 to - 0.218, p = 0.012) than LBD-NP patients (ß = - 0.292, 95% CI - 1.283 to 0.698, p = 0.563). PLCG2_rs72824905-G also showed association with reduced quantitative tau pathology for each lesion type and overall tau burden in PSP (ß = - 0.638, 95% CI - 1.139 to - 0.136, p = 0.013). These findings support a role for PLCG2_rs72824905-G in suppressing tau neuropathology. ABI3_rs616338-T may influence disease risk specifically in the LBD-NP intermediate category comprised of patients with diffuse neocortical or limbic LB, concurrently with moderate or high AD neuropathology, respectively. Our study provides a potential mechanism of action for the missense PLCG2 variant and suggests a differential disease risk effect for ABI3 in a distinct LBD-NP neuropathologic category.

19.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074286

RESUMO

Importance: Compared with non-Hispanic White individuals, African American individuals from the same community are approximately twice as likely to develop Alzheimer disease. Despite this disparity, the largest Alzheimer disease genome-wide association studies to date have been conducted in non-Hispanic White individuals. In the largest association analyses of Alzheimer disease in African American individuals, ABCA7, TREM2, and an intergenic locus at 5q35 were previously implicated. Objective: To identify additional risk loci in African American individuals by increasing the sample size and using the African Genome Resource panel. Design, Setting, and Participants: This genome-wide association meta-analysis used case-control and family-based data sets from the Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium. There were multiple recruitment sites throughout the United States that included individuals with Alzheimer disease and controls of African American ancestry. Analysis began October 2018 and ended September 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Results: A total of 2784 individuals with Alzheimer disease (1944 female [69.8%]) and 5222 controls (3743 female [71.7%]) were analyzed (mean [SD] age at last evaluation, 74.2 [13.6] years). Associations with 4 novel common loci centered near the intracellular glycoprotein trafficking gene EDEM1 (3p26; P = 8.9 × 10-7), near the immune response gene ALCAM (3q13; P = 9.3 × 10-7), within GPC6 (13q31; P = 4.1 × 10-7), a gene critical for recruitment of glutamatergic receptors to the neuronal membrane, and within VRK3 (19q13.33; P = 3.5 × 10-7), a gene involved in glutamate neurotoxicity, were identified. In addition, several loci associated with rare variants, including a genome-wide significant intergenic locus near IGF1R at 15q26 (P = 1.7 × 10-9) and 6 additional loci with suggestive significance (P ≤ 5 × 10-7) such as API5 at 11p12 (P = 8.8 × 10-8) and RBFOX1 at 16p13 (P = 5.4 × 10-7) were identified. Gene expression data from brain tissue demonstrate association of ALCAM, ARAP1, GPC6, and RBFOX1 with brain ß-amyloid load. Of 25 known loci associated with Alzheimer disease in non-Hispanic White individuals, only APOE, ABCA7, TREM2, BIN1, CD2AP, FERMT2, and WWOX were implicated at a nominal significance level or stronger in African American individuals. Pathway analyses strongly support the notion that immunity, lipid processing, and intracellular trafficking pathways underlying Alzheimer disease in African American individuals overlap with those observed in non-Hispanic White individuals. A new pathway emerging from these analyses is the kidney system, suggesting a novel mechanism for Alzheimer disease that needs further exploration. Conclusions and Relevance: While the major pathways involved in Alzheimer disease etiology in African American individuals are similar to those in non-Hispanic White individuals, the disease-associated loci within these pathways differ.

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