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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the effect of chronic diseases on risk of severe COVID-19 infection, the present pandemic may have a particularly profound impact on socially disadvantaged counties. METHODS: Counties in the USA were categorised into five groups by level of social vulnerability, using the Social Vulnerability Index (a widely used measure of social disadvantage) developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The incidence and mortality from COVID-19, and the prevalence of major chronic conditions were calculated relative to the least vulnerable quintile using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Among 3141 counties, there were 5 010 496 cases and 161 058 deaths from COVID-19 by 10 August 2020. Relative to the least vulnerable quintile, counties in the most vulnerable quintile had twice the rates of COVID-19 cases and deaths (rate ratios 2.11 (95% CI 1.97 to 2.26) and 2.42 (95% CI 2.22 to 2.64), respectively). Similarly, the prevalence of major chronic conditions was 24%-41% higher in the most vulnerable counties. Geographical clustering of counties with high COVID-19 mortality, high chronic disease prevalence and high social vulnerability was found, especially in southern USA. CONCLUSION: Some counties are experiencing a confluence of epidemics from COVID-19 and chronic diseases in the context of social disadvantage. Such counties are likely to require enhanced public health and social support.

2.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(11)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137877

RESUMO

The Human Y chromosome (ChrY) has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for phylogenetics, population genetics, genetic genealogy and forensics. However, the importance of ChrY genetic variation in relation to human complex traits is less clear. In this review, we summarise existing evidence about the inherent complexities of ChrY variation and their use in association studies of human complex traits. We present and discuss the specific particularities of ChrY genetic variation, including Y chromosomal haplogroups, that need to be considered in the design and interpretation of genetic epidemiological studies involving ChrY.

3.
Environ Res ; : 110355, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown if COVID-19 will exhibit seasonal pattern as other diseases e.g., seasonal influenza. Similarly, some environmental factors (e.g., temperature, humidity) have been shown to be associated with transmission of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, but global data on their association with COVID-19 are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between climatic factors and COVID-19. METHODS: We used multilevel mixed-effects (two-level random-intercepts) negative binomial regression models to examine the association between 7- and 14-day-lagged temperature, humidity (relative and absolute), wind speed and UV index and COVID-19 cases, adjusting for Gross Domestic Products, Global Health Security Index, cloud cover (%), precipitation (mm), sea-level air-pressure (mb), and daytime length. The effects estimates are reported as adjusted rate ratio (aRR) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Data from 206 countries/regions (until April 20, 2020) with ≥100 reported cases showed no association between COVID-19 cases and 7-day-lagged temperature, relative humidity, UV index, and wind speed, after adjusting for potential confounders, but a positive association with 14-day-lagged temperature and a negative association with 14-day-lagged wind speed. Compared to an absolute humidity of <5 g/m3, an absolute humidity of 5-10 g/m3 was associated with a 23% (95% CI: 6-42%) higher rate of COVID-19 cases, while absolute humidity >10 g/m3 did not have a significant effect. These findings were robust in the 14-day-lagged analysis. CONCLUSION: Our results of higher COVID-19 cases (through April 20) at absolute humidity of 5-10 g/m3 may be suggestive of a 'sweet point' for viral transmission, however only controlled laboratory experiments can decisively prove it.

4.
Nat Med ; 26(2): 252-258, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042192

RESUMO

Testosterone supplementation is commonly used for its effects on sexual function, bone health and body composition, yet its effects on disease outcomes are unknown. To better understand this, we identified genetic determinants of testosterone levels and related sex hormone traits in 425,097 UK Biobank study participants. Using 2,571 genome-wide significant associations, we demonstrate that the genetic determinants of testosterone levels are substantially different between sexes and that genetically higher testosterone is harmful for metabolic diseases in women but beneficial in men. For example, a genetically determined 1 s.d. higher testosterone increases the risks of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.37 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.22-1.53)) and polycystic ovary syndrome (OR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.33-1.72)) in women, but reduces type 2 diabetes risk in men (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.76-0.98)). We also show adverse effects of higher testosterone on breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. Our findings provide insights into the disease impacts of testosterone and highlight the importance of sex-specific genetic analyses.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/farmacologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/etiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Software , Reino Unido
5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(10): 2392-2409, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617275

RESUMO

Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.

7.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
8.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(11): 946-955, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol use have been associated with common genetic variants in multiple loci. Rare variants within these loci hold promise in the identification of biological mechanisms in substance use. Exome arrays and genotype imputation can now efficiently genotype rare nonsynonymous and loss of function variants. Such variants are expected to have deleterious functional consequences and to contribute to disease risk. METHODS: We analyzed ∼250,000 rare variants from 16 independent studies genotyped with exome arrays and augmented this dataset with imputed data from the UK Biobank. Associations were tested for five phenotypes: cigarettes per day, pack-years, smoking initiation, age of smoking initiation, and alcoholic drinks per week. We conducted stratified heritability analyses, single-variant tests, and gene-based burden tests of nonsynonymous/loss-of-function coding variants. We performed a novel fine-mapping analysis to winnow the number of putative causal variants within associated loci. RESULTS: Meta-analytic sample sizes ranged from 152,348 to 433,216, depending on the phenotype. Rare coding variation explained 1.1% to 2.2% of phenotypic variance, reflecting 11% to 18% of the total single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of these phenotypes. We identified 171 genome-wide associated loci across all phenotypes. Fine mapping identified putative causal variants with double base-pair resolution at 24 of these loci, and between three and 10 variants for 65 loci. Twenty loci contained rare coding variants in the 95% credible intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Rare coding variation significantly contributes to the heritability of smoking and alcohol use. Fine-mapping genome-wide association study loci identifies specific variants contributing to the biological etiology of substance use behavior.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Exoma , Variação Genética/fisiologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Genótipo , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fumar/genética
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 9(8)2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071701

RESUMO

The relationship between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and breast cancer has been frequently examined, particularly in European populations. However, studies reporting associations between mtDNA haplogroups and breast cancer risk have had a few shortcomings including small sample sizes, failure to account for population stratification and performing inadequate statistical tests. In this study we investigated the association of mtDNA haplogroups of European origin with several breast cancer risk factors in mothers and children of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a birth cohort that enrolled over 14,000 pregnant women in the Southwest region of the UK. Risk factor data were obtained from questionnaires, clinic visits and blood measurements. Information on over 40 independent breast cancer risk factor-related variables was available for up to 7781 mothers and children with mtDNA haplogroup data in ALSPAC. Linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex and population stratification principal components were evaluated. After correction for multiple testing we found no evidence of association of European mtDNA haplogroups with any of the breast cancer risk factors analysed. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are unlikely to underlie susceptibility to breast cancer that occurs via the risk factors examined in this study of a population of European ancestry.

10.
Atherosclerosis ; 274: 94-103, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Males have greater cardiometabolic risk than females, though the reasons for this are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between common Y chromosomal haplogroups and cardiometabolic risk during early life. METHODS: In a British birth cohort, we examined the association of Y chromosomal haplogroups with trajectories of cardiometabolic risk factors from birth to 18 years and with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, carotid intima media thickness and left ventricular mass index at age 18. Haplogroups were grouped according to their phylogenetic relatedness into categories of R, I, E, J, G and all other haplogroups combined (T, Q, H, L, C, N and O). Risk factors included BMI, fat and lean mass, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), non-HDL-c and c-reactive protein. Analyses were performed using multilevel models and linear regression, as appropriate. RESULTS: Y chromosomal haplogroups were not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factors from birth to 18 years. For example, at age 18, the difference in SBP comparing each haplogroup with haplogroup R was -0.39 mmHg (95% Confidence Interval (CI): -0.75, 1.54) for haplogroup I, 2.56 mmHg (95% CI: -0.76, 5.89) for haplogroup E, -0.02 mmHg (95% CI: -2.87, 2.83) for haplogroup J, 1.28 mmHg (95% CI: -4.70, 2.13) for haplogroup G and -2.75 mmHg (95% CI: -6.38, 0.88) for all other haplogroups combined. CONCLUSIONS: Common Y chromosomal haplogroups are not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors during childhood and adolescence or with subclinical cardiovascular measures at age 18.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Haplótipos , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Doenças Assintomáticas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 9(1)2018 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361760

RESUMO

Y-chromosomal (Y-DNA) haplogroups are more widely used in population genetics than in genetic epidemiology, although associations between Y-DNA haplogroups and several traits, including cardiometabolic traits, have been reported. In apparently homogeneous populations defined by principal component analyses, there is still Y-DNA haplogroup variation which will result from population history. Therefore, hidden stratification and/or differential phenotypic effects by Y-DNA haplogroups could exist. To test this, we hypothesised that stratifying individuals according to their Y-DNA haplogroups before testing for associations between autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypes will yield difference in association. For proof of concept, we derived Y-DNA haplogroups from 6537 males from two epidemiological cohorts, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 5080; 816 Y-DNA SNPs) and the 1958 Birth Cohort (n = 1457; 1849 Y-DNA SNPs), and studied the robust associations between 32 SNPs and body mass index (BMI), including SNPs in or near Fat Mass and Obesity-associated protein (FTO) which yield the strongest effects. Overall, no association was replicated in both cohorts when Y-DNA haplogroups were considered and this suggests that, for BMI at least, there is little evidence of differences in phenotype or SNP association by Y-DNA structure. Further studies using other traits, phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS), other haplogroups and/or autosomal SNPs are required to test the generalisability and utility of this approach.

12.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11655, 2017 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912458

RESUMO

Many psychiatric traits are sexually dimorphic in terms of prevalence, age of onset, progression and prognosis; sex chromosomes could play a role in these differences. In this study we evaluated the association between Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups with sexually-dimorphic behavioural and psychiatric traits. The study sample included 4,211 males and 4,009 females with mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and 4,788 males with Y chromosome haplogroups who are part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) based in the United Kingdom. Different subsets of these populations were assessed using measures of behavioural and psychiatric traits with logistic regression being used to measure the association between haplogroups and the traits. The majority of behavioural traits in our cohort differed between males and females; however Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups were not associated with any of the variables. These findings suggest that if there is common variation on the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA associated with behavioural and psychiatric trait variation, it has a small effect.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Cromossomos Humanos Y , DNA Mitocondrial , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Hypertension ; 2017 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739976

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a substantial genetic contribution. Genetic variation influencing blood pressure has the potential to identify new pharmacological targets for the treatment of hypertension. To discover additional novel blood pressure loci, we used 1000 Genomes Project-based imputation in 150 134 European ancestry individuals and sought significant evidence for independent replication in a further 228 245 individuals. We report 6 new signals of association in or near HSPB7, TNXB, LRP12, LOC283335, SEPT9, and AKT2, and provide new replication evidence for a further 2 signals in EBF2 and NFKBIA Combining large whole-blood gene expression resources totaling 12 607 individuals, we investigated all novel and previously reported signals and identified 48 genes with evidence for involvement in blood pressure regulation that are significant in multiple resources. Three novel kidney-specific signals were also detected. These robustly implicated genes may provide new leads for therapeutic innovation.

14.
Nature ; 543(7646): 491, 2017 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332522
15.
Nat Genet ; 49(3): 416-425, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166213

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by reduced lung function and is the third leading cause of death globally. Through genome-wide association discovery in 48,943 individuals, selected from extremes of the lung function distribution in UK Biobank, and follow-up in 95,375 individuals, we increased the yield of independent signals for lung function from 54 to 97. A genetic risk score was associated with COPD susceptibility (odds ratio per 1 s.d. of the risk score (∼6 alleles) (95% confidence interval) = 1.24 (1.20-1.27), P = 5.05 × 10-49), and we observed a 3.7-fold difference in COPD risk between individuals in the highest and lowest genetic risk score deciles in UK Biobank. The 97 signals show enrichment in genes for development, elastic fibers and epigenetic regulation pathways. We highlight targets for drugs and compounds in development for COPD and asthma (genes in the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and CHRM3) and describe targets for potential drug repositioning from other clinical indications.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Asma/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
16.
Bioinformatics ; 33(2): 272-279, 2017 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27663502

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: LD score regression is a reliable and efficient method of using genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary-level results data to estimate the SNP heritability of complex traits and diseases, partition this heritability into functional categories, and estimate the genetic correlation between different phenotypes. Because the method relies on summary level results data, LD score regression is computationally tractable even for very large sample sizes. However, publicly available GWAS summary-level data are typically stored in different databases and have different formats, making it difficult to apply LD score regression to estimate genetic correlations across many different traits simultaneously. RESULTS: In this manuscript, we describe LD Hub - a centralized database of summary-level GWAS results for 173 diseases/traits from different publicly available resources/consortia and a web interface that automates the LD score regression analysis pipeline. To demonstrate functionality and validate our software, we replicated previously reported LD score regression analyses of 49 traits/diseases using LD Hub; and estimated SNP heritability and the genetic correlation across the different phenotypes. We also present new results obtained by uploading a recent atopic dermatitis GWAS meta-analysis to examine the genetic correlation between the condition and other potentially related traits. In response to the growing availability of publicly accessible GWAS summary-level results data, our database and the accompanying web interface will ensure maximal uptake of the LD score regression methodology, provide a useful database for the public dissemination of GWAS results, and provide a method for easily screening hundreds of traits for overlapping genetic aetiologies. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The web interface and instructions for using LD Hub are available at http://ldsc.broadinstitute.org/ CONTACT: jie.zheng@bristol.ac.ukSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho da Amostra , Software
17.
Ann Hum Genet ; 80(3): 187-96, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27000383

RESUMO

Consanguineous offspring have elevated levels of homozygosity. Autozygous stretches within their genome are likely to harbour loss of function (LoF) mutations which will lead to complete inactivation or dysfunction of genes. Studying consanguineous offspring with clinical phenotypes has been very useful for identifying disease causal mutations. However, at present, most of the genes in the human genome have no disorder associated with them or have unknown function. This is presumably mostly due to the fact that homozygous LoF variants are not observed in outbred populations which are the main focus of large sequencing projects. However, another reason may be that many genes in the genome-even when completely "knocked out," do not cause a distinct or defined phenotype. Here, we discuss the benefits and implications of studying consanguineous populations, as opposed to the traditional approach of analysing a subset of consanguineous families or individuals with disease. We suggest that studying consanguineous populations "as a whole" can speed up the characterisation of novel gene functions as well as indicating nonessential genes and/or regions in the human genome. We also suggest designing a single nucleotide variant (SNV) array to make the process more efficient.


Assuntos
Consanguinidade , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Inativação Gênica , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Fenótipo
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2015: 923491, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26106619

RESUMO

Recent technological advances have created challenges for geneticists and a need to adapt to a wide range of new bioinformatics tools and an expanding wealth of publicly available data (e.g., mutation databases, and software). This wide range of methods and a diversity of file formats used in sequence analysis is a significant issue, with a considerable amount of time spent before anyone can even attempt to analyse the genetic basis of human disorders. Another point to consider that is although many possess "just enough" knowledge to analyse their data, they do not make full use of the tools and databases that are available and also do not fully understand how their data was created. The primary aim of this review is to document some of the key approaches and provide an analysis schema to make the analysis process more efficient and reliable in the context of discovering highly penetrant causal mutations/genes. This review will also compare the methods used to identify highly penetrant variants when data is obtained from consanguineous individuals as opposed to nonconsanguineous; and when Mendelian disorders are analysed as opposed to common-complex disorders.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Mutação , Software
19.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0121351, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25799584

RESUMO

Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by severe early onset periodontitis and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. A previously reported missense mutation in the CTSC gene (NM_001814.4:c.899G>A:p.(G300D)) was identified in a homozygous state in two siblings diagnosed with PLS in a consanguineous family of Arabic ancestry. The variant was initially identified in a heterozygous state in a PLS unaffected sibling whose whole exome had been sequenced as part of a previous Primary ciliary dyskinesia study. Using this information, a proxy molecular diagnosis was made on the PLS affected siblings after consent was given to study this second disorder found to be segregating within the family. The prevalence of the mutation was then assayed in the local population using a representative sample of 256 unrelated individuals. The variant was absent in all subjects indicating that the variant is rare in Saudi Arabia. This family study illustrates how whole-exome sequencing can generate findings and inferences beyond its primary goal.


Assuntos
Catepsina C/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Doença de Papillon-Lefevre/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Árabes/legislação & jurisprudência , Consanguinidade , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Papillon-Lefevre/genética , Linhagem , Arábia Saudita
20.
Hum Mutat ; 35(12): 1446-8, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25224326

RESUMO

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by impaired ciliary function that leads to subsequent clinical phenotypes such as chronic sinopulmonary disease. PCD is also a genetically heterogeneous disorder with many single gene mutations leading to similar clinical phenotypes. Here, we present a novel PCD causal gene, coiled-coil domain containing 151 (CCDC151), which has been shown to be essential in motile cilia of many animals and other vertebrates but its effects in humans was not observed until currently. We observed a novel nonsense mutation in a homozygous state in the CCDC151 gene (NM_145045.4:c.925G>T:p.[E309*]) in a clinically diagnosed PCD patient from a consanguineous family of Arabic ancestry. The variant was absent in 238 randomly selected individuals indicating that the variant is rare and likely not to be a founder mutation. Our finding also shows that given prior knowledge from model organisms, even a single whole-exome sequence can be sufficient to discover a novel causal gene.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome de Kartagener/genética , Humanos
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