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J Spec Oper Med ; 21(3): 66-70, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529808


BACKGROUND: United States Africa Command (US AFRICOM) is one of six US Defense Department's geographic combatant commands and is responsible to the Secretary of Defense for military relations with African nations, the African Union, and African regional security organizations. A full-spectrum combatant command, US AFRICOM is responsible for all US Department of Defense operations, exercises, and security cooperation on the African continent, its island nations, and surrounding waters. We seek to characterize blood product administration within AFRICOM using the in-transit visibility tracking tool known as TRAC2ES (TRANSCOM Regulating and Command & Control Evacuation System). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of TRAC2ES medical evacuations from the AFRICOM theater of operations conducted between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2018. RESULTS: During this time, there were 963 cases recorded in TRAC2ES originating within AFRICOM, of which 10 (1%) cases received blood products. All patients were males. One was a Department of State employee, one was a military working dog, and the remainder were military personnel. Of the ten humans, seven were the result of trauma, most by way of gunshot wound, and three were due to medical causes. Among human subjects receiving blood products for traumatic injuries, a total of 5 units of type O negative whole blood, 29 units of packed red blood cells (pRBCs), and 9 units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) were transfused. No subjects underwent massive transfusion of blood products, and only one subject received pRBCs and FFP in 1:1 fashion. All subjects survived until evacuation. CONCLUSIONS: Within the TRAC2ES database, blood product administration within AFRICOM was infrequent, with some cases highlighting lack of access to adequate blood products. Furthermore, the limitations within this database highlight the need for systems designed to capture medical care performance improvement, as this database is not designed to support such analyses. A mandate for performance improvement within AFRICOM that is similar to that of the US Central Command would be beneficial if major improvements are to occur.

Militares , Ferimentos e Lesões , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Animais , Transfusão de Sangue , Cães , Humanos , Masculino , Plasma , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; PB 8-21-04/05/06(PB 8-21-04-05-06): 52-56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251665


Military working dogs (MWD) deploy with diverse tasks. Given significant utilization in Central Command (CENTCOM) for combat operations, the majority of MWD medical literature centers on combat trauma from this theater. Other commands, to include Indo-Pacific Command (INDOPACOM) and Africa Command (AFRICOM) utilize MWDs for low-intensity operations. To date, there is no analysis of medical evacuations of MWDs from the INDOPACOM and AFRICOM theaters. We seek to analyze MWD medical evacuations from these theaters utilizing the Transportation Command (TRANSCOM) Regulating and Command and Control Evacuation System (TRAC2ES). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all TRAC2ES medical records for MWD medical evacuations from the INDOPACOM and AFRICOM theaters conducted between January 2008 and December 2018. We abstracted free text data entry in TRAC2ES for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions performed prior to movement requests. RESULTS: MWD evacuations constituted 0.2% (n=10) of 4,217 documented medical evacuations from INDOPACOM and 0.3% (n=3) of 962 individually documented medical evacuations from AFRICOM. Most were routine precedence (n=8). All MWDs were evacuated for disease and non-battle injury including bone (n=4) and dental (n=2) fractures. Some had more than one provisional diagnosis and/or poly trauma. Analgesia was the most common intervention prior to evacuation (n=4). CONCLUSIONS: MWDs accounted for a small proportion of TRAC2ES evacuations in AFRICOM and INDOPACOM theaters from 2008-2018, most due to non-battle traumatic injuries. Future studies should consider more focused MWD medical evaluations in these theaters to develop a broader understanding of medical treatment trends.

Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S174-S182, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269446


BACKGROUND: The Compensatory Reserve Measurement (CRM) is a novel method used to provide early assessment of shock based on arterial wave form morphology changes. We hypothesized that (1) CRM would be significantly lower in those trauma patients who received life-saving interventions compared with those not receiving interventions, and (2) CRM in patients who received interventions would recover after the intervention was performed. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We captured vital signs along with analog arterial waveform data from trauma patients meeting major activation criteria using a prospective study design. Study team members tracked interventions throughout their emergency department stay. RESULTS: Ninety subjects met inclusion with 13 receiving a blood product and 10 a major airway intervention. Most trauma was blunt (69%) with motor vehicle collisions making up the largest proportion (37%) of injury mechanism. Patients receiving blood products had lower CRM values just prior to administration versus those who did not (50% versus 58%, p = .045), and lower systolic pressure (SBP; 95 versus 123 mmHg, p = .005), diastolic (DBP; 62 versus 79, p = .007), and mean arterial pressure (MAP; 75 versus 95, p = .006), and a higher pulse rate (HR; 101 versus 89 bpm, p = .039). Patients receiving an airway intervention had lower CRM values just prior to administration versus those who did not (48% versus 58%, p = .062); however, SBP, DBP, MAP, and HR were not statistically distinguishable (p ≥ .645). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our hypotheses that the CRM distinguished those patients who received blood or an airway intervention from those who did not, and increased appropriately after interventions were performed.

Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Transfusão de Sangue , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Traumático/diagnóstico , Choque Traumático/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia
Mil Med ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825888


INTRODUCTION: American military personnel in U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) operate in a continent triple the size of the USA without mature medical facilities, requiring a substantial transportation network for medical evacuation. We describe medical transportation based on ophthalmic complaints analyzed from the U.S. Transportation Command Regulating and Command and Control Evacuation System (TRAC2ES) database from 2008 to 2018. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all TRAC2ES records for medical evacuations for ophthalmic complaints from the AFRICOM theater of operations conducted between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2018. We analyzed free-text data in TRAC2ES for ophthalmic diagnostic and therapeutic interventions performed before established patient movement requests. An expert panel analyzed evacuations for their indications and interventions. RESULTS: Nine hundred and sixty-one total records originating within AFRICOM were identified in TRAC2ES. Forty-three cases (4%) had ophthalmic complaints. The majority of transports were routine (72%) and originated in Djibouti (83%), and all were transported to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center. The majority of patients were evacuated without a definitive diagnosis (60%). Leading ophthalmic diagnoses were chalazion (14%), corneal abrasion/ulcer (14%), and posterior vitreous detachment (12%). More than one-quarter of patients were transported without recorded evaluation and approximately half (51%) did not receive any intervention before evacuation. Consultation with an ophthalmologist occurred in only 16 (37%) cases. By majority, the expert panel deemed 12 evacuations (28%) potentially unnecessary. CONCLUSION: Evacuations were primarily routine often for disease etiology and further diagnostic evaluation. These findings support opportunities for telemedicine consultation to avoid potentially unnecessary transportation. Increased ophthalmic care and enhanced data collection on transports would support process improvement, optimize ophthalmic care by ensuring proper disposition of patients thus limiting unnecessary evacuations, and ultimately strengthen the entire fighting force.

Mil Med ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289834


BACKGROUND: Airway obstruction is the second leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Video laryngoscopy has improved airway management in the emergency setting for several decades, and technology continues to improve. Current technology in the supply chain is cost-prohibitive to incorporate at Role 1 facilities, which is where many intubations occur by novice intubators. The i-view is a novel video laryngoscopy device that is handheld, inexpensive, and disposable. The aim of this study was to determine if the i-view is suitable based on performance assessments by physician assistant trainees and survey feedback. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled physician assistant students at the Interservice Physician Assistant Program at Joint Base San Antonio-Fort Sam Houston. We provided them structured training on how to use the device, and then, a board-certified emergency medicine physician or certified registered nurse anesthetist assessed their intubations performed on a SynDaver mannequin model. We surveyed the participants afterward. RESULTS: We enrolled 60 Interservice Physician Assistant Program students. Most participants were male (75%) with a median age of 32 years. Service affiliations included Army (50%), Navy (23%), Air Force (18%), and Coast Guard (8%). Most (70%) had previous deployment experience. All the participants successfully cannulated the mannequins and 98% achieved first-attempt success. Most participants (78%) reported a grade 1 view. On postprocedure survey, 91% strongly agreed with using this device in the deployed setting and 89% strongly agreed with finding it easy to use. CONCLUSIONS: All physician assistant trainees successfully and rapidly performed endotracheal intubation using the disposable i-view video laryngoscope. Study participants rated the device as easy to use and desirable for deployment. Further research is necessary to validate this novel device in the clinical setting before recommending dissemination to the deployed military medical force sets, kits, and outfits.

Afr J Emerg Med ; 10(1): 13-16, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161706


Introduction: With personnel scattered throughout a continent 3 times larger than the United States, a lack of mature medical facilities necessitates a significant transportation network for medical evacuation in US Africa Command (AFRICOM). We describe medical evacuations analyzed from the US Air Force Transportation Command Regulating and Command & Control Evacuation System (TRAC2ES). Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all TRAC2ES medical records for medical evacuations from the AFRICOM theater of operations conducted between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2018. We abstracted free text data entry in TRAC2ES for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions performed prior to the patient movement request. Results: During this time, there were 963 cases recorded in TRAC2ES originating within AFRICOM. 961 records were complete for analysis. Most patients were male (82%) and military personnel (92%). Most transports originated in Djibouti (72%), and Germany (93%) was the most common destination. Medical evacuations were largely routine (66%), and routine evacuations were proportionally highest amongst US military personnel compared to all other groups. A small portion of patients were evacuated for battle injuries (4%), compared to non-battle injury (33%) and disease (63%). Within disease, the largest proportion of patient complaints centered on gastrointestinal symptoms (13%), behavioral health (11%) and chest pain (8%). Prior to evacuation, only 55% of patients were document as receiving any medication. Pain control was documented in 21% of cases, most commonly being NSAIDs (7%). Discussion: Extremely low numbers of battle injuries highlight the unique nature of AFRICOM operations compared to areas with more intense combat operations. Limitations of the dataset highlight the need for a data collection mandate within AFRICOM as within other areas for optimization and performance improvement.