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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(6): 578-586, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An evolving strategy in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) involves withdrawal of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), or aspirin, while maintaining P2Y12 inhibition. However, the pharmacodynamic effects of this approach on blood thrombogenicity and platelet reactivity remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the antithrombotic potency of ticagrelor alone versus ticagrelor plus ASA among high-risk patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents. METHODS: This was a mechanistic substudy within the TWILIGHT (Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients After Coronary Intervention) trial, which randomized patients undergoing PCI to ticagrelor plus placebo versus ticagrelor plus ASA following 3 months of dual antiplatelet therapy. Substudy participants were enrolled after randomization, at which time ex vivo assays to quantify thrombus size under dynamic flow conditions and platelet reactivity were performed. Pharmacodynamic assessments were repeated 1 to 6 months thereafter. The primary endpoint was thrombus size at the post-randomization visit with platelet reactivity following stimuli to arachidonic acid, collagen, adenosine diphosphate, and thrombin as secondary endpoints. Results were analyzed using analysis of covariance. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were enrolled, among whom 42 underwent perfusion assays at baseline and follow-up with a median time between studies of 1.5 months. The adjusted mean difference in post-randomization thrombus area was similar between groups: -218.2 µm2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -575.9 to 139.9 µm2; p = 0.22). Markers sensitive to cyclo-oxygenase-1 blockade, including platelet reactivity in response to arachidonic acid (mean difference: 10.9 U; 95% CI: 1.9 to 19.9 U) and collagen (mean difference: 9.8 U; 95% CI: 0.8 to 18.8 U) stimuli were higher among patients receiving placebo, whereas levels of platelet reactivity were similar with adenosine diphosphate and thrombin. CONCLUSIONS: Among high-risk patients receiving drug-eluting stents, the antithrombotic potency of ticagrelor monotherapy is similar to that of ticagrelor plus ASA with respect to ex vivo blood thrombogenicity, whereas markers sensitive to cyclo-oxygenase-1 blockade are increased in the absence of ASA. (Platelet Substudy of the TWILIGHT Trial; NCT04001374).

2.
Atherosclerosis ; 294: 17-24, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Circulating platelet microparticles (PMP) are the most abundant in bloodstream, are highly procoagulant and contribute to cross-talk with inflammatory cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactions of PMP with platelets and explore the involvement of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4). METHODS: PMP were separated by ultracentrifugation of expired platelet concentrates and added to: i) washed platelets, to confirm uptake, by flow cytometry and confocal and transmission electron microscopy, ii) platelet rich plasma (PRP), to assess changes in platelet function due to uptake by aggregometry in response to ADP; and iii) whole blood, to evaluate heterotypic aggregate (HA) formation by flow cytometry. Moreover, whole blood previously enriched with platelets with internalized PMP was used to explore modifications in thromboelastometry parameters (ROTEM). The inhibitory action of anti-TLR-4 was investigated. RESULTS: Confocal and ultrastructural microscopy studies revealed PMP internalization by platelets. Flow cytometry showed PMP-platelet association (p < 0.01 vs controls, at different PMP dilutions). PMP, at 1/20 dilution, increased HA (p < 0.05 vs controls), the percentage of maximal platelet aggregation to ADP (p < 0.05 vs controls), and accelerated clotting and clot formation times (p < 0.05 vs controls). Incubation of platelets with anti-TLR-4 prior to exposure to PMP reduced PMP-platelet association (p < 0.05 vs absence of the antibody), prevented HA formation, reduced maximal platelet aggregation and normalized ROTEM parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Platelets exhibit internalization ability towards their own PMP, a process that potentiates their thrombogenicity and is partially mediated by the innate immunity receptor TLR-4.

3.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(2): 1713-1723, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782253

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction is an earlier contributor to the development of atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD), in which the role of epigenetic triggers cannot be ruled out. Endothelial protective strategies, such as defibrotide (DF), may be useful in this scenario. We evaluated changes induced by CKD on endothelial cell proteome and explored the effect of DF and the mechanisms involved. Human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells were exposed to sera from healthy donors (n = 20) and patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis (n = 20). Differential protein expression was investigated by using a proteomic approach, Western blot and immunofluorescence. HDAC1 and HDAC2 overexpression was detected. Increased HDAC1 expression occurred at both cytoplasm and nucleus. These effects were dose-dependently inhibited by DF. Both the HDACs inhibitor trichostatin A and DF prevented the up-regulation of the endothelial dysfunction markers induced by the uraemic milieu: intercellular adhesion molecule-1, surface Toll-like receptor-4, von Willebrand Factor and reactive oxygen species. Moreover, DF down-regulated HDACs expression through the PI3/AKT signalling pathway. HDACs appear as key modulators of the CKD-induced endothelial dysfunction as specific blockade by trichostatin A or by DF prevents endothelial dysfunction responses to the CKD insult. Moreover, DF exerts its endothelial protective effect by inhibiting HDAC up-regulation likely through PI3K/AKT.

4.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(12): 1719-1732, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy caused by dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. There is evidence showing complement activation in other thrombotic microangiopathies. The aim of this study was to evaluate complement activation in different thrombotic microangiopathies and to monitor treatment response. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Complement activation was assessed by exposing endothelial cells to sera or activated-patient plasma-citrated plasma mixed with a control sera pool (1:1)-to analyze C5b-9 deposits by immunofluorescence. Patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (n=34) at different stages of the disease, HELLP syndrome (a pregnancy complication characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) or severe preeclampsia (n=10), and malignant hypertension (n=5) were included. RESULTS: Acute phase atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome-activated plasma induced an increased C5b-9 deposition on endothelial cells. Standard and lower doses of eculizumab inhibited C5b-9 deposition in all patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, except in two who showed partial remission and clinical relapse. Significant fibrin formation was observed together with C5b-9 deposition. Results obtained using activated-plasma samples were more marked and reproducible than those obtained with sera. C5b-9 deposition was also increased with samples from patients with HELLP (all cases) and preeclampsia (90%) at disease onset. This increase was sustained in those with HELLP after 40 days, and levels normalized in patients with both HELLP and preeclampsia after 6-9 months. Complement activation in those with malignant hypertension was at control levels. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed methodology identifies complement overactivation in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome at acute phase and in other diseases such as HELLP syndrome and preeclampsia. Moreover, it is sensitive enough to individually assess the efficiency of the C5 inhibition treatment.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2339, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649666

RESUMO

Angiogenesis and endothelial activation and dysfunction have been associated with acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD), pointing to the endothelium as a potential target for pharmacological intervention. Defibrotide (DF) is a drug with an endothelium-protective effect that has been approved for the treatment of veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Clinical data suggest that DF also reduces the incidence of aGVHD; however, the mechanisms of DF-mediated aGVHD regulation have not been examined. To investigate possible DF-mediated prophylactic and therapeutic mechanisms in aGVHD, we performed in vitro studies using endothelial cell (EC) lines. We found that DF significantly and dose-dependently suppressed EC proliferation and notably reduced their ability to form vascular tubes in Matrigel. To explore whether DF administered prophylactically or therapeutically has a significant effect on aGVHD endothelial dysfunction, ECs were exposed to media containing sera from patients with aGVHD (n = 22) in the absence or presence of DF and from patients that did not develop aGVHD (n = 13). ECs upregulated adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1), the adherence junction protein VE-cadherin, von Willebrand factor (VWF), and Akt phosphorylation in response to aGVHD sera. These responses were suppressed upon treatment with DF. In summary, DF inhibits vascular angiogenesis and endothelial activation induced by sera from aGVHD patients. Our results support the view that DF has notable positive effects on endothelial biology during aGVHD.

6.
Transfusion ; 59(12): 3783-3793, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642072

RESUMO

Developments during the past few years have resulted in multiple kinds of platelet products for transfusion. This involves different collection methods, containers, preservative solutions, modifications of storage temperatures and durations, and additional treatments such as pathogen reduction. Much experience has been obtained testing these processes in vitro to seek indications of in vivo effectiveness. Availability of an in vitro method that correlated with in vivo effectiveness would be extremely valuable for these different kinds of platelet products and as more innovation in platelet preparation occurs in the future. This report reviews the methods for in vitro platelet testing with a view to their in vivo implications and whether such testing could be helpful in projecting the clinical effectiveness of different platelet products.

7.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416133

RESUMO

In the case of vascular injury, a complex process (of clotting) starts, involving mainly platelets and coagulation factors. This process in healthy humans is known as hemostasis, but when it is deregulated (thrombosis), it can be the cause of important cardiovascular diseases. Nowadays, the aging of the population and unhealthy lifestyles increase the impact of thrombosis, and therefore there is a need for tools to provide a better understanding of the hemostasis mechanisms, as well as more cost-effective diagnosis and control devices. This study proposes a novel microflow chamber, with interchangeable biomimetic surfaces to evaluate global hemostasis, using reduced amounts of blood sample and reagents, and also a minimized time required to do the test. To validate the performance of this novel device, a study on the new oral anticoagulant Apixaban (APIX) has been performed and compared to previous conventional techniques. The test shows an excellent agreement, while the amount of the required sample has been reduced (only 100 µL is used), and the amount of reagent as well. An imprinted electrode embedded in the chamber in order to measure the impedance during the coagulation process. This approach distinguishes the impedance behavior of plasma poor in platelets (PPP) and plasma rich in platelets (PRP) for the first time.

8.
Sci Adv ; 5(6): eaav5463, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206016

RESUMO

Persons with HIV infection (PWH) have increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Coronary thrombosis is known to provoke myocardial infarctions, but whether PWH have elevated thrombotic propensity is unknown. We compared thrombogenicity of PWH on antiretroviral therapy versus matched controls using the Badimon chamber. Measures of inflammation, platelet reactivity, and innate immune activation were simultaneously performed. Enrolled PWH were then randomized to placebo, aspirin (81 mg), or clopidogrel (75 mg) for 24 weeks to assess treatment effects on study parameters. Thrombogenicity was significantly higher in PWH and correlated strongly with plasma levels of D-dimer, soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2, and circulating classical and nonclassical monocytes in PWH. Clopidogrel significantly reduced thrombogenicity and sCD14. Our data suggest that higher thrombogenicity, interacting with inflammatory and immune activation markers, contributes to the increased CVD risk observed in PWH. Clopidogrel exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity in addition to its antithrombotic effect in PWH.

9.
Transfusion ; 59(7): 2436-2445, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comparative studies on the restoration of hemostasis with different reversal agents after dabigatran therapy have not been performed. We compared the efficacy and prothrombotic potential of the specific antidote idarucizumab with that of previously recommended non-specific procoagulant concentrates. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We explored the in vitro effects of dabigatran (184 ng/mL) on fibrin and platelet-aggregate formation onto a damaged vessel under flow conditions (600 s-1 ). The reversal mechanisms and efficacy of idarucizumab (0.3-3 mg/mL) were compared with that of the non-specific procoagulant concentrates aPCC (25-75 U/Kg), PCC (70 U/Kg), or rFVIIa (120 µg/Kg). Generation of thrombin and prothrombin fragment (F1 + 2), and thromboelastometry parameters of clot formation were measured. RESULTS: Dabigatran caused pronounced reductions in fibrin (87%) and platelet interactions (36%) with damaged vessels (p < 0.01) and significantly impaired thrombin generation and thromboelastometric parameters (delayed dynamics and reduced firmness). Idarucizumab completely normalized rates of fibrin and platelet coverage to baseline values in flow studies; and reversed the alterations in thrombin generation, F1 + 2 and thromboelastometry parameters produced by dabigatran. In comparison, aPCC and PCC only partially compensated for the dabigatran-induced alterations in fibrin deposition, but were unable to fully restore them to baseline values. Reversal with aPCC or PCC improved the majority of alterations in coagulation-related tests, but tended to overcompensate thrombin generation kinetics and significantly increased F1 + 2 levels. CONCLUSION: Idarucizumab antagonizes alterations of direct and indirect biomarkers of hemostasis caused by dabigatran. In our studies, idarucizumab was clearly more efficacious than strategies with non-specific procoagulant concentrates and devoid of the excessive procoagulant tendency observed with the latter.

10.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 51(3): 1287-1300, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Accelerated atherosclerosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is preceded by endothelial dysfunction (ED), which exhibits a proinflammatory and prothrombotic phenotype and enhanced oxidative stress. In this study, the effect of several compounds with anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties on uremia-induced endothelial dysfunction has been evaluated in an in vitro model. METHODS: Endothelial cells (ECs) were exposed to sera from uremic patients in the absence and presence of the flavonoids apigenin, genistein and quercetin, the antioxidant enzyme mimetics (AEM) ebselen (glutathione peroxidase mimetic), EUK-134 and EUK-118 (both superoxide dismutase mimetics), and the pharmacological drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC). We explored changes in the expression of adhesion receptors on the cell surface, by immunofluorescence, the production of radical oxygen species (ROS), by fluorescence detection, and the activation of signaling proteins related to inflammation, by both a phosphospecific antibody cell-based ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. RESULTS: Uremic media induced a significantly increased expression of ICAM-1, overproduction of radical oxygen species (ROS) and activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and Nuclear Factor kB (NFkB) in ECs. Quercetin, the AEM and NAC showed a significant inhibitory effect on both ICAM-1 expression and ROS generation (p<0.05). All the compounds reduced p38MAPK activation, but only the AEM, especially ebselen, and NAC, both potentiating the glutathione peroxidase pathway, also inhibited NFkB activation. These two compounds were capable of increasing endothelial glutathione levels, especially in response to uremia. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the potentiation of the antioxidant pathways can be an effective strategy to improve endothelial dysfunction in uremia and a potential target to reduce the cardiovascular risk in this population.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Células Cultivadas , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
11.
Thromb Haemost ; 117(12): 2312-2321, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212119

RESUMO

Background Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may impair platelet function. Thrombin is a strong platelet agonist causing irreversible aggregation, release of granules' contents, cytoskeletal rearrangement and activation of signalling pathways. We investigated the effects of the SSRI escitalopram (SCIT) on thrombin-induced platelet response. Methods Isolated platelets were exposed to SCIT and activated with thrombin. We evaluated (1) platelet response by aggregometry and flow cytometry; (2) modifications in cytoskeleton proteins and signalling pathways by electrophoresis and Western blot; and (3) ultrastructural changes in platelets by electron microscopy. Results SCIT inhibited platelet response to thrombin, measured as platelet aggregation and expression of activation markers CD62-P and CD63 from platelet granules. Platelet aggregation decreased in a dose-dependent manner, reaching statistical significance with SCIT ≥32 µg/mL (65.4 ± 6.8% vs. 77.7 ± 2.5% for controls; p < 0.05). Expression of activation markers was statistically reduced with SCIT ≥20 µg/mL (p < 0.05). SCIT impaired the polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and association of contractile proteins during activation with thrombin (p < 0.05 with SCIT ≥50 µg/mL). Resting platelets incubated with SCIT became most spherical, with increased platelet roundness (p < 0.01, SCIT 50 µg/mL vs. control). SCIT interfered with signalling pathways modulated by thrombin (RhoA, PKC, Erk1/2 and PI3K/AKT). Conclusions Our data indicate that SCIT inhibits thrombin-induced platelet response and interferes with cytoskeletal assembly and related signalling pathways, thus resulting in compromised release of granules' contents, reduced platelet activation and aggregation. These mechanisms may explain the antithrombotic benefits observed in patients treated with this SSRI, and could become new therapeutic targets for future antithrombotic strategies.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Citalopram/farmacologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Fosforilação , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Função Plaquetária , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Trombina/metabolismo
12.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 10(8)2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines advise waiting 5 to 7 days before operating on P2Y12 inhibitor-treated acute coronary syndrome patients, to allow dissipation of its antiplatelet effects. Platelet transfusion is often used to restore hemostasis during operations, but its effectiveness and optimal timing are unclear. We investigated the degree of functional gains obtained from platelet supplementation after loading and maintenance of dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor and the influence of timing on this strategy. METHODS AND RESULTS: After baseline platelet testing (Multiplate Analyzer and VerifyNow), cardiovascular disease patients (n=20; 56.9±7.9 years; 65% men; 75% diabetic) received dual antiplatelet therapy as a single loading dose (ticagrelor 180 mg plus aspirin 325 mg) and as daily/maintenance treatment for 5 to 7 days (maintenance therapy: ticagrelor 90 mg BID plus aspirin 81 mg QD). At 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours from (last) dosing, patients' blood samples were supplemented with concentrated platelets from healthy donors in vitro, raising platelet counts by 0% (unsupplemented control), 25%, 50%, and 75%, and the function retested. Reactivity in supplemented samples was compared with respective 0% sample and with the pretreatment baseline. Results under loading dose and maintenance therapy regimens were nearly identical. Platelet reactivity was higher (P<0.05) in nearly all supplemented samples versus respective controls. Aggregations with supplementation were 59% to 79% of baseline at 24 hours and equal to baseline at 48 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet reactivity of ticagrelor-treated patients can be restored using concentrated platelets after a loading dose/maintenance therapy in a time-dependent manner under in vitro testing. Although statistically significant improvements are evident 6 hours after (last) dosing, ≥24 hours maybe needed for clinically meaningful restoration in platelet function. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02201394.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ticagrelor
13.
Thromb Haemost ; 117(10): 1981-1988, 2017 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837213

RESUMO

Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus [T2DM] is associated with increased platelet reactivity and hypo-response to antiplatelet drugs. Ticagrelor, with its faster and more potent antiplatelet effects, was shown to reduce adverse events more than clopidogrel in the overall CAD patient population of PLATO trial, but the benefits did not reach statistical significance in the T2DM subgroup. To better understand these findings, we compared the antithrombotic effects of ticagrelor versus with clopidogrel in T2DM patients with cardiovascular disease. In a randomized, 2 treatment-sequence, crossover-design, T2DM patients (n=20, 57±8 years, 60 % male) received a loading-dose [LD] plus one week of daily-therapy [DT] of clopidogrel or ticagrelor. Treatment effects were assessed by measuring thrombus formation (Badimon Chamber) and platelet aggregation (Multiple Electrode Aggregometry (MEA) Analyzer and VerifyNow®) at 2- and 6-hour post-LD and on Day-7 of DT, in comparison with pre-treatment baseline. After 2 weeks of washout, patients switched to the second treatment under identical testing conditions. Ticagrelor significantly reduced thrombus formation versus baseline at 2- and 6-hour post-LD and Day-7 of DT (33 %, 40 % and 31 %, respectively, p<0.01 for all) whereas thrombus reductions with clopidogrel were much lower and significant only at 6-hour post-LD (16 %, 20 % and 17 %, respectively). Antithrombotic effect of ticagrelor at 6-hour was significantly stronger than clopidogrel (p<0.05). Platelet aggregation (MEA and VerifyNow®) was inhibited by both treatments but effects of ticagrelor were significantly stronger at each time-point. Ticagrelor exhibits a faster and more potent antithrombotic effect than clopidogrel in T2DM patients with cardiovascular disease, supporting its use in this population.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Coronária/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Clopidogrel , Trombose Coronária/sangue , Trombose Coronária/diagnóstico , Trombose Coronária/etiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Plaquetária , Ticagrelor , Ticlopidina/administração & dosagem , Ticlopidina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 6(19)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714577

RESUMO

The main drawbacks of cardiovascular bare-metal stents (BMS) are in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis as a result of an incomplete endothelialization after stent implantation. Nano- and microscale modification of implant surfaces is a strategy to recover the functionality of the artery by stimulating and guiding molecular and biological processes at the implant/tissue interface. In this study, cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy surfaces are modified via direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) in order to create linear patterning onto CoCr surfaces with different periodicities (≈3, 10, 20, and 32 µm) and depths (≈20 and 800 nm). Changes in surface topography, chemistry, and wettability are thoroughly characterized before and after modification. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells' adhesion and spreading are similar for all patterned and plain CoCr surfaces. Moreover, high-depth series induce cell elongation, alignment, and migration along the patterned lines. Platelet adhesion and aggregation decrease in all patterned surfaces compared to CoCr control, which is associated with changes in wettability and oxide layer characteristics. Cellular studies provide evidence of the potential of DLIP topographies to foster endothelialization without enhancement of platelet adhesion, which will be of high importance when designing new BMS in the future.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/citologia , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Prótese Vascular , Ligas de Cromo/efeitos da radiação , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Stents , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Ligas de Cromo/química , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Humanos , Lasers , Teste de Materiais , Desenho de Prótese , Doses de Radiação , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos da radiação
15.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171486, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28192448

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms of action of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) suggest a potential therapeutic use in the prevention of thrombotic complications in arterial territories. However, effects of DOACs on platelet activation and aggregation have not been explored in detail. We have investigated the effects of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of thrombus formation under static and flow conditions. METHODS: We assessed the effects of apixaban (10, 40 and 160 ng/mL) on: 1) platelet deposition and fibrin formation onto a thrombogenic surface, with blood circulating at arterial shear-rates; 2) viscoelastic properties of forming clots, and 3) thrombin generation in a cell-model of coagulation primed by platelets. RESULTS: In studies with flowing blood, only the highest concentration of apixaban, equivalent to the therapeutic Cmax, was capable to significantly reduce thrombus formation, fibrin association and platelet-aggregate formation. Apixaban significantly prolonged thromboelastometry parameters, but did not affect clot firmness. Interestingly, results in a platelet-based model of thrombin generation under more static conditions, revealed a dose dependent persistent inhibitory action by apixaban, with concentrations 4 to 16 times below the therapeutic Cmax significantly prolonging kinetic parameters and reducing the total amount of thrombin generated. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies demonstrate the critical impact of rheological conditions on the antithrombotic effects of apixaban. Studies under flow conditions combined with modified thrombin generation assays could help discriminating concentrations of apixaban that prevent excessive platelet accumulation, from those that deeply impair fibrin formation and may unnecessarily compromise hemostasis.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrina/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Trombose/metabolismo , Animais , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacologia , Feminino , Hemorreologia , Hemostasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Cinética , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos , Tromboelastografia , Trombina/metabolismo
16.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 105(4): 973-983, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28000367

RESUMO

Immobilization of bioactive peptide sequences on CoCr surfaces is an effective route to improve endothelialization, which is of great interest for cardiovascular stents. In this work, we explored the effect of physical and covalent immoblization of RGDS, YIGSR and their equimolar combination peptides on endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) adhesion and on thrombogenicity. We extensively investigated using RT-qPCR, the expression by ECs cultured on functionalised CoCr surfaces of different genes. Genes relevant for adhesion (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1), vascularization (VEGFA, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) and anti-thrombogenicity (tPA and eNOS) were over-expressed in the ECs grown to covalently functionalized CoCr surfaces compared to physisorbed and control surfaces. Pro-thrombogenic genes expression (PAI-1 and vWF) decreased over time. Cell co-cultures of ECs/SMCs found that functionalization increased the amount of adhered ECs onto modified surfaces compared to plain CoCr, independently of the used peptide and the strategy of immobilization. SMCs adhered less compared to ECs in all surfaces. All studied peptides showed a lower platelet cell adhesion compared to TCPS. Covalent functionalization of CoCr surfaces with an equimolar combination of RGDS and YIGSR represented prevailing strategy to enhance the early stages of ECs adhesion and proliferation, while preventing SMCs and platelet adhesion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 973-983, 2017.


Assuntos
Ligas de Cromo/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/prevenção & controle , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/química , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/metabolismo , Humanos , Trombose/metabolismo
17.
Transpl Immunol ; 36: 9-13, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27102446

RESUMO

New strategies for tacrolimus administration that conserve its immunosuppressive effect but avoiding fluctuations in tacrolimus circulating levels are needed. The aim was to analyze if subcutaneous biodegradable tacrolimus-loaded microspheres injection promoted a significant immunosuppressive response in rats. Rats received two subcutaneous tacrolimus-loaded microspheres injections at different days, the first injection was done at day 0 and the second injection was done 12 days after. Plasma circulating levels of tacrolimus, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and calcineurin phosphatase (PP2B) activity in mononuclear cells were measured. Tacrolimus plasma levels were significantly increased from the day after tacrolimus-loaded microspheres injection and remained increased during 10days. Compared to control, plasma IL-2 levels and PP2B activity in mononuclear cells were significantly decreased during ten days. At day 12, a new subcutaneous injection of tacrolimus-loaded microspheres was performed and two days after injection, tacrolimus plasma levels were again increased and both IL-2 plasma levels and PP2B activity decreased. A single subcutaneous tacrolimus-loaded microspheres injection was enough to reduce tacrolimus-related immunosuppressive parameters. These results open the possibility of new therapeutic strategies to administrate calcineurin inhibitors reducing the variability of their circulating levels related to gastrointestinal drug absorption/metabolism modifications.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Microesferas , Transplante de Órgãos , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Blood ; 127(13): 1719-27, 2016 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26755708

RESUMO

Defibrotide (DF) has received European Medicines Agency authorization to treat sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, an early complication after hematopoietic cell transplantation. DF has a recognized role as an endothelial protective agent, although its precise mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of DF with endothelial cells (ECs). A human hepatic EC line was exposed to different DF concentrations, previously labeled. Using inhibitory assays and flow cytometry techniques along with confocal microscopy, we explored: DF-EC interaction, endocytic pathways, and internalization kinetics. Moreover, we evaluated the potential role of adenosine receptors in DF-EC interaction and if DF effects on endothelium were dependent of its internalization. Confocal microscopy showed interaction of DF with EC membranes followed by internalization, though DF did not reach the cell nucleus even after 24 hours. Flow cytometry revealed concentration, temperature, and time dependent uptake of DF in 2 EC models but not in other cell types. Moreover, inhibitory assays indicated that entrance of DF into ECs occurs primarily through macropinocytosis. Our experimental approach did not show any evidence of the involvement of adenosine receptors in DF-EC interaction. The antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties of DF seem to be caused by the interaction of the drug with the cell membrane. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the precise mechanisms of action of DF as a therapeutic and potential preventive agent on the endothelial damage underlying different pathologic situations.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Polidesoxirribonucleotídeos/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Pinocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Cell Biochem ; 117(2): 448-57, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26221761

RESUMO

Platelets are important in hemostasis, but also detect particles and pathogens in the circulation. Phagocytic and endocytic activities of platelets are widely recognized; however, receptors and mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that platelets internalize and store phospholipid microvesicles enriched in human tissue factor (TF+MVs) and that platelet-associated TF enhances thrombus formation at sites of vascular damage. Here, we investigate the mechanisms implied in the interactions of TF+MVs with platelets and the effects of specific inhibitory strategies. Aggregometry and electron microscopy were used to assess platelet activation and TF+MVs uptake. Cytoskeletal assembly and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and RhoA were analyzed by western blot and ELISA. Exposure of platelets to TF+MVs caused reversible platelet aggregation, actin polymerization and association of contractile proteins to the cytoskeleton being maximal at 1 min. The same kinetics were observed for activation of PI3K and translocation of RhoA to the cytoskeleton. Inhibitory strategies to block glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GPIIb-IIIa), scavenger receptor CD36, serotonin transporter (SERT) and PI3K, fully prevented platelet aggregation by TF+MVs. Ultrastructural techniques revealed that uptake of TF+MVs was efficiently prevented by anti-CD36 and SERT inhibitor, but only moderately interfered by GPIIb-IIIa blockade. We conclude that internalization of TF+MVs by platelets occurs independently of receptors related to their main hemostatic function (GPIIb-IIIa), involves the scavenger receptor CD36, SERT and engages PI3-Kinase activation and cytoskeletal assembly. CD36 and SERT appear as potential therapeutic targets to interfere with the association of TF+MVs with platelets and possibly downregulate their prothrombotic phenotype.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/fisiologia , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Integrina beta3/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIb-IX de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
20.
Transfusion ; 56(3): 580-6, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26450525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryopreserved platelet (CPP) concentrates exhibit a variety of morphologic and functional alterations that may affect the action of CPP with accelerated platelet (PLT) response and clotting. The objective of this study was to compare the in vitro hemostatic effect of CPP with fresh whole blood (WB) and standard 5-day PLT concentrates (PCs). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: WB collected from eight healthy donors was used to prepare fresh WB, PLT-depleted WB (TPN), and PLT-restored TPN using CPP (TPN-CPP) or PC (TPN-PC). Clot properties were evaluated with thromboelastometry (ROTEM); adhesion and aggregate formation under high shear (Impact-R); and PLT adhesion, aggregate formation, fibrin formation, and prothrombin activation under medium shear in a perfusion system. RESULTS: TPN-CPP had faster clot initiation (ROTEM clot time--TPN-CPP 115 sec, WB 194 sec, TPN-PC 161 sec), and CPP contributes to a strong clot with PLT involvement (maximum clot firmness--TPN-CPP 32 mm, WB 62 mm, TPN-PC 59 mm). The Impact-R PLT-covered area with TPN-CPP was less than those of WB and PCs, but aggregate size was the same as WB. PLT coverage in perfusion studies was observed with TPN-CPP, although generally less than both WB and PC. Fibrin was deposited with CPP-restored samples, but did not exceed the level of WB. CONCLUSION: CPPs present a phenotype supporting a moderate increase in the rate of clot formation, form stable PLT clots, and do not present a hypercoagulable phenotype during in vitro functional tests.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/citologia , Preservação de Sangue/efeitos adversos , Criopreservação , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Hemostasia/fisiologia , Hemostáticos , Humanos , Leucócitos/citologia , Adesividade Plaquetária/fisiologia , Agregação Plaquetária/fisiologia
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