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1.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553412

RESUMO

Importance: Psychotic experiences, such as hallucinations and delusions, are reported by approximately 5% to 10% of the general population, although only a small proportion develop psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Studying the genetic causes of psychotic experiences in the general population, and its association with the genetic causes of other disorders, may increase the understanding of their pathologic significance. Objectives: To determine whether genetic liability to psychotic experiences is shared with schizophrenia and/or other neuropsychiatric disorders and traits and to identify genetic loci associated with psychotic experiences. Design, Setting and Participants: Analyses of genetic correlation, polygenic risk scores, and copy number variation were performed using data from participants in the UK Biobank from April 1, 2018, to March 20, 2019, to assess whether genetic liability to psychotic experiences is shared with schizophrenia and/or other neuropsychiatric disorders and traits. Genome-wide association studies of psychotic experience phenotypes were conducted to identify novel genetic loci. Participants in the final analyses after exclusions included 6123 individuals reporting any psychotic experience, 2143 individuals reporting distressing psychotic experiences, and 3337 individuals reporting multiple occurrences of psychotic experiences. A total of 121 843 individuals who did not report a psychotic experience formed the comparator group. Individuals with a psychotic disorder were excluded from all analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Genetic associations with psychotic experience phenotypes. Results: The study included a total of 127 966 participants (56.0% women and 44.0% men; mean [SD] age, 64.0 [7.6] years). Psychotic experiences were genetically correlated with major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Analyses of polygenic risk scores identified associations between psychotic experiences and genetic liability for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Individuals reporting psychotic experiences had an increased burden of copy number variations previously associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% CI, 1.39-2.98; P = 2.49 × 10-4) and neurodevelopmental disorders more widely (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24-2.48; P = 1.41 × 10-3). Genome-wide association studies identified 4 significantly associated loci, including a locus in Ankyrin-3 (ANK3 [GenBank NM_020987]) (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.10-1.23; P = 3.06 × 10-8) with any psychotic experience, and a locus in cannabinoid receptor 2 gene (CNR2 [GenBank NM_001841]) (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.78; P = 3.78 × 10-8) with distressing psychotic experiences. The genome-wide association study of any psychotic experience had a low single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate (h2 = 1.71%; 95% CI, 1.02%-2.40%). Conclusions and Relevance: A large genetic association study of psychotic experiences from the population-based UK Biobank sample found support for a shared genetic liability between psychotic experiences and schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 259: 112-120, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445336

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Identifying phenotypic manifestations of genetic risk for bipolar disorder (BD) in childhood could increase our understanding of aetiological mechanisms. AIMS: To examine whether BD genetic risk is associated with childhood (age 8 years) cognitive function. METHODS: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we examined associations between polygenic risk scores for BD (BD-PRS) derived using Psychiatric Genomics Consortium summary data at p-thresholds (PT) ≤0.01 (primary) and ≤0.5 (secondary) and several cognitive domains (sample sizes 5,613 to 5,936). We also examined whether associations were due to SNPs that have shared risk effects on schizophrenia (SZ). RESULTS: At PT≤0.01, the BD-PRS was associated with poorer executive functioning (ß= -0.03, 95%CI -0.06, -0.01; p = 0.013), and, more weakly with poorer processing speed (ß = -0.02, 95%CI -0.05, 0.02; p = 0.075). Evidence of association with both poorer processing speed (p = 0.016) and performance IQ (p = 0.018) was stronger at PT≤0.5. Associations with performance IQ and processing speed were primarily driven by genetic effects that are shared with SZ risk, but there was some evidence of bipolar-specific genetic effects on childhood executive functioning. LIMITATIONS: The BD-PRS still explains only a small proportion of the variance for BD which will have reduced power to detect associations. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic risk for BD manifests as impaired cognition in childhood, and this is driven by risk SNPs that are also shared with SZ genetic risk. Further elucidation of which cognitive domains are most affected by genetic risk for BD could help understanding of aetiology and improve prediction of BD.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283791

RESUMO

Late onset Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia for which about 30 susceptibility loci have been reported. The aim of the current study is to identify novel genes associated with Alzheimer's disease using the largest up-to-date reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, the most accurate imputation software and a novel gene-based analysis approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 million genotypes from 17,008 Alzheimer's cases and 37,154 controls. In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected three novel gene-wide significant loci PPARGC1A (p = 2.2 × 10-6), RORA (p = 7.4 × 10-7) and ZNF423 (p = 2.1 × 10-6). PPARGC1A and RORA are involved in circadian rhythm; circadian disturbances are one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. PPARGC1A is additionally linked to energy metabolism and the generation of amyloid beta plaques. RORA is involved in a variety of functions apart from circadian rhythm, such as cholesterol metabolism and inflammation. The ZNF423 gene resides in an Alzheimer's disease-specific protein network and is likely involved with centrosomes and DNA damage repair.

6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332445

RESUMO

The failure of recent clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease has highlighted the need for the development of a more complete understanding of the pathogenesis of the disorder and also a belief that therapies may only work if given very early in the disease process before overt symptoms occur. The rare, early onset forms of the disease are all caused by mutations which make amyloid deposition a more likely event. Here we discuss the recent data showing that, in contrast, much of the risk of late onset disease is encoded by loci involved in lipid metabolism and/or encoded by microglia. We discuss these finding and suggest that amyloid induced membrane damage may be a key factor in disease and also review the evidence that genome wide genetic analysis can substantially help in the prediction of those individuals at high risk of disease in the general population.

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168069

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric phenotypes have tended to focus on categorical diagnoses, but to understand the biology of mental illness it may be more useful to study traits which cut across traditional boundaries. Here, we report the results of a GWAS of mood instability as a trait in a large population cohort (UK Biobank, n = 363,705). We also assess the clinical and biological relevance of the findings, including whether genetic associations show enrichment for nervous system pathways. Forty six unique loci associated with mood instability were identified with a SNP heritability estimate of 9%. Linkage Disequilibrium Score Regression (LDSR) analyses identified genetic correlations with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Bipolar Disorder (BD), Schizophrenia, anxiety, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Gene-level and gene set analyses identified 244 significant genes and 6 enriched gene sets. Tissue expression analysis of the SNP-level data found enrichment in multiple brain regions, and eQTL analyses highlighted an inversion on chromosome 17 plus two brain-specific eQTLs. In addition, we used a Phenotype Linkage Network (PLN) analysis and community analysis to assess for enrichment of nervous system gene sets using mouse orthologue databases. The PLN analysis found enrichment in nervous system PLNs for a community containing serotonin and melatonin receptors. In summary, this work has identified novel loci, tissues and gene sets contributing to mood instability. These findings may be relevant for the identification of novel trans-diagnostic drug targets and could help to inform future stratified medicine innovations in mental health.

8.
Ann Neurol ; 86(3): 427-435, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is responsible for a huge and growing health care burden in the developed and developing world. The polygenic risk score (PRS) approach has shown 75 to 84% prediction accuracy of identifying individuals with AD risk. METHODS: In this study, we tested the prediction accuracy of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and amyloid deposition risks with PRS, including and excluding APOE genotypes in a large publicly available dataset with extensive phenotypic data, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort. Among MCI individuals with amyloid-positive status, we examined PRS prediction accuracy in those who converted to AD. In addition, we divided polygenic risk score by biological pathways and tested them independently for distinguishing between AD, MCI, and amyloid deposition. RESULTS: We found that AD and MCI are predicted by both APOE genotype and PRS (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.82% and 68%, respectively). Amyloid deposition is predicted by APOE only (AUC = 79%). Further progression to AD of individuals with MCI and amyloid-positive status is predicted by PRS over and above APOE (AUC = 67%). In pathway-specific PRS analyses, the protein-lipid complex has the strongest association with AD and amyloid deposition even when genes in the APOE region were removed (p = 0.0055 and p = 0.0079, respectively). INTERPRETATION: The results showed different pattern of APOE contribution in PRS risk predictions of AD/MCI and amyloid deposition. Our study suggests that APOE mostly contributes to amyloid accumulation and the PRS affects risk of further conversion to AD. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:427-435.

10.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

11.
Neurobiol Dis ; 127: 492-501, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953760

RESUMO

Recent large-scale genetic studies have allowed for the first glimpse of the effects of common genetic variability in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), identifying risk variants with appreciable effect sizes. However, it is currently well established that a substantial portion of the genetic heritable component of complex traits is not captured by genome-wide significant SNPs. To overcome this issue, we have estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by genetic variability (SNP heritability) in DLB using a method that is unbiased by allele frequency or linkage disequilibrium properties of the underlying variants. This shows that the heritability of DLB is nearly twice as high as previous estimates based on common variants only (31% vs 59.9%). We also determine the amount of phenotypic variance in DLB that can be explained by recent polygenic risk scores from either Parkinson's disease (PD) or Alzheimer's disease (AD), and show that, despite being highly significant, they explain a low amount of variance. Additionally, to identify pleiotropic events that might improve our understanding of the disease, we performed genetic correlation analyses of DLB with over 200 diseases and biomedically relevant traits. Our data shows that DLB has a positive correlation with education phenotypes, which is opposite to what occurs in AD. Overall, our data suggests that novel genetic risk factors for DLB should be identified by larger GWAS and these are likely to be independent from known AD and PD risk variants.

12.
Neurobiol Aging ; 77: 178-182, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851568

RESUMO

Genetic case-control association studies are often based on clinically ascertained cases and population or convenience controls. It is known that some of the controls will contain cases, as they are usually not screened for the disease of interest. However, even clinically assessed cases and controls can be misassigned. For Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is important to know the accuracy of the clinical assignment. The predictive accuracy of AD risk by polygenic risk score analysis has been reported in both clinical and pathologically confirmed cohorts. The genetic risk prediction can provide additional insights to inform classification of subjects to case and control sets at a preclinical stage. In this study, we take a mathematical approach and aim to assess the importance of a genetic component for the assignment of subjects to AD-positive and -negative groups, and provide an estimate of misassignment rates (MARs) in AD case/control cohorts accounting for genetic prediction modeling results. The derived formulae provide a tool to estimate MARs in any sample. This approach can also provide an estimate of the maximal and minimal MARs and therefore could be useful for statistical power estimation at the study design stage. We illustrate this approach in 2 independent clinical cohorts and estimate misdiagnosis rate up to 36% in controls unscreened for the APOE genotype, and up to 29% when E3 homozygous subjects are used as controls in clinical studies.

13.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(3): 456-465, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911569

RESUMO

Objective: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 30 susceptibility loci associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using AD GWAS data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP), Polygenic Risk Score (PRS) was successfully applied to predict life time risk of AD development. A recently introduced Polygenic Hazard Score (PHS) is able to quantify individuals with age-specific genetic risk for AD. The aim of this study was to quantify the age-specific genetic risk for AD with PRS and compare the results generated by PRS with those from PHS. Methods: Quantification of individual differences in age-specific genetic risk for AD identified by the PRS, was performed with Cox Regression on 9903 (2626 cases and 7277 controls) individuals from the Genetic and Environmental Risk in Alzheimer's Disease consortium (GERAD). Polygenic Hazard Scores were generated for the same individuals. The age-specific genetic risk for AD identified by the PRS was compared with that generated by the PHS. This was repeated using varying SNPs P-value thresholds for disease association. Results: Polygenic Risk Score significantly predicted the risk associated with age at AD onset when SNPs were preselected for association to AD at P ≤ 0.001. The strongest effect (B = 0.28, SE = 0.04, P = 2.5 × 10-12) was observed for PRS based upon genome-wide significant SNPs (P ≤ 5 × 10-8). The strength of association was weaker with less stringent SNP selection thresholds. Interpretation: Both PRS and PHS can be used to predict an age-specific risk for developing AD. The PHS approach uses SNP effect sizes derived with the Cox Proportional Hazard Regression model. When SNPs were selected based upon AD GWAS case/control P ≤ 10-3, we found no advantage of using SNP effects sizes calculated with the Cox Proportional Hazard Regression model in our study. When SNPs are selected for association with AD risk at P > 10-3, the age-specific risk prediction results are not significant for either PRS or PHS. However PHS could be more advantageous than PRS of age specific AD risk predictions when SNPs are prioritized for association with AD age at onset (i.e., powerful Cox Regression GWAS study).

14.
Br J Psychiatry ; 214(5): 297-304, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by varying degrees of cognitive impairment, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. However, the effects of many individual CNVs in carriers without neurodevelopmental disorders are not yet fully understood, and little is known about the effects of reciprocal copy number changes of known pathogenic loci.AimsWe aimed to analyse the effect of CNV carrier status on cognitive performance and measures of occupational and social outcomes in unaffected individuals from the UK Biobank. METHOD: We called CNVs in the full UK Biobank sample and analysed data from 420 247 individuals who passed CNV quality control, reported White British or Irish ancestry and were not diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders. We analysed 33 pathogenic CNVs, including their reciprocal deletions/duplications, for association with seven cognitive tests and four general measures of functioning: academic qualifications, occupation, household income and Townsend Deprivation Index. RESULTS: Most CNVs (24 out of 33) were associated with reduced performance on at least one cognitive test or measure of functioning. The changes on the cognitive tests were modest (average reduction of 0.13 s.d.) but varied markedly between CNVs. All 12 schizophrenia-associated CNVs were associated with significant impairments on measures of functioning. CONCLUSIONS: CNVs implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, are associated with cognitive deficits, even among unaffected individuals. These deficits may be subtle but CNV carriers have significant disadvantages in educational attainment and ability to earn income in adult life.Declaration of interestNone.

15.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 661-666, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a marked reduction in reproductive success, yet alleles that are common contribute substantially to the liability of the disorder. Among several possible explanations for this, it has been postulated that individuals who carry risk alleles but are unaffected are at some reproductive advantage, offsetting the effects of negative selection among those who are affected. The authors sought to test this hypothesis, isolating the effects of risk alleles on fecundity from the effects that are contingent on expressing schizophrenia. METHODS: The burden of schizophrenia risk alleles, as indexed by a polygenic risk score (PRS), carried by 139,679 participants in the UK Biobank study who did not have schizophrenia was compared with the number of offspring of these individuals. RESULTS: Higher schizophrenia liability in study subjects without manifest disorder was weakly but significantly associated with having more children (B=0.006, 95% CI=0.002, 0.010). The relationship was dependent on sex, with a positive correlation between number of children and liability among females (B=0.011, 95% CI=0.006, 0.016), whereas among males, higher liability was associated with being childless (odds ratio=0.96, 95% CI=0.94, 0.98). The negative effect on number of children associated with schizophrenia itself was twofold to 15-fold greater than the positive effect associated with PRS in unaffected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a complex relationship between liability and fecundity is consistent with sexual selection. Although the overall pattern of a weak positive correlation with liability may contribute to the persistence of schizophrenia risk alleles, these results indicate that the negative selection acting on individuals affected by schizophrenia in the general population is larger than any advantage conferred by genetic loading in unaffected individuals.

16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649440

RESUMO

Background: Constitutional loss of function (LOF) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pattern recognition receptors FPR1, TLR3, and TLR4 have previously been reported to predict oxaliplatin benefit in colorectal cancer. Confirmation of this association could substantially improve patient stratification. Methods: We performed a retrospective biomarker analysis of the Short Course in Oncology Therapy (SCOT) and COIN/COIN-B trials. Participant status for LOF variants in FPR1 (rs867228), TLR3 (rs3775291), and TLR4 (rs4986790/rs4986791) was determined by genotyping array or genotype imputation. Associations between LOF variants and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by Cox regression, adjusted for confounders, using additive, dominant, and recessive genetic models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Our validation study populations included 2929 and 1948 patients in the SCOT and COIN/COIN-B cohorts, respectively, of whom 2728 and 1672 patients had functional status of all three SNPs determined. We found no evidence of an association between any SNP and DFS in the SCOT cohort, or with OS in either cohort, irrespective of the type of model used. This included models for which an association was previously reported for rs867228 (recessive model, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for DFS in SCOT = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99 to 1.45, P = .07; HR for OS in COIN/COIN-B = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.34, P = .66), and rs4986790 (dominant model, multivariable-adjusted HR for DFS in SCOT = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.13, P = .27; HR for OS in COIN/COIN-B = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.31, P = .40). Conclusion: In this prespecified analysis of two large clinical trials, we found no evidence that constitutional LOF SNPs in FPR1, TLR3, or TLR4 are associated with differential benefit from oxaliplatin. Our results suggest these SNPs are unlikely to be clinically useful biomarkers.

18.
J Affect Disord ; 246: 633-639, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studying the phenotypic manifestations of increased genetic liability for Bipolar Disorder (BD) can increase understanding of this disorder. AIMS: We assessed whether genetic risk for BD was associated with childhood psychopathology and features of hypomania in young adulthood within a large population-based birth cohort. METHODS: We used data from the second Psychiatric Genetics Consortium Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) for Bipolar Disorder to construct a polygenic risk score (PRS) for each individual in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between the BD-PRS and emotional/behavioural difficulties, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits in childhood, as well as hypomania in early adulthood (sample sizes from 2654 to 6111). RESULTS: The BD-PRS was not associated with total hypomania score, but was weakly associated with a binary measure of hypomania (OR = 1.13, 95%CI 0.98,1.32; p = 0.097), and particularly at higher hypomania symptom thresholds (strongest evidence OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.07, 1.65; p = 0.01). The BD-PRS was also associated with ADHD (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.10, 1.57; p = 0.018), but not with other childhood psychopathology. LIMITATIONS: The PRS only captures common genetic variation and currently explains a relatively small proportion of the variance for BD. CONCLUSIONS: The BD-PRS was associated with ADHD in childhood, and weakly with adult hypomania, but not with other psychopathology examined. Our findings suggest that genetic risk for BD does not appear to manifest in childhood to the same extent as schizophrenia genetic risk has been reported to do.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/genética , Criança , Feminino , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Psicopatologia , Medição de Risco , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 867, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to increase risk for physical anomalies, developmental, psychiatric and medical disorders. Some of them have been associated with changes in weight, height, and other physical traits. As most studies have been performed on children and young people, these effects of CNVs in middle-aged and older people are not well established. The UK Biobank recruited half a million adults who provided a variety of physical measurements. We called all CNVs from the Affymetrix microarrays and selected a set of 54 CNVs implicated as pathogenic (including their reciprocal deletions/duplications) and that were found in five or more persons. Linear regression analysis was used to establish their association with 16 physical traits relevant to human health. RESULTS: 396,725 participants of white British or Irish descent (excluding first-degree relatives) passed our quality control filters. Out of the 864 CNV/trait associations, 214 were significant at a false discovery rate of 0.1, most of them novel. Many of these traits increase risk for adverse health outcomes: e.g. increases in weight, waist-to-hip ratio, pulse rate and body fat composition. Deletions at 16p11.2, 16p12.1, NRXN1 and duplications at 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 produced the highest numbers of significant associations. Five CNVs produced average changes of over one standard deviation for the 16 traits, compared to controls: deletions at 16p11.2 and 22q11.2, and duplications at 3q29, the Williams-Beuren and Potocki-Lupski regions. CNVs at 1q21.1, 2q13, 16p11.2 and 16p11.2 distal, 16p12.1, 17p12 and 17q12 demonstrated one or more mirror image effects of deletions versus duplications. CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of many CNVs should be monitored for physical traits that increase morbidity and mortality. Genes within these CNVs can give insights into biological processes and therapeutic interventions.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516002

RESUMO

A major controversy in psychiatric genetics is whether nonadditive genetic interaction effects contribute to the risk of highly polygenic disorders. We applied a support vector machines (SVMs) approach, which is capable of building linear and nonlinear models using kernel methods, to classify cases from controls in a large schizophrenia case-control sample of 11,853 subjects (5,554 cases and 6,299 controls) and compared its prediction accuracy with the polygenic risk score (PRS) approach. We also investigated whether SVMs are a suitable approach to detecting nonlinear genetic effects, that is, interactions. We found that PRS provided more accurate case/control classification than either linear or nonlinear SVMs, and give a tentative explanation why PRS outperforms both multivariate regression and linear kernel SVMs. In addition, we observe that nonlinear kernel SVMs showed higher classification accuracy than linear SVMs when a large number of SNPs are entered into the model. We conclude that SVMs are a potential tool for assessing the presence of interactions, prior to searching for them explicitly.

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