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1.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(2): 81-85, jul. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014999

RESUMO

At present, there is no specific treatment for primary ciliary dyskinesia, nor controlled and randomized clinical trials to determine how the management and monitoring of these patients should be considered. The therapeutic options are extrapolated from other diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, or non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. However, the implementation of specific groups of experts, both in the USA (PDC-foundation) and in Europe (BESTCILIA or BEAT-PD), are helping to increase knowledge of the disease, opening research channels and seeking new treatments. Until we have therapies capable of correcting the basic defect of the disease, the pillars of treatment are the daily cleansing of the airways and aggressive antibiotherapy against respiratory infections. Multidisciplinary care in specialized centers where pulmonary function is monitored and the infection is prevented and treated will improve, as in cystic fibrosis, the results of patients.


En la actualidad no existe un tratamiento específico para la discinesia ciliar primaria, ni se cuenta con ensayos clínicos controlados y randomizados que permitan determinar cómo debe plantearse el manejo y seguimiento de estos pacientes. Las opciones terapéuticas son extrapoladas de otras enfermedades, como la fibrosis quística, o las bronquiectasias no fibrosis quística. Sin embargo, la puesta en marcha de grupos específicos de expertos, tanto en USA (PDC-foundation) como en Europa (BESTCILIA o BEAT-PD), están permitiendo incrementar el conocimiento de la enfermedad, abriendo vías de investigación y buscando nuevos tratamientos. Hasta contar con terapias capaces de corregir el defecto básico de la enfermedad, los pilares del tratamiento son la limpieza diaria de las vías aéreas y la antibioterapia agresiva frente a las infecciones respiratorias. La atención multidisciplinar en centros especializados donde se monitorice la función pulmonar y se prevengan y traten las infecciones mejorará, como en la fibrosis quística, los resultados de los pacientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Síndrome de Kartagener/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Kartagener/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Kartagener/genética , Síndrome de Kartagener/terapia , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Seguimentos , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Pneumopatias Fúngicas
2.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(7): 973-982, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001655

RESUMO

Little is known about respiratory morbidity and asthma risk in preterm infants (PTIs) with a gestational age (GA) over 32 weeks. This was a prospective study carried out from birth to 7-8 years, comparing two groups: (a) PTIs (GAs 32 weeks + 1 day to 35 weeks + 0 days, without comorbidities) and (b) full-term infants (FTIs; GA ≥ 37 weeks). Risk and protective factors for bronchiolitis and asthma were identified. A total of 232 children (116/group) were included. Sixty-six (56.9%) PTIs and 43 (37.1%) FTIs presented bronchiolitis (p = 0.002). Recurrent wheezing was 52 (44.8%) on PTIs versus 36 (31.0%) on FTIs (p = 0.03). Asthma at school aged was 27 (23.3%) on PTIs and 8 (6.9%) on FTIs (p = 0.020). Asthma risk factors were only detected in group A.Conclusion: PTIs had a higher prevalence of bronchiolitis, recurrent wheezing and asthma; risk factors for asthma are the following: older siblings, allergic father, atopic dermatitis and antibiotic treatment in the first 3 years of life and prematurity itself, which also acted as protective factor for atopic dermatitis. What is known: • In recent decades, there has been a significant increase in the birth of premature babies and consequently, also in the pathologies secondary to the prematurity: a greater number of complications and disorders related to the development and maturation of many organs and systems, especially the respiratory system. Several studies, especially in full-term infants and very preterm infants, have tried to elucidate the risk factors that may influence the development of persistent or chronic respiratory problems such asasthma, but little is known about the aetiology of these disorders in the late or moderate preterm infants. Inthis group of children, the role played by certain factors (early use of antibiotics, chorioamnionitis, smokeexposure, paternal asthma, etc.) on late respiratory morbidity, or asthma, is inconclusive. • Moderate-to-late preterm infants are more predisposed to developing recurrent wheezing/asthma and should adopt control measures. What is new: • Our work provides data related to little-understood aspects of respiratory diseases in this group of late or moderate preterm infants (gestational age between 32 weeks plus 1 day and 35 weeks plus 0 days), by monitoring their evolution from birth to 7-8 years of age, compared with another group of full-term newborns. We aimed to establish the prevalence of bronchiolitis and recurrent wheezing in these children during their first years of life. • The prevalence of school-aged asthma and the risk factors for contracting it were also investigated.

3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(2): 234-240, abr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887465

RESUMO

Introducción. Los adolescentes asmáticos se enfrentan a problemas propios de la etapa a los que se añaden asumir el control de su enfermedad, el cumplimiento de un tratamiento diario y de los controles médicos periódicos. El posible rechazo que esto genere puede conducir a la no adherencia terapéutica y al mal control del asma, lo que ocasiona problemas en la dinámica familiar, agravados por el estrés o el malestar emocional que esta situación provoca en los cuidadores. Objetivo. Identificar perfiles de adaptación y detectar predictores de riesgo para el bienestar emocional de los cuidadores de pacientes pediátricos con asma bronquial. Material y métodos. 79 cuidadores familiares de pacientes pediátricos con asma bronquial. Se utilizan instrumentos para evaluar la clínica psicológica emocional (Hospital Anxiety and Depression, HADS) y el nivel de estrés percibido asociado al cuidado médico de un paciente pediátrico (Pediatric Inventory for Parents, PIP). Se analiza el papel de las variables médicas del paciente y las psicológicas del cuidador familiar relativas a su malestar emocional y estrés. Resultados. 34,8% de los cuidadores presenta sintomatología ansiosa y estrés percibido moderado. La sintomatología emocional se relaciona positiva y significativamente con el nivel de estrés. Los modelos que mejor predicen el malestar emocional de los cuidadores (4050% de varianza explicada) incluyen como predictores indicadores de estrés, tiempo desde el diagnóstico y carga terapéutica del paciente. Conclusiones. La presencia de estrés derivado del cuidado, el tiempo de exposición y la carga de los tratamientos asociados a la enfermedad se identificaron como los principales predictores de riesgos para el bienestar del cuidador.


Introduction. Adolescents with asthma face problems inherent to this stage in their development, to which the challenges of taking over control of their disease, complying with a daily treatment and regular medical followup are added. Any rejection generated by this may lead to treatment non-adherence and poor asthma control, which brings about problems in family dynamics, made worse by the stress or the emotional distress that this situation causes in caregivers. Objective. Identify adjustment profiles and predictors of risk for the well-being of caregivers of pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Material and methods. Seventy-nine family caregivers of pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Instruments were used to assess the emotional status (Hospital Anxiety and DepressionScale, HADS) and the perceived level of stress associated with medical care of a pediatric patient (Pediatric Inventory for Parents, PIP). We analyzed the patient's medical outcome measures and the family caregiver's psychological outcome measures regarding their emotional distress and stress. Results. Of all caregivers studied, 34.8% exhibit anxiety symptomatology and moderate perceived stress. Emotional symptomatology correlates positively and significantly with the stress level. The models that best predict emotional distress of caregivers (40-50% of explained variance) include time since diagnosis and patient's treatment burden as stress indicators. Conclusions. The presence of stress resulting from care, time of exposure and burden of treatments associated with the disease are identified as the main predictors of risk for the well-being of caregivers.

4.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 116(2): e234-e240, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29557606

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with asthma face problems inherent to this stage in their development, to which the challenges of taking over control of their disease, complying with a daily treatment and regular medical followup are added. Any rejection generated by this may lead to treatment non-adherence and poor asthma control, which brings about problems in family dynamics, made worse by the stress or the emotional distress that this situation causes in caregivers. OBJECTIVE: Identify adjustment profiles and predictors of risk for the well-being of caregivers of pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-nine family caregivers of pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Instruments were used to assess the emotional status (Hospital Anxiety and DepressionScale, HADS) and the perceived level of stress associated with medical care of a pediatric patient (Pediatric Inventory for Parents, PIP). We analyzed the patient's medical outcome measures and the family caregiver's psychological outcome measures regarding their emotional distress and stress. RESULTS: Of all caregivers studied, 34.8% exhibit anxiety symptomatology and moderate perceived stress. Emotional symptomatology correlates positively and significantly with the stress level. The models that best predict emotional distress of caregivers (40-50% of explained variance) include time since diagnosis and patient's treatment burden as stress indicators. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of stress resulting from care, time of exposure and burden of treatments associated with the disease are identified as the main predictors of risk for the well-being of caregivers.

5.
Eur J Pediatr ; 177(2): 181-192, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29285648

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of bacteria isolated from Spanish children with suspected chronic lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) for whom bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was indicated. BAL fluid (BALF) was collected from 191 children (aged ≥ 6 months to < 6 years, with persistent or recurrent respiratory symptoms, non-responders to usual treatment) and cultured. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) were also obtained and cultured to assess concordance of BALF and NPS findings in the same patient. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis were identified from BALF with a bacterial load indicative of infection (> 104 colony-forming units/mL) in 10.5, 8.9, and 6.3% of children, respectively. Clinical characteristics were similar among participants, regardless of positivity status for any of the bacteria. Approximately 26% of pneumococcal isolates were PCV13 serotypes, and 96% of H. influenzae isolates were non-typeable (NTHi). Concordance between BALF and NPS isolates was 51.0% for S. pneumoniae, 52.1% for H. influenzae, and 22.0% for M. catarrhalis. CONCLUSION: S. pneumoniae, NTHi, and M. catarrhalis were the main bacteria detected in BALF and NPS. Children with suspected chronic LRTI may benefit from a vaccine protecting against NTHi. What is Known: • Chronic lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children can cause high morbidity and is a major use of healthcare resources worldwide. Despite this, their etiology or potential preventive measures are poorly assessed. • Bronchoalveolar lavage can be used to determine bacterial etiology of chronic LRTI. What is New: • We used conventional and molecular techniques to show that Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis were present in the LRT of Spanish children with suspected chronic LRTI • Concordance between isolates from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and nasopharyngeal swabs was low, suggesting that samples from the upper respiratory tract could not reliably predict the bacterial etiology of suspected chronic LRTI.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/diagnóstico , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Moraxellaceae/diagnóstico , Infecções Pneumocócicas/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Moraxellaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Recurso na Internet em Espanhol | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-ES-PROF | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-42288

RESUMO

Contiene: concepto y epidemiología, etiología de la neumonía comunitaria, diagnóstico clínico, diagnóstico radiológico, diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones del tracto respiratorio inferior, pruebas analíticas, algoritmo diagnóstico en la neumonía comunitaria. Criterios de ingreso y de alta hospitalaria, resistencias a antibióticos de S. Pneumoniae y H. Influenzae, tratamiento, actitud ante una neumonía que no responde.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde da Criança , Resistência a Medicamentos , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Haemophilus influenzae tipo b , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Protocolos Clínicos
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