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1.
Nano Lett ; 17(3): 1629-1636, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183177

RESUMO

The effect of lattice fluctuations and electronic excitations on the radiative rate is demonstrated in CdSe/CdS core/shell spherical quantum dots (QDs). Using a combination of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy and atomistic simulations, we show that lattice fluctuations can change the radiative rate over the temperature range from 78 to 300 K. We posit that the presence of the core/shell interface plays a significant role in dictating this behavior. We show that the other major factor that underpins the change in radiative rate with temperature is the presence of higher energy states corresponding to electron excitation into the shell. These effects should be present in other core/shell samples and should also affect other excited state rates, such as the rate of Auger recombination or the rate of charge transfer.

2.
Nano Lett ; 17(4): 2524-2531, 2017 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28221804

RESUMO

Seeded semiconductor nanorods represent a unique family of quantum confined materials that manifest characteristics of mixed dimensionality. They show polarized emission with high quantum yield and fluorescence switching under an electric field, features that are desirable for use in display technologies and other optical applications. So far, their robust synthesis has been limited mainly to CdSe/CdS heterostructures, thereby constraining the spectral tunability to the red region of the visible spectrum. Herein we present a novel synthesis of CdSe/Cd1-xZnxS seeded nanorods with a radially graded composition that show bright and highly polarized green emission with minimal intermittency, as confirmed by ensemble and single nanorods optical measurements. Atomistic pseudopotential simulations elucidate the importance of the Zn atoms within the nanorod structure, in particular the effect of the graded composition. Thus, the controlled addition of Zn influences and improves the nanorods' optoelectronic performance by providing an additional handle to manipulate the degree confinement beyond the common size control approach. These nanorods may be utilized in applications that require the generation of a full, rich spectrum such as energy-efficient displays and lighting.

3.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13178, 2016 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27725668

RESUMO

Multiexciton generation, by which more than a single electron-hole pair is generated on optical excitation, is a promising paradigm for pushing the efficiency of solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit of 31%. Utilizing this paradigm, however, requires the onset energy of multiexciton generation to be close to twice the band gap energy and the efficiency to increase rapidly above this onset. This challenge remains unattainable even using confined nanocrystals, nanorods or nanowires. Here, we show how both goals can be achieved in a nanorod heterostructure with type-II band offsets. Using pseudopotential atomistic calculation on a model type-II semiconductor heterostructure we predict the optimal conditions for controlling multiexciton generation efficiencies at twice the band gap energy. For a finite band offset, this requires a sharp interface along with a reduction of the exciton cooling and may enable a route for breaking the Shockley-Queisser limit.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(15): 2580-5, 2014 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26277946

RESUMO

The stochastic formulation of multiexciton generation (MEG) rates is extended to provide access to MEG efficiencies in nanostructures containing thousands of atoms. The formalism is applied to a series of CdSe/CdS seeded nanorod heterostructures with different core and shell dimensions. At energies above 3Eg (where Eg is the band gap), the MEG yield increases with decreasing core size, as expected for spherical nanocrystals. Surprisingly, this behavior is reversed for energies below this value, and is explained by the dependence of the density of states near the valence band edge, which increases with the core diameter. Our predictions indicate that the onset of MEG can be shifted to lower energies by manipulating the density of states in complex nanostructure geometries.

5.
Nano Lett ; 13(12): 5880-5, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24215466

RESUMO

The electronic structure of CdSe/CdS core/shell seeded nanorods of experimentally relevant size is studied using a combination of molecular dynamics and semiempirical pseudopotential techniques with the aim to address the transition from type-I to a quasi-type-II band alignment. The hole is found to be localized in the core region regardless of its size. The overlap of the electron density with the core region depends markedly on the size of the CdSe core. For small cores, we observe little overlap, consistent with type-II behavior. For large cores, significant core-overlap of a number of excitonic states can lead to type-I behavior. When electron-hole interactions are taken into account, the core-overlap is further increased. Our calculations indicate that the observed transition from type-II to type-I is largely due to simple volume effects and not to band alignment.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio/química , Nanoconchas/química , Nanotubos/química , Compostos de Selênio/química , Cádmio/química , Pontos Quânticos , Sulfetos/química
6.
ACS Nano ; 7(2): 978-86, 2013 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23281700

RESUMO

The assembly of mixtures of nanoparticles with different properties into a binary nanoparticle superlattice (BNSL) provides a route to fabricate novel classes of materials with properties emerging from the choice of the building blocks. The common theoretical approach based on the hard-spheres model predicts crystallization of only a few metastable binary superstructures (NaCl, AlB2 or the AB13). Recently [Shevchenko, E. V.; Talapin, D. V.; O'Brien, S.; Murray, C. B. Nature 2006; 439, 55.)], it has been demonstrated that with the use of a combination of semiconducting, metallic, and magnetic nanoparticles, a variety of novel BNSL structures were formed, where at least 10 were low density structures that have not been previously reported. While some of the structures can be explained by the addition of electrostatic interactions, it is clear that at the nanometer scale one needs to consider other influences, such as van der Waals forces, steric effects, etc. Motivated by those experiments, we study, using Monte Carlo simulations, the phase behavior of binary mixtures of nanoparticles interacting via a combination of hard-core electrostatics and van der Waals forces. We include a tuning parameter that can be used to balance between electrostatic and dispersion interactions and study the phase behavior as a function of the different charges and size ratios of the nanoparticles. The results indicate that at the nanoscale, both electrostatic and dispersion interactions are necessary to explain the experimental observed BNSL structures.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(11): 115701, 2012 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22540486

RESUMO

X-ray diffraction experiments have shown that sodium exhibits a dramatic pressure-induced drop in melting temperature, which extends from 1000 K at ~30 GPa to as low as room temperature at ~120 GPa. Despite significant theoretical effort to understand the anomalous melting, its origins are still debated. In this work, we reconstruct the sodium phase diagram by using an ab initio quality neural-network potential. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reentrant behavior results from the screening of interionic interactions by conduction electrons, which at high pressure induces a softening in the short-range repulsion.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(51): 20410-5, 2011 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22143756

RESUMO

The recombination of hydronium and hydroxide ions following water ionization is one of the most fundamental processes determining the pH of water. The neutralization step once the solvated ions are in close proximity is phenomenologically understood to be fast, but the molecular mechanism has not been directly probed by experiments. We elucidate the mechanism of recombination in liquid water with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and it emerges as quite different from the conventional view of the Grotthuss mechanism. The neutralization event involves a collective compression of the water-wire bridging the ions, which occurs in approximately 0.5 ps, triggering a concerted triple jump of the protons. This process leaves the neutralized hydroxide in a hypercoordinated state, with the implications that enhanced collective compressions of several water molecules around similarly hypercoordinated states are likely to serve as nucleation events for the autoionization of liquid water.


Assuntos
Hidróxidos/química , Oniocompostos/química , Água/química , Química/métodos , Computadores , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Prótons , Software
9.
J Chem Phys ; 135(11): 114109, 2011 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21950852

RESUMO

A new approach is proposed for exploring the low-energy structures of small to medium-sized aggregates of atoms and molecules. This approach uses the recently proposed reconnaissance metadynamics method [G. A. Tribello, M. Ceriotti, and M. Parrinello. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17509 (2010)] in tandem with collective variables that describe the average structure of the coordination sphere around the atoms/molecules. We demonstrate this method on both Lennard-Jones and water clusters and show how it is able to quickly find the global minimum in the potential energy surface, while exploring the finite temperature free energy surface.

10.
Nat Mater ; 10(9): 693-7, 2011 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21785417

RESUMO

Graphite and diamond have comparable free energies, yet forming diamond from graphite in the absence of a catalyst requires pressures that are significantly higher than those at equilibrium coexistence. At lower temperatures, the formation of the metastable hexagonal polymorph of diamond is favoured instead of the more stable cubic diamond. These phenomena cannot be explained by the concerted mechanism suggested in previous theoretical studies. Using an ab initio quality neural-network potential, we carried out a large-scale study of the graphite-to-diamond transition assuming that it occurs through nucleation. The nucleation mechanism accounts for the observed phenomenology and reveals its microscopic origins. We demonstrate that the large lattice distortions that accompany the formation of diamond nuclei inhibit the phase transition at low pressure, and direct it towards the hexagonal diamond phase at higher pressure. The proposed nucleation mechanism should improve our understanding of structural transformations in a wide range of carbon-based materials.

11.
J Chem Phys ; 129(2): 026101, 2008 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18624562
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