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1.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ultra-high temperature (UHT) processed cow milk is the milk most commonly consumed in Southwest Europe. The study objectives were: 1) to describe the pattern followed by iodine concentration (IC) in conventional UHT milk over the year, and 2) to find out any differences in IC in this type of milk depending on its geographical origin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bricks of conventional UHT cow milk of commercial brands available in food stores in Vitoria-Gasteiz (Araba/Álava), Basque Country (Spain) were bought for 12 consecutive months, and their ICs were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Median (P25-P75) IC in UHT milk (n=489) was 190 (159-235)µg/L. IC in milk showed great changes over the year, reaching peak values between January and May (241 [201-272]µg/L), and minimal levels between July and November (162 [134-185]µg/L) (P<.0001). The IC of milk packed in Germany was significantly lower than that of milks packed in Spain and France, 119 (106-156)µg/L versus 189 (159-229)µg/L and 205 (176-243)µg/L respectively (P<.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Conventional UHT cow milk is a very important nutritional source of iodine, but its IC is highly variable. Knowledge of the pattern followed by IC in milk over the year is of great interest for planning epidemiological studies on iodine nutritional status in schoolchildren and for interpretation of their results.

2.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(5): 305-311, mayo 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182805

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar el riesgo de hipotiroidismo en gestantes con enfermedad tiroidea autoinmune y tirotropina (TSH) < 2,5 mUI/l al inicio del embarazo. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo longitudinal en gestantes de primer trimestre sin antecedentes de patología tiroidea y con TSH en primer trimestre < 2,5 mUI/l. Se determinaron TSH, tiroxina libre (T4l) y anticuerpos antiperoxidasa (TPO) y antitiroglobulina en los 3 trimestres. Se comparó la evolución de la función tiroidea y la aparición de hipotiroidismo gestacional (TSH > 4 mUI/l), entre las gestantes con autoinmunidad positiva y autoinmunidad negativa. Resultados: Se incluyeron 300 gestantes con TSH basal 1,3 ± 0,6 mUI/l (semana gestacional 9). El 17,7% (n = 53) tenían autoinmunidad positiva en el primer trimestre. Los títulos de anticuerpos TPO y antitiroglobulina disminuyeron entre el primer y el tercer trimestre un 76,8% y un 80,7% respectivamente. La evolución de la función tiroidea fue similar en el grupo con autoinmunidad positiva y el grupo con autoinmunidad negativa, y la aparición de hipotiroidismo fue del 1,9% (1/53) y del 2% (5/247) respectivamente. Las gestantes en las que la TSH aumentó por encima de 4 mUI/l (n = 6) tenían cifras superiores de TSH basal en comparación con las que mantuvieron TSH≤4 mUI/l a lo largo del embarazo (1,8 vs. 1,3 mUI/l; p = 0,047). Conclusión: En nuestra población, las mujeres con TSH < 2,5 mUI/l al inicio del embarazo tienen un riesgo mínimo de desarrollar hipotiroidismo durante la gestación, independientemente de la autoinmunidad tiroidea


Objective: To determine the risk of hypothyroidism in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease and thyrotropin (TSH) < 2,5 mIU/l at the beginning of pregnancy. Methods: Prospective longitudinal study of pregnant women with no personal history of thyroid disease, and with TSH < 2.5 mIU/l in the first trimester. TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), anti peroxidase (TPO) and anti thyroglobulin antibodies were measured in the 3 trimesters of pregnancy. We compared thyroid function throughout pregnancy, and the development of gestational hypothyroidism (TSH >4 mIU/l) among pregnant women with positive thyroid autoimmunity and those with negative autoimmunity. Results: We included 300 pregnant women with mean baseline TSH 1.3 ± 0.6 mIU/l (9th gestational week). Positive thyroid autoinmunity was detected in 17.7% of women (n = 53) at the first trimester. Between the first and the third trimesters, TPO and anti thyroglobulin antibodies titers decreased 76.8% and 80.7% respectively. Thyroid function during pregnancy was similar among the group with positive autoimmunity and the group with negative autoimmunity, and the development of hypothyroidism was 1.9% (1/53) and 2% (5/247) respectively. Pregnant women in whom TSH increased above 4 mIU/l (n = 6), had higher baseline TSH levels compared to those who maintained TSH ≤4 mIU/l during pregnancy (1.8 vs. 1.3 mIU/l; p=.047). Conclusion: In our population, women with TSH levels <2.5 mIU/l at the beginning of pregnancy have a minimal risk of developing gestational hypothyroidism regardless of thyroid autoimmunity


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Tireotropina/administração & dosagem , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/efeitos dos fármacos , Antitireóideos/uso terapêutico
3.
J Ultrasound Med ; 38(12): 3301-3309, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090229

RESUMO

Women with infertility are often investigated with saline-infusion sonohysterography and hysterosalpingo-contrast-sonography. The high prevalence of endometriosis in this population also warrants an evaluation with transvaginal ultrasound for deep endometriosis. To minimize investigations, we prospectively evaluated the feasibility of a novel combined ultrasound technique called saline-infusion sonoPODography. In most patients, the fluid infused to assess the cavity and tubal patency spilled through patent tubes and filled the pouch of Douglas, yielding a "standoff" view of posterior compartment structures, including uterosacral ligaments, rectovaginal septum, and the pouch of Douglas. We believe this improved our ability to evaluate this space.

4.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962160

RESUMO

Although iodine nutrition in Spain has improved in recent years, the problem is not completely resolved. It is necessary that health institutions establish measures to ensure an adequate iodine nutrition of the population, especially among the highest risk groups (children and adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women and nursing mothers). A low salt intake should be advised, but it should be iodized. It is also imperative that food control agencies establish effective control over adequate iodization of salt. Indicators on iodine nutrition should be included in future health surveys. The EUthyroid study and the Krakow Declaration on iodine nutrition provide an opportunity to set up a pan-European plan for the prevention of iodine deficiency that should be considered and used by health authorities.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008537

RESUMO

Deep endometriosis (DE) of the uterosacral ligaments (USLs) has been reported to be the most common site of DE in the pelvis 1 . A nodule within the USL may infiltrate the parametrium, increasing the complexity of surgical resection and larger nodules noted on transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) (≥17mm) should raise suspicion for ureteral involvement 2 . Nodules may also invade the torus uterinus, the thickening between the insertion of the USLs behind the posterior cervix. The diagnostic test accuracy of TVS for USL-DE is not very good with sensitivity/specificity of 67%/86% 3 . We question whether this might be related to the absence of a standardized technique for its assessment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(12): 5957-5967, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920622

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Although the consequences of severe iodine deficiency are beyond doubt, the effects of mild to moderate iodine deficiency in pregnancy on child neurodevelopment are less well established. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between maternal iodine status during pregnancy and child IQ and identify vulnerable time windows of exposure to suboptimal iodine availability. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of individual participant data from three prospective population-based birth cohorts: Generation R (Netherlands), INMA (Spain), and ALSPAC (United Kingdom); pregnant women were enrolled between 2002 and 2006, 2003 and 2008, and 1990 and 1992, respectively. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: 6180 mother-child pairs with measures of urinary iodine and creatinine concentrations in pregnancy and child IQ. Exclusion criteria were multiple pregnancies, fertility treatment, medication affecting the thyroid, and preexisting thyroid disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Child nonverbal and verbal IQ assessed at 1.5 to 8 years of age. RESULTS: There was a positive curvilinear association of urinary iodine/creatinine ratio (UI/Creat) with mean verbal IQ only. UI/Creat <150 µg/g was not associated with lower nonverbal IQ (-0.6 point; 95% CI: -1.7 to 0.4 points; P = 0.246) or lower verbal IQ (-0.6 point; 95% CI: -1.3 to 0.1 points; P = 0.082). Stratified analyses showed that the association of UI/Creat with verbal IQ was only present up to 14 weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal brain development is vulnerable to mild to moderate iodine deficiency, particularly in the first trimester. Our results show that potential randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of iodine supplementation in women with mild to moderate iodine deficiency on child neurodevelopment should begin supplementation not later than the first trimester.

7.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(1): 128-139, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740731

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess how the current practice of newborn screening (NBS) for homocystinurias compares with published recommendations. METHODS: Twenty-two of 32 NBS programmes from 18 countries screened for at least one form of homocystinuria. Centres provided pseudonymised NBS data from patients with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency (CBSD, n = 19), methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency (MATI/IIID, n = 28), combined remethylation disorder (cRMD, n = 56) and isolated remethylation disorder (iRMD), including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency (MTHFRD) (n = 8). Markers and decision limits were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) to allow comparison between centres. RESULTS: NBS programmes, algorithms and decision limits varied considerably. Only nine centres used the recommended second-tier marker total homocysteine (tHcy). The median decision limits of all centres were ≥ 2.35 for high and ≤ 0.44 MoM for low methionine, ≥ 1.95 for high and ≤ 0.47 MoM for low methionine/phenylalanine, ≥ 2.54 for high propionylcarnitine and ≥ 2.78 MoM for propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine. These decision limits alone had a 100%, 100%, 86% and 84% sensitivity for the detection of CBSD, MATI/IIID, iRMD and cRMD, respectively, but failed to detect six individuals with cRMD. To enhance sensitivity and decrease second-tier testing costs, we further adapted these decision limits using the data of 15 000 healthy newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the favorable outcome of early treated patients, NBS for homocystinurias is recommended. To improve NBS, decision limits should be revised considering the population median. Relevant markers should be combined; use of the postanalytical tools offered by the CLIR project (Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports, which considers, for example, birth weight and gestational age) is recommended. tHcy and methylmalonic acid should be implemented as second-tier markers.

8.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As a component of thyroid hormones, adequate iodine intake is essential during pregnancy for fetal neurodevelopment. Across Europe, iodine deficiency is common in pregnancy, but data are lacking on the predictors of iodine status at this life stage. We, therefore, aimed to explore determinants of iodine status during pregnancy in three European populations of differing iodine status. METHODS: Data were from 6566 pregnant women from three prospective population-based birth cohorts from the United Kingdom (ALSPAC, n = 2852), Spain (INMA, n = 1460), and The Netherlands (Generation R, n = 2254). Urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Creat, µg/g) was measured in spot-urine samples in pregnancy (≤ 18-weeks gestation). Maternal dietary intake, categorised by food groups (g/day), was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Multivariable regression models used dietary variables (energy-adjusted) and maternal characteristics as predictors of iodine status. RESULTS: Median UI/Creat in pregnant women of ALSPAC, INMA, and Generation R was 121, 151, and 210 µg/g, respectively. Maternal age was positively associated with UI/Creat in all cohorts (P < 0.001), while UI/Creat varied by ethnicity only in Generation R (P < 0.05). Of the dietary predictors, intake of milk and dairy products (per 100 g/day) was positively associated with UI/Creat in all cohorts [ALSPAC (B = 3.73, P < 0.0001); INMA (B = 6.92, P = 0.002); Generation R (B = 2.34, P = 0.001)]. Cohort-specific dietary determinants positively associated with UI/Creat included fish and shellfish in ALSPAC and INMA, and eggs and cereal/cereal products in Generation R. CONCLUSIONS: The cohort-specific dietary determinants probably reflect not only dietary habits but iodine-fortification policies; hence, public-health interventions to improve iodine intake in pregnancy need to be country-specific.

9.
J Ultrasound Med ; 38(9): 2437-2445, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Doppler Color Scoring (DCS) has been used to predict successful expectant management of incomplete miscarriage. The aim of this study was to assess inter- and intraobserver reproducibility of the DCS system in women with incomplete miscarriage noted on transvaginal sonography. METHODS: This was a prospective reproducibility study involving offline analysis of 32 prerecorded video sets on transvaginal sonography in real time of women with incomplete miscarriage. Vascularization of retained products of conception was recorded using the DCS system adopted from the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis group. Five gynecologic sonologists of varying experience assigned a DCS classification to each video in the analysis. The same videos were reanalyzed, in a different order, at least 7 days later, to assess intraobserver agreement. Inter- and intraobserver correlations were performed to determine agreement. Interobserver agreement was also measured between each observer and the reference standard (G.C.). A Cohen's κ coefficient value less than 0 suggests poor agreement, 0.01 to 0.20 slight, 0.21 to 0.40 fair, 0.41 to 0.60 moderate, 0.61 to 0.80 substantial, and 0.81 and 0.99 almost perfect. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement for all observers for DCS allocation ranged from 0.480 to 0.751. Overall interobserver agreement for 5 observers was substantial (κ, 0.626). Overall interobserver agreements for the 2 inexperienced and 3 experienced observers compared to G.C. were 0.521 and 0.618, respectively. Experienced observers achieved overall almost perfect intraobserver agreement, compared to substantial agreement for inexperienced sonologists. CONCLUSIONS: DCS interobserver reproducibility between all observers and GC ranged from moderate to substantial. DCS intraobserver reproducibility was substantial to almost perfect. The DCS system appears to be a reproducible tool in evaluating women with incomplete miscarriage.

10.
Thyroid ; 29(3): 421-429, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid function assessment in pregnancy requires specific reference intervals stratified by gestational age and according to each laboratory method. Thyroid nodules may influence thyroid function in pregnant women. The aims of this study were to define the reference values of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) in the three pregnancy trimesters in iodine-sufficient pregnant women, and to analyze the influence of thyroid nodules on thyroid function during pregnancy. METHODS: This was a prospective, longitudinal study comprising 400 pregnant women with no history of thyroid disease and no medication influencing thyroid function. TSH, fT4, antithyroglobulin, and antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were measured each trimester by chemiluminescent immunoassays. Urinary iodine concentration was measured in the first trimester when a thyroid echography was also performed. Women with multiple gestation pregnancies, positive thyroid autoimmunity, TSH values >5 or <0.1 mIU/L with a simultaneous fT4 level above the general population reference value in the first trimester, or clinically significant thyroid nodules (nodules ≥1 cm and/or multiple nodules) were excluded to establish TSH and fT4 reference values. RESULTS: Reference intervals in the first, second, and third trimesters were 0.13-4.16, 0.31-3.73, and 0.58-4.36 mIU/L, respectively, for TSH, and 0.85-1.24, 0.82-1.20, and 0.67-1.06 ng/dL, respectively, for fT4. The total prevalence of thyroid nodules was 28.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 24.4-33.5%], and 6.0% of the participants showed clinically significant nodules. Pregnant women with thyroid nodules (n = 115) showed consistently lower TSH values during all pregnancy stages (first trimester: median 1.14 mIU/L [interquartile range (IQR) 0.53-1.75 mIU/L] vs. 1.48 mIU/L [IQR 0.94-2.19 mIU/L], p < 0.001; second trimester: 1.22 mIU/L [IQR 0.66-1.77 mIU/L] vs. 1.45 mIU/L [1.04-2.05 mIU/L], p = 0.001; third trimester: 1.74 mIU/L [IQR 1.08-2.36 mIU/L] vs. 1.93 mIU/L [IQR 1.37-2.58 mIU/L], p = 0.041) and higher fT4 values in the first trimester (M ± SD = 1.08 ± 0.14 ng/dL vs. 1.03 ± 0.12, p < 0.001) compared to those without nodules (n = 285). Both pregnant women with clinically significant thyroid nodules and those with nonsignificant ones had lower TSH values than women without nodules. CONCLUSIONS: TSH/fT4 reference intervals in pregnant women from the authors' geographical area will thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy to be appropriately diagnosed. The prevalence of thyroid nodules is high in iodine-sufficient pregnant women, and is associated with low TSH values across pregnancy.

11.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of hypothyroidism in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease and thyrotropin (TSH) < 2,5 mIU/l at the beginning of pregnancy. METHODS: Prospective longitudinal study of pregnant women with no personal history of thyroid disease, and with TSH < 2.5 mIU/l in the first trimester. TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), anti peroxidase (TPO) and anti thyroglobulin antibodies were measured in the 3 trimesters of pregnancy. We compared thyroid function throughout pregnancy, and the development of gestational hypothyroidism (TSH >4 mIU/l) among pregnant women with positive thyroid autoimmunity and those with negative autoimmunity. RESULTS: We included 300 pregnant women with mean baseline TSH 1.3 ± 0.6 mIU/l (9th gestational week). Positive thyroid autoinmunity was detected in 17.7% of women (n = 53) at the first trimester. Between the first and the third trimesters, TPO and anti thyroglobulin antibodies titers decreased 76.8% and 80.7% respectively. Thyroid function during pregnancy was similar among the group with positive autoimmunity and the group with negative autoimmunity, and the development of hypothyroidism was 1.9% (1/53) and 2% (5/247) respectively. Pregnant women in whom TSH increased above 4 mIU/l (n = 6), had higher baseline TSH levels compared to those who maintained TSH ≤4 mIU/l during pregnancy (1.8 vs. 1.3 mIU/l; p=.047). CONCLUSION: In our population, women with TSH levels <2.5 mIU/l at the beginning of pregnancy have a minimal risk of developing gestational hypothyroidism regardless of thyroid autoimmunity.

12.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 97(11): 1287-1292, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007066

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study aim was to evaluate the transvaginal sonography (TVS) "sliding sign" alone, direct visualization of the bowel with TVS, and the combination of both methods (ie "sliding sign" and direct visualization of the bowel), to determine the optimal TVS method for the prediction of rectal/rectosigmoid deep endometriosis (DE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multicenter prospective observational study (January 2009-February 2017). All women underwent TVS to determine whether the "sliding sign" was positive/negative and whether rectal/rectosigmoid DE was present, followed by laparoscopic surgery. The association between a negative TVS "sliding sign" alone and the direct visualization of a rectal/rectosigmoid DE nodule alone during the TVS were correlated with the presence of rectal/rectosigmoid DE at laparoscopy. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and likelihood ratios (LRs) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: During the recruitment period, 410 consecutive women with suspected endometriosis were included. Complete TVS and laparoscopic surgical outcomes were available for 376 of the women (91.7%). Complete TVS and laparoscopic data were available for 376 women. Of the 376 women 76 (20.2%) had rectal/rectosigmoid DE at laparoscopy. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, positive and negative LRs for each method to predict bowel DE were: negative "sliding sign": 87%, 73.7%, 90.3%, 65.9%, 93.1%, 7.62, and 0.29, respectively; direct visualization: 91.0%, 86.8%, 92.3%, 74.2%, 96.5%, 11.3, and 0.14, respectively; combined approach: 90.2%, 69.7%, 95.3%, 79.1%, 92.6%, 14.94, and 0.32, respectively. A negative TVS "sliding sign" was significantly associated with the need for bowel surgery (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of the TVS "sliding sign" and direct visualization of the bowel during TVS appears to provide the most accurate assessment for the identification of rectal/rectosigmoid DE preoperatively.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890354

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To validate the preoperative ultrasound-based endometriosis staging system (UBESS) for predicting the correct Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) and Australasian Gynaecological Endoscopy and Surgery (AGES) Society's level of laparoscopic skill required for endometriosis surgery. DESIGN: Multi-center retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). SETTING: Tertiary teaching hospital and a private gynecologic clinic. PATIENTS: 155 women presenting with chronic pelvic pain and/or a history of endometriosis. INTERVENTIONS: Women underwent detailed specialized transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) in a tertiary referral unit to diagnose and stage endometriosis using the 3 stages of the UBESS. The UBESS was correlated to RANZCOG/AGES laparoscopic skill levels. The UBESS classifications were correlated as follows: UBESS I to predict RANZCOG/AGES surgical skill level 1/2, UBESS II to predict RANZCOG/AGES skill level ¾, and UBESS III to predict RANZCOG/AGES skill level 6. MAIN RESULTS: The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of the UBESS I to predict the RANZCOG/AGES surgical skill levels 1/2 were 99.4%, 98.9%, 100%, 100%, 98.5%, not applicable, and .011; those of UBESS II to predict surgical skill levels 3/4 were: 98.1%, 96.8%, 98.4%, 93.8%, 99.2%, 60 and .033, respectively, and those for UBESS III to predict surgical skill level 6 were: 98.7%, 97.2%, 99.2%, 97.2%, 99.2%, 115.7, and 0.028, respectively. The rate of correctly predicting the exact level of skills needed was 98.1%, and Cohen's kappa statistic for the agreement between UBESS prediction and levels of training required at surgery was 0.97, indicating almost perfect agreement. CONCLUSIONS: The UBESS can be used to predict the level of complexity of laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis based on the RANZCOG/AGES skills levels for laparoscopy. It now awaits external validation in multiple centers with various surgical skill level classification systems to assess its general applicability.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(8): 2967-2979, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757392

RESUMO

Context: Low maternal free T4 (FT4) has been associated with poor child neurodevelopment in some single-center studies. Evidence remains scarce for the potential adverse effects of high FT4 and whether associations differ in countries with different iodine status. Objective: To assess the association of maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy with child neurodevelopment in countries with a different iodine status. Design, Setting, and Participants: Meta-analysis of individual participant data from 9036 mother-child pairs from three prospective population-based birth cohorts: INMA [Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood project) (Spain)], Generation R (Netherlands), and ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, United Kingdom). The exclusion criteria were multiple pregnancies, fertility treatments, thyroid-interfering medication usage, and known thyroid disease. Main Outcomes: Child nonverbal IQ at 5 to 8 years of age, verbal IQ at 1.5 to 8 years of age, and autistic traits within the clinical range at 5 to 8 years of age. Results: FT4 <2.5th percentile was associated with a 3.9-point (95% CI, -5.7 to -2.2) lower nonverbal IQ and a 2.1-point (95% CI, -4.0 to -0.1) lower verbal IQ. A suggestive association of hypothyroxinemia with a greater risk of autistic traits was observed. FT4 >97.5th percentile was associated with a 1.9-fold (95% CI, 1.0 to 3.4) greater risk of autistic traits. No independent associations were found with TSH. Conclusions: Low maternal FT4 was consistently associated with a lower IQ across the cohorts. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings of autistic traits and investigate the potential modifying role of maternal iodine status. FT4 seems a reliable marker of fetal thyroid state in early pregnancy, regardless of the type of immunoassay.

15.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 65(5): 247-254, mayo 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176034

RESUMO

Introducción: Un estudio epidemiológico realizado entre 1988 y 1992 puso de manifiesto la existencia de deficiencia de yodo y bocio endémico en la población escolar de la comunidad autónoma del País Vasco. Objetivos: 1) Conocer el estado de nutrición de yodo de los escolares de 6-7 años de edad y 2) estimar la prevalencia de concentraciones anormales de TSH en sangre capilar. Población y métodos: Fueron estudiados 497 escolares seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorizado. Para evaluar el estado de nutrición de yodo se utilizó la mediana de las concentraciones urinarias de yodo (mCUY). Para estimar la prevalencia de concentraciones anormales de TSH se utilizó el intervalo de referencia derivado de la población estudiada. Resultados: La mCUY (P25-P75) fue de 140 μg/L (82-217). Fue mayor en los que utilizaban sal yodada en sus domicilios que en los que no lo hacían (146 [85-222] frente a 126 μg/L [73-198]; p < 0,05). También fue mayor en los que consumían 2 o más raciones diarias de leche y yogur que en los que consumían menos de 2 raciones (146 [87-225] vs. 110 μg/L [66-160]; p < 0,0001). La prevalencia de concentraciones anormales de TSH fue del 2%. No hubo correlación entre las concentraciones de TSH en sangre capilar y las CUY (R = 0,082; p = 0,076). Discusión y conclusiones: Los escolares de 6-7 años de la comunidad autónoma del País Vasco tienen un estado de nutrición de yodo adecuado. La utilización de sal yodada en el domicilio y el consumo diario de leche y yogur se asociaron con las mayores CUY


Introduction: An epidemiological study conducted between 1988 and 1992 showed iodine deficiency and endemic goiter in the schoolchildren of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. Objectives: 1) To ascertain the iodine nutrition status of schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, and 2) to estimate the prevalence of abnormal TSH levels in capillary blood. Population and methods: The study was conducted on 497 schoolchildren selected by random sampling. Median urinary iodine concentration (mUIC) was used to assess iodine nutritional status, and the reference interval derived from the study population was used to estimate the prevalence of abnormal TSH levels. Results: The mUIC (P25-P75) was 140 (82-217) μg/L. A higher value was found in those who used iodized salt at home than in those who did not (146 [85-222] versus 126 μg/L [73-198], P<0.05). It was also higher in those who consumed 2 or more daily servings of milk and yogurt than in those taking less than 2 servings (146 [87-225] versus 110 μg/L [66-160], P<0.0001). Abnormal TSH levels were found in 2% of children. There was no correlation between TSH levels in capillary blood and urinary iodine concentrations (R=0.082; P=0.076). Discussion and conclusions: Schoolchildren aged 6-7 years of the autonomous community of the Basque Country have an adequate iodine nutrition status. Use of iodized salt at home and daily consumption of milk and yogurt were associated to the highest UICs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Deficiência de Iodo/complicações , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Tireotropina/análise , Espanha/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Bócio Endêmico/etiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Urinálise/métodos , Estudo Observacional , Estudos Transversais , Fluorimunoensaio/métodos , Dieta
16.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 65(5): 247-254, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650436

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An epidemiological study conducted between 1988 and 1992 showed iodine deficiency and endemic goiter in the schoolchildren of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. OBJECTIVES: 1) To ascertain the iodine nutrition status of schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, and 2) to estimate the prevalence of abnormal TSH levels in capillary blood. POPULATION AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 497 schoolchildren selected by random sampling. Median urinary iodine concentration (mUIC) was used to assess iodine nutritional status, and the reference interval derived from the study population was used to estimate the prevalence of abnormal TSH levels. RESULTS: The mUIC (P25-P75) was 140 (82-217) µg/L. A higher value was found in those who used iodized salt at home than in those who did not (146 [85-222] versus 126 µg/L [73-198], P<0.05). It was also higher in those who consumed 2 or more daily servings of milk and yogurt than in those taking less than 2 servings (146 [87-225] versus 110 µg/L [66-160], P<0.0001). Abnormal TSH levels were found in 2% of children. There was no correlation between TSH levels in capillary blood and urinary iodine concentrations (R=0.082; P=0.076). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Schoolchildren aged 6-7 years of the autonomous community of the Basque Country have an adequate iodine nutrition status. Use of iodized salt at home and daily consumption of milk and yogurt were associated to the highest UICs.

17.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 72(3): 216-222, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29279360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency on the neuropsychological development of their offspring is uncertain. We aimed to assess the association between iodine status during pregnancy and the cognitive and motor development of children at 4-5 years. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in four Spanish regions with recruitment of pregnant women between 2003 and 2008 and follow-up of their children up to 4-5 years (mean (SD)=4.8 (0.6)). Cognitive and motor function was assessed in 1803 children using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Dietary iodine and supplementation were measured through questionnaires twice during pregnancy. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in spot samples. The residuals of a regression of UIC against creatinine were used to define a variable corrected for creatinine (UIC~Cr). RESULTS: Neither iodine supplements nor iodised salt consumption or maternal UIC were associated with cognitive or motor function. After adjusting for creatinine, children of women with UIC~Cr <100 µg/L had 3.93 (95% CI -6.18 to -1.69) general cognitive scores lower than the reference (150-249 µg/L). Dietary iodine was inversely associated with motor scores and milk but not other dairy products or seafood consumption accounted for this association (beta: -1.36; 95% CI -2.12 to -0.61; per one daily milk serving). CONCLUSIONS: We found an association between low maternal urinary iodine and lower cognitive scores in childhood, although only when corrected for creatinine, adding to the evidence that iodine deficiency may have potential harmful effects on neurodevelopment. Iodine supplementation does not appear to improve child's neurodevelopment at 4-5 years.

18.
Eur J Nutr ; 57(5): 1807-1816, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28456846

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is used to describe the iodine status of a population. However, the link between UIC and iodine intake may vary during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to compare UIC during and after pregnancy, adjusting for factors that affect iodine intake. METHODS: Two repeated measures of UIC and data on maternal iodine intake estimated through questionnaires were collected during pregnancy and 1-4 years after pregnancy in a subsample of women (n = 598) from a mother and child cohort study in Spain. Random-effects interval regression was used to assess the changes in UIC according to pregnancy status. RESULTS: Median UIC was similar during (133 µg/L) and after pregnancy (139 µg/L). After adjusting for iodised salt, iodine supplement consumption, and socio-demographic related variables, UIC was 24.0% (95% CI 11.3, 38.2) higher after than during pregnancy. This difference was maintained in a subsample of women with exhaustive information on diet (n = 291): 26.2%, 95% CI 10.3, 44.4. CONCLUSIONS: In an iodine sufficient area for the general population, iodine excretion was lower during than after pregnancy when factors affecting iodine intake were controlled for. Current recommendations of median UIC during pregnancy are based on the equivalence between iodine intake and UIC estimated from studies in non-pregnant populations, which might lead to overestimation of iodine deficiency during gestation. Further studies should evaluate the equivalence between iodine intake and its urinary excretion during pregnancy.

19.
Environ Int ; 104: 83-90, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395858

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis. The disruption of the deiodinase (DIO) enzymes has been proposed as a mechanism of action. AIM: To evaluate the association between exposure to OCs and TH status in pregnant women, as well as to explore the role of genetic variations in the DIO1 and DIO2 genes. METHODS: The study population (n=1128) was composed of pregnant women who participated in the INMA Project (Spain, 2003-2006). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4´-DDE), b-hexachlorocyclohexane (b-HCH), polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners 138, 153 and 180, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were measured in serum samples taken during the first trimester of pregnancy (mean [standard deviation (SD)]: 13.5 [2] weeks of gestation). Polymorphisms in DIO1 (rs2235544) and DIO2 (rs12885300) were genotyped in maternal DNA. Sociodemographic and dietary characteristics were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS: A 2-fold increase in HCB was associated with lower TT3 (% change=-1.48; 95%CI: -2.36, -0.60). Women in the third tertile for b-HCH had lower TT3 (% change=-3.19; 95%CI: -5.64, -0.67). The interactions between DIO1 rs2235544 and PCB153 and b-HCH were statistically significant. The inverse association between PCB153 and TT3 was the strongest among women with AA genotype. Women with CC genotype presented the strongest inverse association between b-HCH and FT4. CONCLUSION: Exposure to HCB and b-HCH was associated to a disruption in maternal TT3. The DIO1 rs2235544 SNP modified the association between exposure to some of the OCs (specifically b-HCH and PCB153) and maternal thyroid hormone levels. These results strengthen the hypothesis that DIO enzymes play a role in explaining the disruption of thyroid hormones in relation to exposure to OCs.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Gravidez/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adulto , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Espanha , Tireotropina/sangue
20.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 86(4): 188-196, abr. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-161541

RESUMO

Introducción: La vitamina D es una prohormona esencial en la homeostasis del calcio y el fósforo. Estudios recientes muestran una elevada frecuencia de insuficiencia/deficiencia de vitamina D en población general a nivel mundial. Nuestro objetivo ha sido estimar la prevalencia de deficiencia e insuficiencia de vitamina D sérica [25(OH)D3] y examinar sus factores asociados en la infancia. Material y métodos: Se ha estudiado a 283 niños participantes en la cohorte INMA-Asturias. Se determinó la 25(OH)D3 mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Se han estimado las prevalencias de deficiencia ([25(OH)D3 < 20 ng/ml) e insuficiencia (20-29,9 ng/ml) de vitamina D y se ha analizado la distribución de 25(OH)D3 por mes de extracción, ingesta y otros factores. Resultados: La 25(OH)D3 media fue 20,1 ng/ml (rango 2,7-49,8). El 8,8% tenía 25(OH)D3 ≥ 30 ng/ml, el 38,5% entre 20-20,9 ng/ml y el 52,7% < 20 ng/ml. Se halló variación estacional con menores valores en invierno. No se encontró relación entre los niveles plasmáticos y la ingesta de vitamina D (mediana 2,7 g/día, rango 0,81-12,62), el tiempo al aire libre (mediana 3 h, rango: 0:21-6:55), el índice de masa corporal, ni el sexo, pero sí con los niveles de sus madres durante la gestación. Conclusiones: Existe una elevada prevalencia de deficiencia/insuficiencia de vitamina D a los 4 años. La exposición solar podría no ser suficiente en nuestra región. Se deberían promover actividades al aire libre con una adecuada exposición a la luz solar. Dado el déficit de ingesta en la infancia, es necesario hacer recomendaciones de una alimentación variada rica en vitamina D en este periodo especialmente durante el invierno, valorando la necesidad de suplementar con vitamina D en los niños de riesgo (AU)


Introduction: Vitamin D is an essential prohormone in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. Recent studies show a high frequency of insufficiency/deficiency of vitamin D in the general population worldwide. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of circulating vitamin D [25(OH)D3] deficiency and insufficiency in children and examine the associated factors. Material and methods: A total of 283 children, participants in the cohort INMA-Asturias, were studied. The 25(OH)D3 concentrations were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of deficiency [25(OH)D3 < 20 ng/ml] and insufficiency [20-29.9 ng/ml] of vitamin D was estimated. Distribution of 25(OH)D3 for month of extraction of specimen, ingestion, and other factors were analysed. Results: The mean 25(OH)D3 was 20.1 ng/ml (range 2.7-49.8), with 8.8% ≥ 30 ng/ml, 38.5% from 20-20.9 ng/ml, and 52.7% < 20 ng/ml. Seasonal variation was found, with lower values in winter. There was no relationship between plasma levels and intake of vitamin D (median 2.7 g/day, range 0.81-12.62), time outdoors (mean 3 hours, range: 0:21-6:55), or BMI or gender, but there was one found with the mother’s levels during gestation. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in children at 4 years. Solar exposure might not be enough in our region. Healthy children should be encouraged to follow adequate outdoor activities with associated sun exposure. Due the deficit of intake in childhood, recommendations are needed about a varied diet with vitamin D-containing foods in this age group, especially during the winter, and assessing the need of vitamin D supplementation in children at risk (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/dietoterapia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Efeito de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Antropometria/métodos
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