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1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36140515

RESUMO

The identification of a reliable and accurate post-mortem interval (PMI) is a major challenge in the field of forensic sciences and criminal investigation. Several laboratory techniques have recently been developed that offer a better contribution to the estimation of PMI, in addition to the traditional physical or physico-chemical (body cooling, lividity, radiocarbon dating, rigor mortis), chemical (autolysis), microbiological (putrefaction), entomological, as well as botanical parameters. Molecular biology (degradation pattern of macromolecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA), biochemical analysis of biological fluids (such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and vitreous humor), and immunohistochemistry are some of the most recent technological innovations. A systematic review of the literature was performed with the aim of presenting an up-to-date overview on the correlation between the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of specific antigenic markers at different PMIs. The systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Scopus and PubMed were used as search engines from January 1, 1998 to March 1, 2022 to evaluate the effectiveness of immunohistochemistry in estimating PMI. The following keywords were used: (immunohistochemical) OR (immunohistochemistry) AND (time since death) OR (post-mortem interval) OR (PMI). A total of 6571 articles were collected. Ultimately, 16 studies were included in this review. The results of this systematic review highlighted that IHC techniques, in association with traditional methods, add, in Bayesian terms, additional information to define a more accurate time of death and PMI. However, current IHC results are numerically limited and more data and studies are desirable in the near future.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943186

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to report the most recent (2020-2022) experimental scientific studies conducted on animal models, in order to highlight the relevant findings on the adverse effects related to androgen administration. RECENT FINDINGS: Forty-one studies published between January 2020 and July 2022 were selected. The majority of studies investigated the effects of one androgen, whereas only four studies analyzed the effects of two drugs. Nandrolone decanoate was the most investigated drug (20 articles), boldenone was tested in 8 articles, testosterone and stanozolol were used in 7 articles each, 17b-trenbolone, metandienone, and oxandrolone were tested in 1 article each. The articles clarify the adverse effects of androgen administration on the heart, brain, kidney, liver, reproductive and musculoskeletal systems. SUMMARY: The main findings of this review highlight that androgen administration increases inflammatory mediators, altering different biochemical parameters. The results concerning the reversibility of the adverse effects are controversial: on the one hand, several studies suggested that by stopping the androgen administration, the organs return to their initial state; on the other hand, the alteration of different biochemical parameters could generate irreversible organ damage. Moreover, this review highlights the importance of animal studies that should be better organized in order to clarify several important aspects related to androgen abuse to fill the gap in our knowledge in this research field.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5084, 2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36038545

RESUMO

The Gibbs distribution universally characterizes states of thermal equilibrium. In order to extend the Gibbs distribution to non-equilibrium steady states, one must relate the self-information [Formula: see text] of microstate x to measurable physical quantities. This is a central problem in non-equilibrium statistical physics. By considering open systems described by stochastic dynamics which become deterministic in the macroscopic limit, we show that changes [Formula: see text] in steady state self-information along deterministic trajectories can be bounded by the macroscopic entropy production Σ. This bound takes the form of an emergent second law [Formula: see text], which contains the usual second law Σ ≥ 0 as a corollary, and is saturated in the linear regime close to equilibrium. We thus obtain a tighter version of the second law of thermodynamics that provides a link between the deterministic relaxation of a system and the non-equilibrium fluctuations at steady state. In addition to its fundamental value, our result leads to novel methods for computing non-equilibrium distributions, providing a deterministic alternative to Gillespie simulations or spectral methods.

4.
Phys Rev E ; 106(1-1): 014122, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35974627

RESUMO

Thermalization in open systems coupled to macroscopic environments is usually analyzed from the perspective of relaxation of the reduced state of the system to the equilibrium state. Less emphasis is given to the change of the state of the bath. However, as previously shown for some specific models, during the thermalization the environment may undergo a nontrivial dynamics, indicated by the the change of its von Neumann entropy, at timescales even longer than the relaxation time of the system; here such a behavior is called post-thermalization. We provide a more detailed analysis of this phenomenon by simulating the full dynamics of a variety of systems together with their environment. In particular, the post-thermalization is qualitatively explained as a result of reconversion of the initially built up correlation between the system and the bath into the correlation between the degrees of freedom in the environment. We also present exemplary systems in which such a reconversion is suppressed due to non-Markovian dynamics or the presence of interactions.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 157(2): 024109, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840395

RESUMO

We provide a rigorous definition of free-energy transduction and its efficiency in arbitrary-linear or nonlinear-open chemical reaction networks (CRNs) operating at a steady state. Our method is based on the knowledge of the stoichiometric matrix and the chemostatted species (i.e., the species maintained at a constant concentration by the environment) to identify the fundamental currents and forces contributing to the entropy production. Transduction occurs when the current of a stoichiometrically balanced process is driven against its spontaneous direction (set by its force), thanks to other processes flowing along their spontaneous direction. In these regimes, open CRNs operate as thermodynamic machines. After exemplifying these general ideas using toy models, we analyze central energy metabolism. We relate the fundamental currents to metabolic pathways and discuss the efficiency with which they can transduce free energy.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Entropia , Termodinâmica
6.
J Chem Phys ; 157(3): 034110, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868927

RESUMO

Information thermodynamics relates the rate of change of mutual information between two interacting subsystems to their thermodynamics when the joined system is described by a bipartite stochastic dynamics satisfying local detailed balance. Here, we expand the scope of information thermodynamics to deterministic bipartite chemical reaction networks, namely, composed of two coupled subnetworks sharing species but not reactions. We do so by introducing a meaningful notion of mutual information between different molecular features that we express in terms of deterministic concentrations. This allows us to formulate separate second laws for each subnetwork, which account for their energy and information exchanges, in complete analogy with stochastic systems. We then use our framework to investigate the working mechanisms of a model of chemically driven self-assembly and an experimental light-driven bimolecular motor. We show that both systems are constituted by two coupled subnetworks of chemical reactions. One subnetwork is maintained out of equilibrium by external reservoirs (chemostats or light sources) and powers the other via energy and information flows. In doing so, we clarify that the information flow is precisely the thermodynamic counterpart of an information ratchet mechanism only when no energy flow is involved.

7.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(7): 746-751, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760895

RESUMO

Natural and artificial autonomous molecular machines operate by constantly dissipating energy coming from an external source to maintain a non-equilibrium state. Quantitative thermodynamic characterization of these dissipative states is highly challenging as they exist only as long as energy is provided. Here we report on the detailed physicochemical characterization of the dissipative operation of a supramolecular pump. The pump transduces light energy into chemical energy by bringing self-assembly reactions to non-equilibrium steady states. The composition of the system under light irradiation was followed in real time by 1H NMR for four different irradiation intensities. The experimental composition and photon flow were then fed into a theoretical model describing the non-equilibrium dissipation and the energy storage at the steady state. We quantitatively probed the relationship between the light energy input and the deviation of the dissipative state from thermodynamic equilibrium in this artificial system. Our results provide a testing ground for newly developed theoretical models for photoactivated artificial molecular machines operating away from thermodynamic equilibrium.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Cinética , Termodinâmica
8.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 58: 102084, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561504

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to show a very rare complication of acute cocaine poisoning, namely heart rupture. In the present case report, acute cocaine intoxication caused massive myocardial infarction, resulting in heart rupture and cardiac tamponade. A crime scene investigation found a dead body on the street in a drug dealing district. Examination of the body showed no external injuries. A thorough autopsy was performed showing massive cardiac tamponade with 510 ml of blood within the pericardium and full-thickness tissue lesion at the posterior wall of the left ventricle of 3.5 × 3 cm. Histological examination in hematoxylin and eosin was performed and confirmed the interruption of the posterior wall of the left ventricle with the presence of blood. In fact, although the correlation between cocaine and myocardial damage is well established, the relationship between heart rupture and acute cocaine intoxication is an extremely rare event. Moreover, since there are, to date, few reports of similar deaths, our report provides useful information regarding sudden death in a cocaine abuser. It is, therefore, of crucial importance to report this case to the scientific community.


Assuntos
Cocaína/envenenamento , Ruptura Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Vasoconstritores , Autopsia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína , Morte Súbita , Toxicologia Forense , Ruptura Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Vasoconstritores/envenenamento
9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(11): 110603, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362998

RESUMO

We uncover a finite-time dynamical phase transition in the thermal relaxation of a mean-field magnetic model. The phase transition manifests itself as a cusp singularity in the probability distribution of the magnetization that forms at a critical time. The transition is due to a sudden switch in the dynamics, characterized by a dynamical order parameter. We derive a dynamical Landau theory for the transition that applies to a range of systems with scalar, parity-invariant order parameters. Close to criticalilty, our theory reveals an exact mapping between the dynamical and equilibrium phase transitions of the magnetic model, and implies critical exponents of mean-field type. We argue that interactions between nearby saddle points, neglected at the mean-field level, may lead to critical, spatiotemporal fluctuations of the order parameter, and thus give rise to novel, dynamical critical phenomena.

10.
Phys Rev E ; 105(3-1): 034107, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428090

RESUMO

We find the relation between reliability and entropy production in a realistic model of electronic memory (low-power metal-oxide-semiconductor-based SRAM) where logical values are encoded as metastable nonequilibrium states. We employ large deviation techniques to obtain an analytical expression for the bistable quasipotential describing the nonequilibrium steady state and use it to derive an explicit expression bounding the error rate of the memory. Our results go beyond the dominant contribution given by classical instanton theory and provide accurate estimates of the error rate as confirmed by comparison with stochastic simulations.

11.
Nat Chem ; 14(5): 530-537, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301472

RESUMO

Information is physical, a realization that has transformed the physics of measurement and communication. However, the flow between information, energy and mechanics in chemical systems remains largely unexplored. Here we analyse a minimalist autonomous chemically driven molecular motor in terms of information thermodynamics, a framework that quantitatively relates information to other thermodynamic parameters. The treatment reveals how directional motion is generated by free energy transfer from chemical to mechanical (conformational and/or co-conformational) processes by 'energy flow' and 'information flow'. It provides a thermodynamic level of understanding of molecular motors that is general, complements previous analyses based on kinetics and has practical implications for machine design. In line with kinetic analysis, we find that power strokes do not affect the directionality of chemically driven machines. However, we find that power strokes can modulate motor velocity, the efficiency of free energy transfer and the number of fuel molecules consumed per cycle. This may help explain the role of such (co-)conformational changes in biomachines and illustrates the interplay between energy and information in chemical systems.


Assuntos
Cinética , Transferência de Energia , Termodinâmica
12.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35146992

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are a complex cluster of synthetic derivatives of testosterone. AAS abuse is considered a major public health issue since it has increased among young/adolescent males. The use of steroids has a prevalence rate of 14% in young athletes and 30-75% in professional athletes or bodybuilders. AASs simulate the testosterone mechanism, binding the intracellular androgen receptor, and dysregulating the normal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the same way as exogenous testosterone. Abuse can produce several side effects on organs, such as the genital system. The physio-pathological mechanisms that cause AAS abuse-related, genital system disorders in humans are still not completely known. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: This review focuses on the effect of AASs on the male reproductive organs in humans and animals. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: a systematic review was performed using SCOPUS, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Sciences database up to 31 December 2021 using the keywords: "anabolic-androgenic steroids", "erectile dysfunction", "spermatogenesis" and "infertility"; (anabolic agents) "erectile dysfunction", "spermatogenesis" and "infertility". The review of the literature identified 66 articles published until 2021. 62 articles were included. The use of AASs induces testicular atrophy and azoospermia known as "anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism". Anabolic steroid induced infertility is characterized by oligo or azoospermia and abnormalities in sperm motility and morphology. Although sperm quality recovers in most cases within 4 months of stopping anabolic steroid abuse, the negative consequences on spermatogenesis can take up to 3 years to disappear. Human studies reported a positive correlation between AAS abuse in athletes and an increase in morphologically abnormal spermatozoa. Animal studies showed the destruction of Leydig cells and testicular atrophy in animals treated with cycles of AASs. CONCLUSIONS: The present review of the literature highlights how little is known about the action of AASs on the male genital system. However, although their use is prohibited in many countries, the black market for these substances is still very frequent. The scientific landscape still has a lot to invest in the research of AAS on the male genital system so as to make young people even more aware of the negative aspects of these substances, contributing to the reduction of these products in an inappropriate way.

13.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35206884

RESUMO

Health risks within prisons are well known and have worsened with the 2019 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), becoming a public health emergency. To date, there are more than 10 million inmates in the world; in most cases, conditions are bad and health care is scarce. A SARS-CoV-2 outbreak inside a prison is extremely rapid. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze all possible prevention techniques to reduce the risk of COVID-19 related infection within prisons. A systematic review of the literature was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar were used as search engines from 1 January 2020 to 1 November 2021 to evaluate the prevention of COVID-19 in prisoners. A total of 1757 articles were collected. Of them, 486 duplicates were removed. A total of 1250 articles did not meet the inclusion criteria. In conclusion, 21 articles were included in the present systematic review. From this analysis, it emerged that the most common COVID-19 prevention methods were the screening of the entire population (prisoners and workers) inside the prison through swab analysis and the reduction in overcrowding in prisons. Few studies concerned the prevention of COVID-19 infection through vaccination and the implementation of quarantine. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review that evaluates the prevention of COVID-19 within jails and the real effectiveness of all possible methods used and published in the literature. Finally, a very useful strategic protocol is provided to reduce the incidence of infection and to control and manage COVID-19 in prisons.

14.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35206933

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, forensic sciences, on the one hand, contributed to gaining knowledge about different aspects of the pandemic, while on the other hand, forensic professionals were called on to quickly adapt their activities to respond adequately to the changes imposed by the pandemic. This review aims to clarify the state of the art in forensic medicine at the time of COVID-19, discussing the following: the influence of external factors on forensic activities, the impact of autopsy practice on COVID-19 and vice-versa, the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in post-mortem samples, forensic personnel activities during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the global vaccination program and forensic sciences, forensic undergraduate education during and after the imposed COVID-19 lockdown, and the medico-legal implications in medical malpractice claims during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly influenced different aspects of human life, and, accordingly, the practical activities of forensic sciences that are defined as multidisciplinary, involving different expertise. Indeed, the activities are very different, including crime scene investigation (CSI), external examination, autopsy, and genetic and toxicological examinations of tissues and/or biological fluids. At the same time, forensic professionals may have direct contact with subjects in life, such as in the case of abuse victims (in some cases involving children), collecting biological samples from suspects, or visiting subjects in the case of physical examinations. In this scenario, forensic professionals are called on to implement methods to prevent the SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, wearing adequate PPE, and working in environments with a reduced risk of infection. Consequently, in the pandemic era, the costs involved for forensic sciences were substantially increased.

15.
Pathol Res Pract ; 231: 153796, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35144085

RESUMO

This case report describes a fatal case of a young woman with superior sagittal, transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis after administration of the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination. Eleven days post-vaccination she was found unconscious and transferred to the Emergency Department. Blood parameters showed low platelets, and a CT scan showed an extensive left intracranial hemorrhage and the presence of an occlusive thrombus of the superior sagittal sinus. She under-went a craniectomy, but after the intervention, she remained in a comatose state. After a few days, her clinical conditions worsened, and she died. A complete autopsy was performed which showed a thrombosis of the cerebral venous district, of the upper and lower limbs. A blood sample was also performed to carry out a gene study about the predisposition to thrombosis. The organ samples were studied through light microscope both in hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical examination, and showed a strong inflammatory response in all samples and at the site of thrombosis. Our study aims to provide a proper autopsy technique to study the entire cerebral venous system through a multidisciplinary approach (anatomical dissection and neurosurgery) in post-vaccine venous thrombosis.


Assuntos
/efeitos adversos , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos
16.
J Chem Phys ; 156(1): 014116, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998328

RESUMO

We investigate the thermodynamic implications of two control mechanisms of open chemical reaction networks. The first controls the concentrations of the species that are exchanged with the surroundings, while the other controls the exchange fluxes. We show that the two mechanisms can be mapped one into the other and that the thermodynamic theories usually developed in the framework of concentration control can be applied to flux control as well. This implies that the thermodynamic potential and the fundamental forces driving chemical reaction networks out of equilibrium can be identified in the same way for both mechanisms. By analyzing the dynamics and thermodynamics of a simple enzymatic model, we also show that while the two mechanisms are equivalent at steady state, the flux control may lead to fundamentally different regimes where systems achieve stationary growth.

17.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(1)2022 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052248

RESUMO

Prenatal alcohol exposure is considered one of the main causes of preventable birth disorders; however, it represents the main form of developmental delay in the world. Among the so-called secondary disabilities related to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), there is a close connection with criminal behavior. This systematic review aims to provide up-to-date information about the relationship between FASD subjects and criminal justice analyzing different aspects. In light of the results of this review, a further goal is to provide several suggestions in order to reduce the public cost impact of FASD. A systematic review of the literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines, producing 20 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Based on the results published in the selected studies, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a leading cause of preventable birth disorders and developmental disabilities in newborns. Moreover, these subjects seem to be more inclined to criminal acts compared to others. In conclusion, it should be pointed out that FASD entails high public health costs, both regarding the support measures provided to the affected individual and to their family, as well as the cost and social impact of any criminal offenses committed.

18.
Science ; 374(6572): 1271-1275, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855492

RESUMO

Ultrashort-period (USP) exoplanets have orbital periods shorter than 1 day. Precise masses and radii of USP exoplanets could provide constraints on their unknown formation and evolution processes. We report the detection and characterization of the USP planet GJ 367b using high-precision photometry and radial velocity observations. GJ 367b orbits a bright (V-band magnitude of 10.2), nearby, and red (M-type) dwarf star every 7.7 hours. GJ 367b has a radius of 0.718 ± 0.054 Earth-radii and a mass of 0.546 ± 0.078 Earth-masses, making it a sub-Earth planet. The corresponding bulk density is 8.106 ± 2.165 grams per cubic centimeter­close to that of iron. An interior structure model predicts that the planet has an iron core radius fraction of 86 ± 5%, similar to that of Mercury's interior.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948545

RESUMO

Peripheral vestibular disease can be treated with several approaches (e.g., maneuvers, surgery, or medical approach). Comorbidity is common in elderly patients, so polytherapy is used, but it can generate the development of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that play a role in both adverse drug reactions and reduced adherence. For this reason, they need a complex kind of approach, considering all their individual characteristics. Physicians must be able to prescribe and deprescribe drugs based on a solid knowledge of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical indications. Moreover, full information is required to reach a real therapeutic alliance, to improve the safety of care and reduce possible malpractice claims related to drug-drug interactions. In this review, using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library, we searched articles published until 30 August 2021, and described both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic DDIs in patients with vestibular disorders, focusing the interest on their clinical implications and on risk management strategies.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Doenças Vestibulares , Idoso , Comorbidade , Interações Medicamentosas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Vestibulares/induzido quimicamente
20.
J Clin Med ; 10(24)2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34945172

RESUMO

The current challenge worldwide is the administration of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine. Considering that the COVID-19 vaccination represents the best possibility to resolve this pandemic, this systematic review aims to clarify the major aspects of fatal adverse effects related to COVID-19 vaccines, with the goal of advancing our knowledge, supporting decisions, or suggesting changes in policies at local, regional, and global levels. Moreover, this review aims to provide key recommendations to improve awareness of vaccine safety. All studies published up to 2 December 2021 were searched using the following keywords: "COVID-19 Vaccine", "SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine", "COVID-19 Vaccination", "SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination", and "Autopsy" or "Post-mortem". We included 17 papers published with fatal cases with post-mortem investigations. A total of 38 cases were analyzed: 22 cases were related to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 administration, 10 cases to BNT162b2, 4 cases to mRNA-1273, and 2 cases to Ad26.COV2.S. Based on these data, autopsy is very useful to define the main characteristics of the so-called vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination: recurrent findings were intracranial hemorrhage and diffused microthrombi located in multiple areas. Moreover, it is fundamental to provide evidence about myocarditis related to the BNT162B2 vaccine. Finally, based on the discussed data, we suggest several key recommendations to improve awareness of vaccine safety.

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