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Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605909


The 10q24.33 locus is known to be associated with susceptibility to cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), but the mechanisms underlying this association have been not extensively investigated. We carried out an integrative genomic analysis of 10q24.33 using epigenomic annotations and in vitro reporter gene assays to identify regulatory variants. We found two putative functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an enhancer and in the promoter of OBFC1, respectively, in neural crest and CMM cells, one, rs2995264, altering enhancer activity. The minor allele G of rs2995264 correlated with lower OBFC1 expression in 470 CMM tumors and was confirmed to increase the CMM risk in a cohort of 484 CMM cases and 1801 controls of Italian origin. Hi-C and chromosome conformation capture (3C) experiments showed the interaction between the enhancer-SNP region and the promoter of OBFC1 and an isogenic model characterized by CRISPR-Cas9 deletion of the enhancer-SNP region confirmed the potential regulatory effect of rs2995264 on OBFC1 transcription. Moreover, the presence of G-rs2995264 risk allele reduced the binding affinity of the transcription factor MEOX2. Biologic investigations showed significant cell viability upon depletion of OBFC1, specifically in CMM cells that were homozygous for the protective allele. Clinically, high levels of OBFC1 expression associated with histologically favorable CMM tumors. Finally, preliminary results suggested the potential effect of decreased OBFC1 expression on telomerase activity in tumorigenic conditions. Our results support the hypothesis that reduced expression of OBFC1 gene through functional heritable DNA variation can contribute to malignant transformation of normal melanocytes.

Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299284


Forkhead box E1 (FOXE1) is a lineage-restricted transcription factor involved in thyroid cancer susceptibility. Cancer-associated polymorphisms map in regulatory regions, thus affecting the extent of gene expression. We have recently shown that genetic reduction of FOXE1 dosage modifies multiple thyroid cancer phenotypes. To identify relevant effectors playing roles in thyroid cancer development, here we analyse FOXE1-induced transcriptional alterations in thyroid cells that do not express endogenous FOXE1. Expression of FOXE1 elicits cell migration, while transcriptome analysis reveals that several immune cells-related categories are highly enriched in differentially expressed genes, including several upregulated chemokines involved in macrophage recruitment. Accordingly, FOXE1-expressing cells induce chemotaxis of co-cultured monocytes. We then asked if FOXE1 was able to regulate macrophage infiltration in thyroid cancers in vivo by using a mouse model of cancer, either wild type or with only one functional FOXE1 allele. Expression of the same set of chemokines directly correlates with FOXE1 dosage, and pro-tumourigenic M2 macrophage infiltration is decreased in tumours with reduced FOXE1. These data establish a novel link between FOXE1 and macrophages recruitment in the thyroid cancer microenvironment, highlighting an unsuspected function of this gene in the crosstalk between neoplastic and immune cells that shape tumour development and progression.

Quimiotaxia/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Macrófagos/patologia , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Macrófagos/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
Cortex ; 141: 421-435, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144272


Recent studies in humans and animal models suggest a primary role of the basal ganglia in the extraction of stimulus-value regularities, then exploited to orient attentional shift and build up sensorimotor memories. The tail of the caudate and the posterior putamen both receive early visual input from the superficial layers of the superior colliculus, thus forming a closed-loop. We portend that the functional value of this circuit is to manage the selection of visual stimuli in a rapid and automatic way, once sensory-motor associations are formed and stored in the posterior striatum. In Parkinson's Disease, the nigrostriatal dopamine depletion starts and tends to be more pronounced in the posterior putamen. Thus, at least some aspect of the visuospatial attention deficits observed since the early stages of the disease could be the behavioral consequences of a cognitive system that has lost the ability to translate high-level processing in stable sensorimotor memories.

Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Gânglios da Base , Corpo Estriado , Dopamina , Humanos , Putamen
Carcinogenesis ; 41(3): 284-295, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605138


Neuroblastoma (NB) and malignant cutaneous melanoma (CMM) are neural crest cells (NCC)-derived tumors and may have a shared genetic basis, but this has not been investigated systematically by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We took a three-staged approach to conduct cross-disease meta-analysis of GWAS for NB and CMM (2101 NB cases and 4202 controls; 12 874 CMM cases and 23 203 controls) to identify shared loci. Findings were replicated in 1403 NB cases and 1403 controls of European ancestry and in 636 NB, 508 CMM cases and 2066 controls of Italian origin. We found a cross-association at locus 1p13.2 (rs2153977, odds ratio = 0.91, P = 5.36 × 10-8). We also detected a suggestive (P < 10-7) NB-CMM cross-association at 2q37.1 with opposite effect on cancer risk. Pathway analysis of 110 NB-CMM risk loci with P < 10-4 demonstrated enrichment of biological processes such as cell migration, cell cycle, metabolism and immune response, which are essential of human NCC development, underlying both tumors. In vitro and in silico analyses indicated that the rs2153977-T protective allele, located in an NB and CMM enhancer, decreased expression of SLC16A1 via long-range loop formation and altered a T-box protein binding site. Upon depletion of SLC16A1, we observed a decrease of cellular proliferation and invasion in both NB and CMM cell lines, suggesting its role as oncogene. This is the largest study to date examining pleiotropy across two NC cell-derived tumors identifying 1p13.2 as common susceptibility locus for NB and CMM risk. We demonstrate that combining genome-wide association studies results across cancers with same origins can identify new loci common to neuroblastoma and melanoma arising from tissues which originate from neural crest cells. Our results also show 1p13.2 confer risk to neuroblastoma and melanoma by regulating SLC16A1.

Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Melanoma/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Simportadores/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Crista Neural/patologia , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia