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2.
AIDS ; 34(2): 311-315, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensified viral load monitoring for pregnant and breastfeeding women has been proposed to help address concerns around antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, viraemia and transmission risk, but there have been no systematic evaluations of existing policies. METHODS: We used an individual Monte Carlo simulation to describe longitudinal ART adherence and viral load from conception until 2 years' postpartum. We applied national and international guidelines for viral load monitoring to the simulated data. We compared guidelines on the percentage of women receiving viral load monitoring and the percentage of women monitored at the time of elevated viral load. RESULTS: Coverage of viral load monitoring in pregnancy and breastfeeding varied markedly, with between 14% and 100% of women monitored antenatally and 38-98% monitored during breastfeeding. Specific recommendations for testing at either a fixed gestation or a short, fixed period after ART initiation achieved more than 95% testing in pregnancy but this was much lower (14-83%) among guidelines with no special stipulations. By the end of breastfeeding, only a small proportion of simulated episodes of elevated viral load more than 1000 copies/ml were successfully detected by monitoring (range, 20-50%). DISCUSSION: Although further research is needed to understand optimal viral load frequency and timing in this population, these results suggest that current policies yield suboptimal detection of elevated viral load in pregnant and breastfeeding women.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 783, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2016 'Start Free, Stay Free, AIDS Free' global agenda, builds on the 2011-2015 'Global Plan'. It prioritises 22 countries where 90% of the world's HIV-positive pregnant women live and aims to eliminate vertical  transmission of HIV (EMTCT) and to keep mothers alive. By 2019, no Global Plan priority country had achieved EMTCT; however, 11 non-priority countries had. This paper synthesises the characteristics of the first four countries validated for EMTCT, and of the 21 Global Plan priority countries located in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We consider what drives vertical transmission of HIV (MTCT) in the 21 SSA Global Plan priority countries. METHODS: A literature review, using PubMed, Science direct and the google search engine was conducted to obtain global and national-level information on current HIV-related context and health system characteristics of the first four EMTCT-validated countries and the 21 SSA Global Plan priority countries. Data representing only one clinic, hospital or region were excluded. Additionally, key global experts working on EMTCT were contacted to obtain clarification on published data. We applied three theories (the World Health Organisation's building blocks to strengthen health systems, van Olmen's Health System Dynamics framework and Baral's socio-ecological model for HIV risk) to understand and explain the differences between EMTCT-validated and non-validated countries. Additionally, structural equation modelling (SEM) and linear regression were used to explain associations between infant HIV exposure, access to antiretroviral therapy and two outcomes: (i) percent MTCT and (iii) number of new paediatric HIV infections per 100 000 live births (paediatric HIV case rate). RESULTS: EMTCT-validated countries have lower HIV prevalence, less breastfeeding, fewer challenges around leadership, governance within the health sector or country, infrastructure and service delivery compared with Global Plan priority countries. Although by 2016 EMTCT-validated countries and Global Plan priority countries had adopted a public health approach to HIV prevention, recommending lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women, EMCT-validated countries had also included contact tracing such as assisted partner notification, and had integrated maternal and child health (MCH) and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, with services for HIV infection, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis. Additionally, Global Plan priority countries have limited data on key SRH indicators such as unmet need for family planning, with variable coverage of antenatal care, HIV testing and triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) and very limited contact tracing. Structural equation modelling (SEM) and linear regression analysis demonstrated that ART access protects against percent MTCT (p<0.001); in simple linear regression it is 53% protective against percent MTCT. In contrast, SEM demonstrated that the case rate was driven by the number of HIV exposed infants (HEI) i.e. maternal HIV prevalence (p<0.001). In linear regression models, ART access alone explains only 17% of the case rate while HEI alone explains 81% of the case rate. In multiple regression, HEI and ART access accounts for 83% of the case rate, with HEI making the most contribution (coef. infant HIV exposure=82.8, 95% CI: 64.6, 101.1, p<0.001 vs coef. ART access=-3.0, 95% CI: -6.2, 0.3, p=0.074). CONCLUSION: Reducing infant HIV exposure, is critical to reducing the paediatric HIV case rate; increasing ART access is critical to reduce percent MTCT. Additionally, our study of four validated countries underscores the importance of contact tracing, strengthening programme monitoring, leadership and governance, as these are potentially-modifiable factors.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , HIV/imunologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Mães/educação , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(4): e25271, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958644

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High maternal HIV incidence contributes substantially to mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) in some settings. Since 2006, HIV retesting during the third trimester and breastfeeding has been recommended by the World Health Organization in higher prevalence (≥5%) settings to reduce MTCT. However, many countries lack clarity on when and how often to retest pregnant and postpartum women to optimize resources and service delivery. We reviewed and characterized national guidelines on maternal retesting based on timing and frequency. METHODS: We identified 52 countries to represent variations in HIV prevalence, geography, and MTCT priority and searched available national MTCT, HIV testing and HIV treatment policies published between 2007 and 2017 for recommendations on retesting during pregnancy, labour/delivery and postpartum. Recommended retesting frequency and timing was extracted. Country HIV prevalence was classified as: very low (<1%), low (1% to 5%), intermediate (>5 to <15%) and high (≥15%). Women with unknown HIV status at delivery/postpartum were included in retesting guidelines. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Overall, policies from 49 countries were identified; 51% from 2015 or later and most (n = 25) were from Africa. Four countries were high HIV prevalence, seven intermediate, sixteen low and twenty-two very low. Most (n = 31) had guidance on universal voluntary opt-out HIV testing at the first antenatal care (ANC) visit. Beyond the first ANC visit, the majority (78%, n = 38) had guidance on retesting; 22 recommended retesting all women with unknown/negative status, five only if unknown HIV status, three in pregnancy based on risk and eight combining these approaches. Retesting was universally recommended during pregnancy, labour/delivery, and postpartum for all high prevalence settings and four of seven intermediate prevalence settings. Five UNAIDS priority countries for EMTCT with low/very low HIV prevalence, but high/intermediate MTCT, had no guidance on retesting. CONCLUSIONS: Retesting guidelines for pregnant and postpartum women were ubiquitous in high prevalence countries and defined in some intermediate prevalence countries, but absent in some low HIV prevalence countries with high MTCT. Countries may require additional guidance on how to optimize maternal HIV testing and whether to prioritize retesting efforts or discontinue universal retesting based on HIV incidence. Research is needed to assess country-level guideline implementation and impact.

8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 78 Suppl 2: S128-S133, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29994835

RESUMO

In August 2014, PEPFAR and the Children's Investment Fund Foundation launched the Accelerating Children's HIV/AIDS Treatment (ACT) initiative with the aim of doubling the number of children on antiretroviral treatment in 9 African countries. Increasing rates of pretreatment drug resistance and use of suboptimal treatment regimens and formulations result in poor adherence and high rates of viral failure. Supporting adherence and ensuring appropriate treatment monitoring are needed to maximize duration of first-line treatment and enable timely sequencing to subsequent lines of antiretroviral treatment. Although timely antiretroviral treatment is the core of clinical care for infants, children and adolescents living with HIV, ensuring a broader package of biomedical and non-biomedical interventions is also required to address highly prevalent comorbidities among children living with HIV. Providing such a comprehensive package has been challenging for health care workers who lack the necessary skills and confidence to care for pediatric populations. Efforts to simplify clinical management and specific training and mentorship are needed to address these challenges. In this article, we review the progress made during the ACT initiative and the persistent challenges in achieving and maintaining virological suppression across the age spectrum. We identify innovations needed to build on the success of the ACT initiative. Despite the challenges, achieving high levels of virological suppression in children and adolescents is possible. The complexity of pediatric HIV treatment can be offset as antiretroviral regimens become more effective, tolerable, and easier to prescribe and administer. Meanwhile, basic programmatic elements to address comorbidities as well as support health care workers remain critical. In this article we review the progress made through the ACT initiative, as well as identify innovations needed to address persistent challenges to viral suppression across the age spectrum.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Adesão à Medicação , Carga Viral
9.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 78 Suppl 1: S10-S15, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29994914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite progress, 2016 still saw 160,000 new infections and 120,000 AIDS-related deaths among children. Evidence gaps on how to best diagnose, treat, and deliver services to children living with HIV remain. A global research prioritization exercise was undertaken by WHO and CIPHER to focus research efforts in the context of diminishing resources. METHODS: The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology was adapted and used, as described by Irvine et al. Outcomes were reviewed by an expert group and 5 priority themes identified for testing, antiretroviral treatment, and service delivery, accounting for existing policies, published literature and ongoing research. RESULTS: A total of 749 questions were submitted by 269 individuals from 62 countries. For HIV testing, priority themes included strategies and interventions to improve access, uptake and linkage to care, including with novel diagnostic tools and entry points beyond antenatal care. For treatment, priorities included strategies to improve adherence, short- and long-term outcomes and management of coinfections, optimal drug formulations, and early ART. For service delivery, priorities included strategies or interventions to improve access, uptake and retention in care, including psychosocial and family support and approaches to HIV disclosure and reduction of stigma and discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative exercise undertaken in HIV. The results provide guidance to focus future research in pediatric HIV for impact. Global commitment to support priority research, adequate investment, and strong leadership is urgently needed to improve the health and well-being of children living with and affected by HIV.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Pesquisa Biomédica , Saúde da Criança , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Erradicação de Doenças , HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Ciências da Nutrição , Pediatria , Estigma Social
10.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 78 Suppl 1: S58-S62, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29994921

RESUMO

The global HIV response is leaving children and adolescents behind. Because of a paucity of studies on treatment and care models for these age groups, there are gaps in our understanding of how best to implement services to improve their health outcomes. Without this evidence, policymakers are left to extrapolate from adult studies, which may not be appropriate, and can lead to inefficiencies in service delivery, hampered uptake, and ineffective mechanisms to support optimal outcomes. Implementation science research seeks to investigate how interventions known to be efficacious in study settings are, or are not, routinely implemented within real-world programmes. Effective implementation science research must be a collaborative effort between government, funding agencies, investigators, and implementers, each playing a key role. Successful implementation science research in children and adolescents requires clearer policies about age of consent for services and research that conform to ethical standards but allow for rational modifications. Implementation research in these age groups also necessitates age-appropriate consultation and engagement of children, adolescents, and their caregivers. Finally, resource, systems, technology, and training must be prioritized to improve the availability and quality of age-/sex-disaggregated data. Implementation science has a clear role to play in facilitating understanding of how the multiple complex barriers to HIV services for children and adolescents prevent effective interventions from reaching more children and adolescents living with HIV, and is well positioned to redress gaps in the HIV response for these age groups. This is truer now more than ever, with urgent and ambitious 2020 global targets on the horizon and insufficient progress in these age groups to date.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Saúde da Criança , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Política de Saúde , Ciência da Implementação , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , HIV/enzimologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 157, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900165

RESUMO

Great gains were achieved with the introduction of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, including improved child survival. Transition to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on surviving, thriving, and transforming, representing an important shift to a broader public health goal, the achievement of which holds the promise of longer-term individual and societal benefits. A similar shift is needed with respect to outcomes for infants born to women living with HIV (WLHIV). Programming to prevent vertical HIV transmission has been successful in increasingly achieving a goal of HIV-free survival for infants born to WLHIV. Unfortunately, HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children are not achieving comparable health and developmental outcomes compared with children born to HIV-uninfected women under similar socioeconomic circumstances. The 3rd HEU Child Workshop, held as a satellite session of the International AIDS Society's 9th IAS Conference in Paris in July 2017, provided a venue to discuss HEU child health and development disparities. A summary of the Workshop proceedings follows, providing current scientific findings, emphasizing the gap in systems for long-term monitoring, and highlighting the public health need to establish a strategic plan to better quantify the short and longer-term health and developmental outcomes of HEU children.

12.
PLoS Med ; 15(3): e1002514, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the population of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APHs) continues to expand. In this study, we pooled data from observational pediatric HIV cohorts and cohort networks, allowing comparisons of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in "real-life" settings across multiple regions. We describe the geographic and temporal characteristics and mortality outcomes of APHs across multiple regions, including South America and the Caribbean, North America, Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Through the Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research (CIPHER), individual retrospective longitudinal data from 12 cohort networks were pooled. All children infected with HIV who entered care before age 10 years, were not known to have horizontally acquired HIV, and were followed up beyond age 10 years were included in this analysis conducted from May 2016 to January 2017. Our primary analysis describes patient and treatment characteristics of APHs at key time points, including first HIV-associated clinic visit, antiretroviral therapy (ART) start, age 10 years, and last visit, and compares these characteristics by geographic region, country income group (CIG), and birth period. Our secondary analysis describes mortality, transfer out, and lost to follow-up (LTFU) as outcomes at age 15 years, using competing risk analysis. Among the 38,187 APHs included, 51% were female, 79% were from sub-Saharan Africa and 65% lived in low-income countries. APHs from 51 countries were included (Europe: 14 countries and 3,054 APHs; North America: 1 country and 1,032 APHs; South America and the Caribbean: 4 countries and 903 APHs; South and Southeast Asia: 7 countries and 2,902 APHs; sub-Saharan Africa, 25 countries and 30,296 APHs). Observation started as early as 1982 in Europe and 1996 in sub-Saharan Africa, and continued until at least 2014 in all regions. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) duration of adolescent follow-up was 3.1 (1.5-5.2) years for the total cohort and 6.4 (3.6-8.0) years in Europe, 3.7 (2.0-5.4) years in North America, 2.5 (1.2-4.4) years in South and Southeast Asia, 5.0 (2.7-7.5) years in South America and the Caribbean, and 2.1 (0.9-3.8) years in sub-Saharan Africa. Median (IQR) age at first visit differed substantially by region, ranging from 0.7 (0.3-2.1) years in North America to 7.1 (5.3-8.6) years in sub-Saharan Africa. The median age at ART start varied from 0.9 (0.4-2.6) years in North America to 7.9 (6.0-9.3) years in sub-Saharan Africa. The cumulative incidence estimates (95% confidence interval [CI]) at age 15 years for mortality, transfers out, and LTFU for all APHs were 2.6% (2.4%-2.8%), 15.6% (15.1%-16.0%), and 11.3% (10.9%-11.8%), respectively. Mortality was lowest in Europe (0.8% [0.5%-1.1%]) and highest in South America and the Caribbean (4.4% [3.1%-6.1%]). However, LTFU was lowest in South America and the Caribbean (4.8% [3.4%-6.7%]) and highest in sub-Saharan Africa (13.2% [12.6%-13.7%]). Study limitations include the high LTFU rate in sub-Saharan Africa, which could have affected the comparison of mortality across regions; inclusion of data only for APHs receiving ART from some countries; and unavailability of data from high-burden countries such as Nigeria. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, our study represents the largest multiregional epidemiological analysis of APHs. Despite probable under-ascertained mortality, mortality in APHs remains substantially higher in sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and South America and the Caribbean than in Europe. Collaborations such as CIPHER enable us to monitor current global temporal trends in outcomes over time to inform appropriate policy responses.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , Criança , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cooperação Internacional , Internacionalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
13.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 37(2): 169-175, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29319636

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The risk of perinatal HIV infection can be dramatically reduced through maternal antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and infant ARV postnatal prophylaxis. The 2013 World Health Organization guidelines recommended 4-6 weeks of nevirapine or zidovudine as postnatal prophylaxis, with possible extension to 12 weeks for high-risk breastfed infants. A systematic review was undertaken to determine if there is evidence for the World Health Organization to recommend enhanced or extended prophylaxis for high-risk infants. METHODS: Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, PubMed databases from 2005 to 2015, as well as conference on retroviruses and opportunistic infections and international aids society abstracts were searched. Cohort studies and randomized controlled trials examining the use of combination or prolonged regimens in HIV-exposed infants were included. A total of 1185 studies were screened by title and abstract and 45 full-text articles were examined in further detail. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Of the 4 included studies, 3 examined multidrug prophylaxis regimens in formula-fed, high-risk HIV-exposed infants. Multidrug regimens were shown to significantly reduce transmission rates, compared with single-drug regimens; however, there was no significant difference between 2- and 3-drug regimens. An randomized controlled trial examining prolonged ARV prophylaxis in a breastfed population showed that 6 months of nevirapine resulted in lower HIV transmission rates compared with a standard 6-week nevirapine regimen. CONCLUSIONS: The limited available evidence suggests that using combination ARV regimens in high-risk infants reduces intrapartum transmission and that using prolonged prophylaxis in breastfed infants reduces breastfeeding transmission rates. However, the additional benefit of combination or prolonged regimens in the context of maternal ARV therapy remains unclear.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2017 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28723871

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The risk of perinatal HIV infection can be dramatically reduced through maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant antiretroviral (ARV) postnatal prophylaxis. The 2013 WHO guidelines recommended four to six weeks of nevirapine or zidovudine as post-natal prophylaxis, with possible extension to 12 weeks for high-risk breastfed infants. A systematic review was undertaken to determine if there is evidence for the WHO to recommend enhanced or extended prophylaxis for high-risk infants. METHODS: Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, PubMed databases from 2005-2015, as well as CROI and IAS abstracts were searched. Cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the use of combination or prolonged regimens in HIV-exposed infants were included. 1185 studies were screened by title and abstract and 45 full-text articles were examined in further detail. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Of the four included studies, three examined multi-drug prophylaxis regimens in formula-fed, high-risk, HIV-exposed infants. Multi-drug regimens were shown to significantly reduce transmission rates, compared to single-drug regimens; however, there was no significant difference between two- and three-drug regimens. An RCT examining prolonged ARV prophylaxis in a breastfed population showed that six months of nevirapine resulted in lower HIV transmission rates compared to a standard six-week nevirapine regimen. CONCLUSIONS: The limited available evidence suggests that using combination ARV regimens in high-risk infants reduces intrapartum transmission and that using prolonged prophylaxis in breastfed infants reduces breastfeeding transmission rates. However, the additional benefit of combination or prolonged regimens in the context of maternal ART remains unclear.

16.
Lancet HIV ; 4(10): e425-e427, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28711527
17.
AIDS ; 31(13): 1797-1807, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28590330

RESUMO

: On 5-6 May 2016, the division of AIDS of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases convened a workshop on 'HIV Birth Testing and Linkage to Care for HIV Infected Infants.' The goal of the workshop was to evaluate birth testing for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV, delineate technological resources for advancing a point-of-care (POC) HIV test implementable at birth and chart out the implementation hurdles for initiating early antiretroviral therapy to HIV-infected infants diagnosed at birth. The workshop addressed research and regulatory needs involved in the optimization of POC EID testing and challenges associated with implementation of EID, focusing on testing at birth. Scientific gaps and areas of intervention to accelerate and scale-up EID initiatives and birth testing were identified. These include discussion of the evidence supporting an early mortality peak among HIV-infected infant and justifying a role for birth HIV testing, including POC testing; evaluation of the current POC EID technology pipeline and test performance characteristics required for effective programmatic uptake; mathematical modeling of different testing scenarios and solutions with inclusion of birth testing; the adoption of setting-specific EID testing algorithms to achieve efficient linkage to care including early antiretroviral therapy initiation; the development of appropriate quality assurance programs to ensure accuracy of test results and enable sustainability of the testing program. Addressing these gaps and answering these challenges will be important in helping improve outcomes for HIV-infected infants and accelerate achieving the Joint United Nations Program for HIV and AIDS 90-90-90 targets in children.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Política de Saúde , Administração de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.) , Testes Imediatos , Nações Unidas , Estados Unidos
19.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 75 Suppl 2: S111-S114, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498179

RESUMO

Identifying women living with HIV, initiating them on lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART), and retaining them in care are among the important challenges facing this generation of health care managers and public health researchers. Implementation research attempts to solve a wide range of implementation problems by trying to understand and work within real-world conditions to find solutions that have a measureable impact on the outcomes of interest. Implementation research is distinct from clinical research in many ways yet demands similar standards of conceptual thinking and discipline to generate robust evidence that can be, to some extent, generalized to inform policy and service delivery. In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO), with funding from Global Affairs Canada, began support to 6 implementation research projects in Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. All focused on evaluating approaches for improving rates of retention in care among pregnant women and mothers living with HIV and ensuring their continuation of ART. This reflected the priority given by ministries of health, program implementers, and researchers in each country to the importance of women living with HIV returning to health facilities for routine care, adherence to ART, and improved health outcomes. Five of the studies were cluster randomized controlled trials, and 1 adopted a matched cohort design. Here, we summarize some of the main findings and key lessons learned. We also consider some of the broader implications, remaining knowledge gaps, and how implementation research is integral to, and essential for, global guideline development and to inform HIV/AIDS strategies.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos/organização & administração , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mães , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos/economia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Canadá , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 75 Suppl 2: S233-S239, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Six implementation research studies in Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe tested approaches for improving retention in care among women living with HIV. We simulated the impact of their interventions on the probability of HIV transmission during pregnancy and breastfeeding. METHODS: A computer-based state-transition model was developed to estimate the impact of the retention interventions. Patient-level data from the 6 studies were aggregated and analyzed, and weighted averages of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV probabilities were presented. The average MTCT probability of the more successful interventions was applied to national estimates to calculate potential infections averted if these interventions were taken to scale. RESULTS: Among the total cohort of 5742 HIV-positive women, almost 80% of all infant infections are attributed to the roughly 20% of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women not retained on antiretroviral therapy. Higher retention in the arms receiving interventions resulted in an overall lower estimated MTCT probability of 9.9% compared with 12.3% in the control arms. In the 2 studies that showed a statistically significant effect, Prevention of MTCT Uptake and Retention (PURE) and Mother Mentor (MoMent), the difference in transmission rates between intervention and control arms was 4.1% and 7.3%, respectively. Scaling up retention interventions nationally in the 3 countries could avert an average of almost 3000 infant infections annually. CONCLUSIONS: Linking HIV-positive pregnant women to antiretroviral therapy and retaining them is essential for addressing the remaining gaps and challenges in HIV/AIDS care and the elimination of MTCT. At national level, even modest improvements in retention translates into large numbers of infant infections averted.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mães , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malaui/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
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