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1.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 71(1): 50-57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgical approaches enhance recovery, reduce postoperative pain, and shorten hospital length-of-stay. Nevertheless, increased intra-abdominal pressure is associated with decreased renal blood flow, renal hypoxia and acute kidney injury. When combined with Trendelenburg positioning, renal function may further deteriorate. We tested the primary hypothesis that the combination of laparoscopic surgical approach and Trendelenburg position is associated with larger reductions in estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) within the initial 48 postoperative hours compared to open surgery without Trendelenburg positioning. Secondarily, we tested, if laparoscopic procedures are associated with greater incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury. METHODS: Adults who had laparoscopic colorectal surgery in Trendelenburg position at the Cleveland Clinic Main Campus from 2009 to 2016 were propensity-matched to patients who had comparable open procedures. Patients with pre-existing renal impairment were excluded. RESULTS: Among 7,357 eligible patients, 1,846 laparoscopic cases with Trendelenburg were matched to 1,846 open cases. No association was found between laparoscopic approach and postoperative eGFR. A significant protective effect of the laparoscopic procedure on the odds of having AKI was found. Patients who had laparoscopic surgeries were an estimated 0.70 (95% CI 0.55, 0.90, pHolm-adj = 0.006) times as likely to have AKI as open surgical patients. CONCLUSION: Despite compelling potential mechanisms, laparoscopic approach with Trendelenburg position in adult colorectal surgeries did not worsen postoperative eGFR, and actually reduced postoperative acute kidney injury. Given the other advantages of laparoscopic surgery, the approach should not be avoided for concerns about renal injury.

2.
Asian J Anesthesiol ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extended-release local anesthetics allow for prolonged analgesia after a single administration. Although Asians demonstrate different pain thresholds than Caucasians, whether they have different postoperative local anesthetic analgesic effects has not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy of liposomal bupivacaine on Asian and Caucasian adults, and the incidence of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, assessor-blinded cohort study of adult patients who received liposomal bupivacaine for surgery between 2012 and 2018. Asians and Caucasians were matched in a 1:1 ratio by clinical characteristics and surgery type. The primary outcome was pain management, defined as average pain score and opioid consumption during the initial 72 postoperative hours. The secondary outcome was the incidence of LAST syndrome. Reviewers were blinded to the ethnicity of the patient. RESULTS: After 1:1 propensity score matching, 130 Asians and 129 Caucasians were analyzed. All confounding variables were balanced, except for higher body mass index in the Asian group. Pain scores were lower (adjusted mean difference of -0.50 [97.5% CI, -0.98, -0.01]; superiority p = 0.011) and opioid consumption was not greater (geometric means ratio, 0.61 [97.5% CI, 0.36, 1.04]; non-inferiority p < 0.001) in Asian patients compared to Caucasian patients. Only one Caucasian patient was judged as having a potential case of LAST syndrome. The length of hospital stay and the incidence of additional complications were not different between the groups. CONCLUSION: Asian adults receiving liposomal bupivacaine as part of multimodal perioperative analgesia demonstrated lower pain scores compared to matching Caucasians, despite not having greater opioid consumption.

3.
JAMA ; 324(4): 350-358, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721009

RESUMO

Importance: Opioid-induced ventilatory depression and hypoxemia is common, severe, and often unrecognized in postoperative patients. To the extent that nonopioid analgesics reduce opioid consumption, they may decrease postoperative hypoxemia. Objective: To test the hypothesis that duration of hypoxemia is less in patients given intravenous acetaminophen than those given placebo. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted at 2 US academic hospitals among 570 patients who were undergoing abdominal surgery, enrolled from February 2015 through October 2018 and followed up until February 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive either intravenous acetaminophen, 1 g (n = 289), or normal saline placebo (n = 291) starting at the beginning of surgery and repeated every 6 hours until 48 postoperative hours or hospital discharge, whichever occurred first. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the total duration of hypoxemia (hemoglobin oxygen saturation [Spo2] <90%) per hour, with oxygen saturation measured continuously for 48 postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes were postoperative opioid consumption, pain (0- 10-point scale; 0: no pain; 10: the most pain imaginable), nausea and vomiting, sedation, minimal alveolar concentration of volatile anesthetic, fatigue, active time, and respiratory function. Results: Among 580 patients randomized (mean age, 49 years; 48% women), 570 (98%) completed the trial. The primary outcome, median duration with Spo2 of less than 90%, was 0.7 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.1-5.1) minutes per hour among patients in the acetaminophen group and 1.1 (IQR, 0.1-6.6) minutes per hour among patients in the placebo group (P = .29), with an estimated median difference of -0.04 (95% CI,-0.18 to 0.11) minutes per hour. None of the 8 secondary end points differed significantly between the acetaminophen and placebo groups. Mean pain scores within initial 48 postoperative hours were 4.2 (SD, 1.8) in the acetaminophen group and 4.4 (SD, 1.8) in the placebo group (difference, -0.28; 95% CI, -0.71 to 0.15); median opioid use in morphine equivalents was 50 mg (IQR, 18-122 mg) and 58 mg (IQR, 24-151 mg) , respectively, with a ratio of geometric means of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.61-1.21). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients who underwent abdominal surgery, use of postoperative intravenous acetaminophen, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the duration of postoperative hypoxemia over 48 hours. The study findings do not support the use of intravenous acetaminophen for this purpose. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02156154.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Falha de Tratamento
4.
Anesthesiology ; 132(4): 614-624, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both saline and lactated Ringer's solutions are commonly given to surgical patients. However, hyperchloremic acidosis consequent to saline administration may provoke complications. The authors therefore tested the primary hypothesis that a composite of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative complications is less common in patients given lactated Ringer's solution than normal saline. METHODS: The authors conducted an alternating cohort controlled trial in which adults having colorectal and orthopedic surgery were given either lactated Ringer's solution or normal saline in 2-week blocks between September 2015 and August 2018. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative renal, respiratory, infectious, and hemorrhagic complications. The secondary outcome was postoperative acute kidney injury. RESULTS: Among 8,616 qualifying patients, 4,187 (49%) were assigned to lactated Ringer's solution, and 4,429 (51%) were assigned to saline. Each group received a median 1.9 l of fluid. The primary composite of major complications was observed in 5.8% of lactated Ringer's versus 6.1% of normal saline patients, with estimated average relative risk across the components of the composite of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.52; P = 0.261). The secondary outcome, postoperative acute kidney injury, Acute Kidney Injury Network stage I-III versus 0, occurred in 6.6% of lactated Ringer's patients versus 6.2% of normal saline patients, with an estimated relative risk of 1.18 (99.3% CI, 0.99 to 1.41; P = 0.009, significance criterion of 0.007). Absolute differences between the treatment groups for each outcome were less than 0.5%, an amount that is not clinically meaningful. CONCLUSIONS: In elective orthopedic and colorectal surgery patients, there was no clinically meaningful difference in postoperative complications with lactated Ringer's or saline volume replacement. Clinicians can reasonably use either solution intraoperatively.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Lactato de Ringer/administração & dosagem , Solução Salina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Lactato de Ringer/efeitos adversos , Solução Salina/efeitos adversos
5.
Anesth Analg ; 129(6): 1468-1473, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain after cardiac surgery is largely treated with opioids, but their poor safety profile makes nonopioid medications attractive as part of multimodal pathways. Anti-inflammatory drugs reduce acute postoperative pain, but the role of steroids in reducing acute poststernotomy pain is unclear. We evaluated the association between the intraoperative administration of methylprednisolone and postoperative analgesia, defined as a composite of pain scores and opioid consumption, during the initial 24 hours after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc retrospective analysis of a large clinical trial in which adults having cardiac surgery were randomized 1:1 to receive 2 intraoperative doses of 250 mg IV methylprednisolone or placebo. Pain scores and opioid consumption were collected during the initial 24 hours after surgery. Methylprednisolone was considered to be associated with better pain control than placebo if proven noninferior (not worse) on both pain scores (defined a priori with delta of 1 point) and opioid consumption (delta of 20%) and superior to placebo in at least 1 of the 2 outcomes. This test was repeated in the opposite direction (testing whether placebo is better than methylprednisolone on postoperative pain management). RESULTS: Of 251 eligible patients, 127 received methylprednisolone and 124 received placebo. Methylprednisolone was noninferior to placebo on pain with difference in mean (CI) pain scores of -0.25 (-0.71 to 0.21); P < .001. However, methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on opioid consumption (ratio of geometric means [CI]: 1.11 [0.64-1.91]; P = .37). Because methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on both outcomes, we did not proceed to superiority testing based on the a priori stopping rules. Similar results were found when testing the opposite direction. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis, we could not identify a beneficial analgesic effect after cardiac surgery associated with methylprednisolone administration. There are currently no data to suggest that methylprednisolone has significant analgesic benefit in adults having cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Dor Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor Aguda/etiologia , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metilprednisolona/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Anesthesiology ; 130(4): 550-559, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative and postoperative hypotension are associated with myocardial and kidney injury and 30-day mortality. Intraoperative blood pressure is measured frequently, but blood pressure on surgical wards is usually measured only every 4 to 6 h, leaving long intervals during which hypotension and hypertension may be undetected. This study evaluated the incidence and severity of postoperative hypotension and hypertension in adults recovering from abdominal surgery and the extent to which serious perturbations were missed by routine vital-sign assessments. METHODS: Blood pressure was recorded at 1-min intervals during the initial 48 h in adults recovering from abdominal surgery using a continuous noninvasive monitor. Caregivers were blinded to these measurements and depended on routine vital-sign assessments. Hypotension and hypertension were characterized as time under and above various mean arterial pressure thresholds. RESULTS: Of 502 available patients, 312 patients with high-quality records were analyzed, with a median measurement time of 48 [interquartile range: 41, 48] postoperative hours. Nearly a quarter experienced an episode of mean arterial pressure of less than 70 mm Hg lasting at least 30 min (24%; 95% CI, 20%, 29%), and 18% had an episode of mean arterial pressure of less than 65 mm Hg lasting at least 15 min. Nearly half the patients who had mean arterial pressure of less than 65 mm Hg for at least 15 min (47%; 95% CI, 34%, 61%) were undetected by routine vital-sign assessments. Episodes of mean arterial pressure greater than 110 mm Hg lasting at least 30 min were observed in 42% (95% CI, 37%, 48%) of patients; 7% had mean arterial pressure greater than 130 mm Hg for at least 30 min, 96% of which were missed by routine assessments. Episodes of mean arterial pressure less than 65 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure greater than 110 mm Hg captured by routine vital-sign assessments but not by continuous monitoring occurred in 34 and 8 patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative hypotension and hypertension were common, prolonged, profound, and largely undetected by routine vital-sign assessments in a cohort of adults recovering from abdominal surgery. Frequent or continuous blood pressure monitoring may detect hemodynamic perturbations more effectively and potentially facilitate treatment.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 29(2): 169-174, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical wound infiltration with local anesthetics is common as part of multimodal analgesia and enhanced recovery pathways in pediatric surgical patients. Liposomal bupivacaine can provide up to 92 hours of pain relief, and was approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration for local infiltration in adults. It is also commonly used by pediatric surgeons, but its safety profile in this age group has not been described. AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of local anesthetic systemic toxicity syndrome in pediatric surgical patients receiving liposomal bupivacaine compared to plain bupivacaine for surgical wound infiltration. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, single center, assessor blinded cohort study of pediatric surgical inpatients having open or laparoscopic surgery in the Cleveland Clinic between 2013 and 2017 and receiving wound infiltration with local anesthetics. We compared the incidence of local anesthetic systemic toxicity among those who received any dose of liposomal bupivacaine and those who received plain bupivacaine. Groups were matched 1:2 according to procedure type, age, and physical status score. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity was primarily defined as at least two signs or symptoms possibly related to anesthetic toxicity, as judged by two independent adjudicators blinded to the type of local anesthetic. A sensitivity analysis compared the incidence of a single sign/symptom possibly related to anesthetic toxicity. RESULTS: A total of 924 surgical cases were included in the final analysis (356 liposomal bupivacaine and 568 plain bupivacaine cases). The primary outcome did not occur in any patient. The sensitivity analysis found three cases in the liposomal bupivacaine group and two cases in the plain bupivacaine group having a single sign/symptom possibly related to local anesthetic administration (relative risk 2.4, 95% CI 0.4-14.0, P = 0.38). CONCLUSION: In a cohort of pediatric surgical patients receiving wound infiltration with either plain or liposomal bupivacaine, we identified no cases of local anesthetic systemic toxicity syndrome, and only few patients with any sign or symptom that could potentially be related to local anesthetic toxicity.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anestesia Local/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Local/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Laparoscopia , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suspensões/administração & dosagem
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