Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 23
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253313

RESUMO

Olfaction and thermoregulation are key functions for mammals. The former is critical to feeding, mating, and predator avoidance behaviors, while the latter is essential for homeothermy. Aquatic and amphibious mammals face olfactory and thermoregulatory challenges not generally encountered by terrestrial species. In mammals, the nasal cavity houses a bony system supporting soft tissues and sensory organs implicated in either olfactory or thermoregulatory functions. It is hypothesized that to cope with aquatic environments, amphibious mammals have expanded their thermoregulatory capacity at the expense of their olfactory system. We investigated the evolutionary history of this potential trade-off using a comparative dataset of three-dimensional (3D) CT scans of 189 skulls, capturing 17 independent transitions from a strictly terrestrial to an amphibious lifestyle across small mammals (Afrosoricida, Eulipotyphla, and Rodentia). We identified rapid and repeated loss of olfactory capacities synchronously associated with gains in thermoregulatory capacity in amphibious taxa sampled from across mammalian phylogenetic diversity. Evolutionary models further reveal that these convergences result from faster rates of turbinal bone evolution and release of selective constraints on the thermoregulatory-olfaction trade-off in amphibious species. Lastly, we demonstrated that traits related to vital functions evolved faster to the optimum compared to traits that are not related to vital functions.

2.
PLoS Biol ; 17(12): e3000494, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800571

RESUMO

Big, time-scaled phylogenies are fundamental to connecting evolutionary processes to modern biodiversity patterns. Yet inferring reliable phylogenetic trees for thousands of species involves numerous trade-offs that have limited their utility to comparative biologists. To establish a robust evolutionary timescale for all approximately 6,000 living species of mammals, we developed credible sets of trees that capture root-to-tip uncertainty in topology and divergence times. Our "backbone-and-patch" approach to tree building applies a newly assembled 31-gene supermatrix to two levels of Bayesian inference: (1) backbone relationships and ages among major lineages, using fossil node or tip dating, and (2) species-level "patch" phylogenies with nonoverlapping in-groups that each correspond to one representative lineage in the backbone. Species unsampled for DNA are either excluded ("DNA-only" trees) or imputed within taxonomic constraints using branch lengths drawn from local birth-death models ("completed" trees). Joining time-scaled patches to backbones results in species-level trees of extant Mammalia with all branches estimated under the same modeling framework, thereby facilitating rate comparisons among lineages as disparate as marsupials and placentals. We compare our phylogenetic trees to previous estimates of mammal-wide phylogeny and divergence times, finding that (1) node ages are broadly concordant among studies, and (2) recent (tip-level) rates of speciation are estimated more accurately in our study than in previous "supertree" approaches, in which unresolved nodes led to branch-length artifacts. Credible sets of mammalian phylogenetic history are now available for download at http://vertlife.org/phylosubsets, enabling investigations of long-standing questions in comparative biology.

3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1902): 20190672, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064307

RESUMO

Understanding the number of times a trait has evolved is a necessary foundation for comprehending its potential relationships with selective regimes, developmental constraints and evolutionary diversification. Rodents make up over 40% of extant mammalian species, and their ecological and evolutionary success has been partially attributed to the increase in biting efficiency that resulted from a forward shift of one or two portions of the masseter muscle from the zygomatic arch onto the rostrum. This forward shift has occurred in three discrete ways, but the number of times it has occurred has never been explicitly quantified. We estimated an ultrametric phylogeny, the first to include all rodent families, using thousands of ultraconserved elements. We examined support for evolutionary relationships among the five rodent suborders and then incorporated relevant fossils, fitted models of character evolution, and used stochastic character mapping to determine that a portion of the masseter muscle has moved forward onto the rostrum at least seven times (with one reversal) during the approximately 70 Myr history of rodents. Combined, the repeated evolution of this key innovation, its increasing prevalence through time, and the species diversity of clades with this character underscores the adaptive value of improved biting efficiency and the relative ease with which some advantageous traits arise.

4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17806, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546026

RESUMO

Turbinal bones are key components of the mammalian rostrum that contribute to three critical functions: (1) homeothermy, (2) water conservation and (3) olfaction. With over 700 extant species, murine rodents (Murinae) are the most species-rich mammalian subfamily, with most of that diversity residing in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Their evolutionary history includes several cases of putative, but untested ecomorphological convergence, especially with traits related to diet. Among the most spectacular rodent ecomorphs are the vermivores which independently evolved in several island systems. We used 3D CT-scans (N = 87) of murine turbinal bones to quantify olfactory capacities as well as heat or water conservation adaptations. We obtained similar results from an existing 2D complexity method and two new 3D methodologies that quantify bone complexity. Using comparative phylogenetic methods, we identified a significant convergent signal in the rostral morphology within the highly specialised vermivores. Vermivorous species have significantly larger and more complex olfactory turbinals than do carnivores and omnivores. Increased olfactory capacities may be a major adaptive feature facilitating rats' capacity to prey on elusive earthworms. The narrow snout that characterises vermivores exhibits significantly reduced respiratory turbinals, which may reduce their heat and water conservation capacities.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Murinae , Cavidade Nasal , Bulbo Olfatório , Animais , Austrália , Murinae/anatomia & histologia , Murinae/fisiologia , Cavidade Nasal/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Nasal/fisiologia , Bulbo Olfatório/anatomia & histologia , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia
5.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 118: 306-317, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28963083

RESUMO

Phylogeographic research on endemic primates and amphibians inhabiting the Indonesian island of Sulawesi revealed the existence of seven areas of endemism (AoEs). Here, we use phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of one mitochondrial gene and 15 nuclear loci to assess geographic patterns of genetic partitioning in a shrew (Crocidura elongata) that is endemic to Sulawesi, but occurs across the island. We uncover substantial genetic diversity in this species both between and within AoEs, but we also identify close relationships between populations residing in different AoEs. One of the earliest divergences within C. elongata distinguishes a high-elevation clade from low-elevation clades. In addition, on one mountain, we observe three distinct genetic groups from low, middle, and high elevations, suggesting divergence along a single elevational gradient. In general, our results show that C. elongata, like several other Sulawesi endemic taxa, harbors extensive genetic diversity. This diversity is structured in part by known AoE boundaries, but also by elevational gradients and geographic isolation within AoEs.


Assuntos
Musaranhos/classificação , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/metabolismo , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Indonésia , Ilhas , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Genome Biol Evol ; 9(9): 2308-2321, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934378

RESUMO

The phylogeny of eutherian mammals contains some of the most recalcitrant nodes in the tetrapod tree of life. We combined comprehensive taxon and character sampling to explore three of the most debated interordinal relationships among placental mammals. We performed in silico extraction of ultraconserved element loci from 72 published genomes and invitro enrichment and sequencing of ultraconserved elements from 28 additional mammals, resulting in alignments of 3,787 loci. We analyzed these data using concatenated and multispecies coalescent phylogenetic approaches, topological tests, and exploration of support among individual loci to identify the root of Eutheria and the sister groups of tree shrews (Scandentia) and horses (Perissodactyla). Individual loci provided weak, but often consistent support for topological hypotheses. Although many gene trees lacked accepted species-tree relationships, summary coalescent topologies were largely consistent with inferences from concatenation. At the root of Eutheria, we identified consistent support for a sister relationship between Xenarthra and Afrotheria (i.e., Atlantogenata). At the other nodes of interest, support was less consistent. We suggest Scandentia is the sister of Primatomorpha (Euarchonta), but we failed to reject a sister relationship between Scandentia and Glires. Similarly, we suggest Perissodactyla is sister to Cetartiodactyla (Euungulata), but a sister relationship between Perissodactyla and Chiroptera remains plausible.


Assuntos
Sequência Conservada , Evolução Molecular , Mamíferos/genética , Filogenia , Placenta/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Genoma , Mamíferos/classificação , Modelos Genéticos , Filogeografia , Gravidez , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Mol Ecol ; 25(20): 5158-5173, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27552382

RESUMO

Island systems are important models for evolutionary biology because they provide convenient, discrete biogeographic units of study. Continental islands with a history of intermittent dry land connections confound the discrete definitions of islands and have led zoologists to predict (1) little differentiation of terrestrial organisms among continental shelf islands and (2) extinction, rather than speciation, to be the main cause of differences in community composition among islands. However, few continental island systems have been subjected to well-sampled phylogeographic studies, leaving these biogeographic assumptions of connectivity largely untested. We analyzed nine unlinked loci from shrews of the genus Crocidura from seven mountains and two lowland localities on the Sundaic continental shelf islands of Sumatra and Java. Coalescent species delimitation strongly supported all currently recognized Crocidura species from Sumatra (six species) and Java (five species), as well as one undescribed species endemic to each island. We find that nearly all species of Crocidura in the region are endemic to a single island and several of these have their closest relative(s) on the same island. Intra-island genetic divergence among allopatric, conspecific populations is often substantial, perhaps indicating species-level diversity remains underestimated. One recent (Pleistocene) speciation event generated two morphologically distinct, syntopic species on Java, further highlighting the prevalence of within-island diversification. Our results suggest that both between- and within-island speciation processes generated local endemism in Sundaland, supplementing the traditional view that the region's fauna is relictual and primarily governed by extinction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Evolution ; 70(3): 653-65, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26826614

RESUMO

Convergent evolution, often observed in island archipelagos, provides compelling evidence for the importance of natural selection as a generator of species and ecological diversity. The Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) is the world's largest island system and encompasses distinct biogeographic units, including the Asian (Sunda) and Australian (Sahul) continental shelves, which together bracket the oceanic archipelagos of the Philippines and Wallacea. Each of these biogeographic units houses numerous endemic rodents in the family Muridae. Carnivorous murids, that is those that feed on animals, have evolved independently in Sunda, Sulawesi (part of Wallacea), the Philippines, and Sahul, but the number of origins of carnivory among IAA murids is unknown. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of carnivorous murids of the IAA, combined with estimates of ancestral states for broad diet categories (herbivore, omnivore, and carnivore) and geographic ranges. These analyses demonstrate that carnivory evolved independently four times after overwater colonization, including in situ origins on the Philippines, Sulawesi, and Sahul. In each biogeographic unit the origin of carnivory was followed by evolution of more specialized carnivorous ecomorphs such as vermivores, insectivores, and amphibious rats.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Carnivoridade , Muridae/fisiologia , Animais , Éxons , Indonésia , Muridae/classificação , Muridae/genética , Filipinas , Filogenia
9.
Syst Biol ; 64(5): 727-40, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25979143

RESUMO

Phylogenetic relationships in recent, rapid radiations can be difficult to resolve due to incomplete lineage sorting and reliance on genetic markers that evolve slowly relative to the rate of speciation. By incorporating hundreds to thousands of unlinked loci, phylogenomic analyses have the potential to mitigate these difficulties. Here, we attempt to resolve phylogenetic relationships among eight shrew species (genus Crocidura) from the Philippines, a phylogenetic problem that has proven intractable with small (< 10 loci) data sets. We sequenced hundreds of ultraconserved elements and whole mitochondrial genomes in these species and estimated phylogenies using concatenation, summary coalescent, and hierarchical coalescent methods. The concatenated approach recovered a maximally supported and fully resolved tree. In contrast, the coalescent-based approaches produced similar topologies, but each had several poorly supported nodes. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the concatenated tree could be positively misleading. Our simulations also show that the tree shape we tend to infer, which involves a series of short internal branches, is difficult to resolve, even if substitution models are known and multiple individuals per species are sampled. As such, the low support we obtained for backbone relationships in our coalescent-based inferences reflects a real and appropriate lack of certainty. Our results illuminate the challenges of estimating a bifurcating tree in a rapid and recent radiation, providing a rare empirical example of a nearly simultaneous series of speciation events in a terrestrial animal lineage as it spreads across an oceanic archipelago.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador/normas , Filogenia , Musaranhos/classificação , Animais , Sequência Conservada , Especiação Genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular
10.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e104340, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25136854

RESUMO

Establishment of conservation priorities for primates is a particular concern in the island archipelagos of Southeast Asia, where rates of habitat destruction are among the highest in the world. Conservation programs require knowledge of taxonomic diversity to ensure success. The Philippine tarsier is a flagship species that promotes environmental awareness and a thriving ecotourism economy in the Philippines. However, assessment of its conservation status has been impeded by taxonomic uncertainty, a paucity of field studies, and a lack of vouchered specimens and genetic samples available for study in biodiversity repositories. Consequently, conservation priorities are unclear. In this study we use mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to empirically infer geographic partitioning of genetic variation and to identify evolutionarily distinct lineages for conservation action. The distribution of Philippine tarsier genetic diversity is neither congruent with expectations based on biogeographical patterns documented in other Philippine vertebrates, nor does it agree with the most recent Philippine tarsier taxonomic arrangement. We identify three principal evolutionary lineages that do not correspond to the currently recognized subspecies, highlight the discovery of a novel cryptic and range-restricted subcenter of genetic variation in an unanticipated part of the archipelago, and identify additional geographically structured genetic variation that should be the focus of future studies and conservation action. Conservation of this flagship species necessitates establishment of protected areas and targeted conservation programs within the range of each genetically distinct variant of the Philippine tarsier.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Tarsiidae/genética , Animais , Núcleo Celular/química , Núcleo Celular/genética , Ecossistema , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Especiação Genética , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filipinas , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tarsiidae/classificação
11.
Mol Biol Evol ; 31(9): 2425-40, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24987106

RESUMO

In species with separate sexes, social systems can differ in the relative variances of male versus female reproductive success. Papionin monkeys (macaques, mangabeys, mandrills, drills, baboons, and geladas) exhibit hallmarks of a high variance in male reproductive success, including a female-biased adult sex ratio and prominent sexual dimorphism. To explore the potential genomic consequences of such sex differences, we used a reduced representation genome sequencing approach to quantifying polymorphism at sites on autosomes and sex chromosomes of the tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana), a species endemic to the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. The ratio of nucleotide diversity of the X chromosome to that of the autosomes was less than the value (0.75) expected with a 1:1 sex ratio and no sex differences in the variance in reproductive success. However, the significance of this difference was dependent on which outgroup was used to standardize diversity levels. Using a new model that includes the effects of varying population size, sex differences in mutation rate between the autosomes and X chromosome, and GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) or selection on GC content, we found that the maximum-likelihood estimate of the ratio of effective population size of the X chromosome to that of the autosomes was 0.68, which did not differ significantly from 0.75. We also found evidence for 1) a higher level of purifying selection on genic than nongenic regions, 2) gBGC or natural selection favoring increased GC content, 3) a dynamic demography characterized by population growth and contraction, 4) a higher mutation rate in males than females, and 5) a very low polymorphism level on the Y chromosome. These findings shed light on the population genomic consequences of sex differences in the variance in reproductive success, which appear to be modest in the tonkean macaque; they also suggest the occurrence of hitchhiking on the Y chromosome.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Macaca/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Animais , Composição de Bases , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma , Indonésia , Funções Verossimilhança , Macaca/classificação , Masculino , Taxa de Mutação , Polimorfismo Genético , Densidade Demográfica , Reprodução , Seleção Genética , Razão de Masculinidade
12.
Zootaxa ; (3815): 541-64, 2014 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24943633

RESUMO

The island of Sulawesi, in Indonesia, lies at the crossroads of the Indo-Australian Archipelago and has remained isolated from the Asian (Sunda) and Australian (Sahul) continental shelves for at least the last 10 million years. Of the 50 native species of rodents on Sulawesi, all are endemic and represent the evolution of a variety of ecological and morphological forms within the Muridae and Sciuridae. Carnivorous rodents have evolved, perhaps independently, in Muridae from the Philippines, Sulawesi, and Sahul, but semi-aquatic murids are only known from Sahul. Here we describe a new genus and species of insectivorous water rat from Sulawesi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that it is related to the shrew rats of Sulawesi and represents an origin of aquatic carnivory that is independent from the evolution of water rats on Sahul. Many areas of Sulawesi have not been surveyed systematically and current lists of mammal species are likely to dramatically underestimate actual diversity.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Muridae/anatomia & histologia , Muridae/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino , Indonésia , Ilhas , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Muridae/genética , Muridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Ratos
13.
J Virol ; 88(13): 7663-7, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24741077

RESUMO

The recent discovery of hantaviruses in shrews and bats in West Africa suggests that other genetically distinct hantaviruses exist in East Africa. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of newfound hantaviruses, detected in archival tissues from the Geata mouse shrew (Myosorex geata) and Kilimanjaro mouse shrew ( Myosorex zinki) captured in Tanzania, expands the host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses and suggests that ancestral shrews and/or bats may have served as the original mammalian hosts of primordial hantaviruses.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Hantavirus/veterinária , Hantavirus/classificação , Hantavirus/isolamento & purificação , Musaranhos/virologia , África ao Sul do Saara , Animais , Geografia , Hantavirus/genética , Infecções por Hantavirus/virologia , Camundongos , Filogenia
14.
Mol Ecol ; 22(19): 4972-87, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24010862

RESUMO

In theory, competition among species in a shared habitat results in niche separation. In the case of small recondite mammals such as shrews, little is known about their autecologies, leaving open questions regarding the degree to which closely related species co-occur and how or whether ecological niches are partitioned. The extent to which species are able to coexist may depend on the degree to which they exploit different features of their habitat, which may in turn influence our ability to recognize them as species. We explored these issues in a biodiversity hotspot, by surveying shrew (genus Crocidura) diversity on the Indonesian island of Java. We sequenced portions of nine unlinked genes in 100-117 specimens of Javan shrews and incorporated homologous data from most known Crocidura species from other parts of island South-East Asia. Current taxonomy recognizes four Crocidura species on Java, including two endemics. However, our phylogenetic, population genetic and species delimitation analyses identify five species on the island, and all are endemic to Java. While the individual ranges of these species may not overlap in their entirety, we found up to four species living syntopically and all five species co-occurring on one mountain. Differences in species' body size, use of above ground-level habitats by one species and habitat partitioning along ecological gradients may have facilitated species diversification and coexistence.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Musaranhos/classificação , Alelos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Loci Gênicos , Genética Populacional , Geografia , Indonésia , Ilhas , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Musaranhos/genética
15.
Biol Lett ; 9(5): 20130486, 2013 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23883579

RESUMO

The hero shrew's (Scutisorex somereni) massive interlocking lumbar vertebrae represent the most extreme modification of the vertebral column known in mammals. No intermediate form of this remarkable morphology is known, nor is there any convincing theory to explain its functional significance. We document a new species in the heretofore monotypic genus Scutisorex; the new species possesses cranial and vertebral features representing intermediate character states between S. somereni and other shrews. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences support a sister relationship between the new species and S. somereni. While the function of the unusual spine in Scutisorex is unknown, it gives these small animals incredible vertebral strength. Based on field observations, we hypothesize that the unique vertebral column is an adaptation allowing these shrews to lever heavy or compressive objects to access concentrated food resources inaccessible to other animals.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Musaranhos , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia
16.
Evolution ; 67(4): 991-1010, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23550751

RESUMO

Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is rapidly gaining popularity in population genetics. One example, msBayes, infers the distribution of divergence times among pairs of taxa, allowing phylogeographers to test hypotheses about historical causes of diversification in co-distributed groups of organisms. Using msBayes, we infer the distribution of divergence times among 22 pairs of populations of vertebrates distributed across the Philippine Archipelago. Our objective was to test whether sea-level oscillations during the Pleistocene caused diversification across the islands. To guide interpretation of our results, we perform a suite of simulation-based power analyses. Our empirical results strongly support a recent simultaneous divergence event for all 22 taxon pairs, consistent with the prediction of the Pleistocene-driven diversification hypothesis. However, our empirical estimates are sensitive to changes in prior distributions, and our simulations reveal low power of the method to detect random variation in divergence times and bias toward supporting clustered divergences. Our results demonstrate that analyses exploring power and prior sensitivity should accompany ABC model selection inferences. The problems we identify are potentially mitigable with uniform priors over divergence models (rather than classes of models) and more flexible prior distributions on demographic and divergence-time parameters.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Clima , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Especiação Genética , Fenômenos Geológicos , Ilhas , Filogenia
17.
Biol Lett ; 8(6): 990-3, 2012 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22915626

RESUMO

Rodents are important ecological components of virtually every terrestrial ecosystem. Their success is a result of their gnawing incisors, battery of grinding molars and diastema that spatially and functionally separates the incisors from the molars. Until now these traits defined all rodents. Here, we describe a new species and genus of shrew-rat from Sulawesi Island, Indonesia that is distinguished from all other rodents by the absence of cheek teeth. Moreover, rather than gnawing incisors, this animal has bicuspid upper incisors, also unique among the more than 2200 species of rodents. Stomach contents from a single specimen suggest that the species consumes only earthworms. We posit that by specializing on soft-bodied prey, this species has had no need to process food by chewing, allowing its dentition to evolve for the sole purpose of procuring food. Thus, the removal of functional constraints, often considered a source of evolutionary innovations, may also lead to the loss of the very same traits that fuelled evolutionary diversification in the past.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Ratos/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Indonésia , Ratos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 279(1743): 3678-86, 2012 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22764163

RESUMO

Prospects for a comprehensive inventory of global biodiversity would be greatly improved by automating methods of species delimitation. The general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) was recently proposed as a potential means of increasing the rate of biodiversity exploration. We tested this method with simulated data and applied it to a group of poorly known bats (Hipposideros) from the Philippines. We then used echolocation call characteristics to evaluate the plausibility of species boundaries suggested by GMYC. In our simulations, GMYC performed relatively well (errors in estimated species diversity less than 25%) when the product of the haploid effective population size (N(e)) and speciation rate (SR; per lineage per million years) was less than or equal to 10(5), while interspecific variation in N(e) was twofold or less. However, at higher but also biologically relevant values of N(e) × SR and when N(e) varied tenfold among species, performance was very poor. GMYC analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences from Philippine Hipposideros suggest actual diversity may be approximately twice the current estimate, and available echolocation call data are mostly consistent with GMYC delimitations. In conclusion, we consider the GMYC model useful under some conditions, but additional information on N(e), SR and/or corroboration from independent character data are needed to allow meaningful interpretation of results.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Quirópteros/classificação , Quirópteros/genética , Classificação/métodos , Especiação Genética , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Grupo dos Citocromos b/genética , Ecolocação , Funções Verossimilhança , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Filipinas , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
PLoS One ; 6(7): e21885, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21760918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Closely related, ecologically similar species often have adjacent distributions, suggesting competitive exclusion may contribute to the structure of some natural communities. In systems such as island archipelagos, where speciation is often tightly associated with dispersal over oceanic barriers, competitive exclusion may prevent population establishment following inter-island dispersal and subsequent cladogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a combination of tools, we test the hypothesis that the distributions of shrew (Crocidura) species in the Philippines are the result of competitive exclusion preventing secondary invasion of occupied islands. We first compare ecological niche models between two widespread, allopatric species and find statistical support for their ecological similarity, implying that competition for habitat between these species is possible. We then examine dispersion patterns among sympatric species and find some signal for overdispersion of body size, but not for phylogenetic branch length. Finally, we simulate the process of inter-island colonization under a stochastic model of dispersal lacking ecological forces. Results are dependent on the geographic scope and colonization probability employed. However, some combinations suggest that the number of inter-island dispersal events necessary to populate the archipelago may be much higher than the minimum number of colonization events necessary to explain current estimates of species richness and phylogenetic relationships. If our model is appropriate, these results imply that alternative factors, such as competitive exclusion, may have influenced the process of inter-island colonization and subsequent cladogenesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We interpret the combined results as providing tenuous evidence that similarity in body size may prevent co-occurrence in Philippine shrews and that competitive exclusion among ecologically similar species, rather than an inability to disperse among islands, may have limited diversification in this group, and, possibly other clades endemic to island archipelagos.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Biota , Geografia , Musaranhos/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Biológicos , Filipinas , Filogenia , Musaranhos/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 57(2): 598-619, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20601009

RESUMO

Southeast Asia's widespread species offer unique opportunities to explore the effects of geographical barriers to dispersal on patterns of vertebrate lineage diversification. We analyzed mitochondrial gene sequences (16S rDNA) from a geographically widespread sample of 266 Southeast Asian tree frogs, including 244 individuals of Polypedates leucomystax and its close relatives. Our expectation was that lineages on island archipelagos would exhibit more substantial geographic structure, corresponding to the geological history of terrestrial connectivity in this region, compared to the Asian mainland. Contrary to predictions, we found evidence of numerous highly divergent lineages from a limited area on the Asian mainland, but fewer lineages with shallower divergences throughout oceanic islands of the Philippines and Indonesia. Surprisingly and in numerous instances, lineages in the archipelagos span distinct biogeographical provinces. Phylogeographic analyses identified four major haplotype clades; summary statistics, mismatch distributions, and Bayesian coalescent inference of demography provide support for recent range expansion, population growth, and/or admixture in the Philippine and some Sulawesi populations. We speculate that the current range of P. leucomystax in Southeast Asia is much larger now than in the recent past. Conversion of forested areas to monoculture agriculture and transportation of agricultural products between islands may have facilitated unprecedented population and range expansion in P. leucomystax throughout thousands of islands in the Philippine and Indonesian archipelagos.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Anuros/genética , Filogeografia , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Indonésia , Filipinas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA