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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(26): 23659-23666, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180626

RESUMO

Low-power, high-performance metal-insulator-metal (MIM) non-volatile resistive memories based on HfO2 high- k dielectric are fabricated using a drop-on-demand inkjet printing technique as a low-cost and eco-friendly method. The characteristics of resistive switching of Pt (bottom)/HfO2/Ag (top) stacks on Si/SiO2 substrates are investigated in order to study the bottom electrode's interaction with the HfO2 dielectric layer and the resulting effects on resistive switching. The devices show low Set and Reset voltages, high ON/OFF current ratio, and relatively low switching current (∼1 µA), which are comparable to the characteristics of current commercial CMOS memories. In order to understand the resistive switching mechanism, direct structural observation is carried out by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) on cross-sectioned samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB). In addition, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) inspections discard a silver electro-migration effect.

2.
ACS Nano ; 13(7): 7716-7728, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173684

RESUMO

The physicochemical properties of spinel oxide magnetic nanoparticles depend critically on both their size and shape. In particular, spinel oxide nanocrystals with cubic morphology have shown superior properties in comparison to their spherical counterparts in a variety of fields, like, for example, biomedicine. Therefore, having an accurate control over the nanoparticle shape and size, while preserving the crystallinity, becomes crucial for many applications. However, despite the increasing interest in spinel oxide nanocubes there are relatively few studies on this morphology due to the difficulty to synthesize perfectly defined cubic nanostructures, especially below 20 nm. Here we present a rationally designed synthesis pathway based on the thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate to obtain high quality nanocubes over a wide range of sizes. This pathway enables the synthesis of monodisperse Fe3O4 nanocubes with edge length in the 9-80 nm range, with excellent cubic morphology and high crystallinity by only minor adjustments in the synthesis parameters. The accurate size control provides evidence that even 1-2 nm size variations can be critical in determining the functional properties, for example, for improved nuclear magnetic resonance T2 contrast or enhanced magnetic hyperthermia. The rationale behind the changes introduced in the synthesis procedure (e.g., the use of three solvents or adding Na-oleate) is carefully discussed. The versatility of this synthesis route is demonstrated by expanding its capability to grow other spinel oxides such as Co-ferrites, Mn-ferrites, and Mn3O4 of different sizes. The simplicity and adaptability of this synthesis scheme may ease the development of complex oxide nanocubes for a wide variety of applications.

3.
Adv Mater ; 31(4): e1805360, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511747

RESUMO

Interface-dominated materials such as nanocrystalline thin films have emerged as an enthralling class of materials able to engineer functional properties of transition metal oxides widely used in energy and information technologies. In particular, it has been proven that strain-induced defects in grain boundaries of manganites deeply impact their functional properties by boosting their oxygen mass transport while abating their electronic and magnetic order. In this work, the origin of these dramatic changes is correlated for the first time with strong modifications of the anionic and cationic composition in the vicinity of strained grain boundary regions. We are also able to alter the grain boundary composition by tuning the overall cationic content in the films, which represents a new and powerful tool, beyond the classical space charge layer effect, for engineering electronic and mass transport properties of metal oxide thin films useful for a collection of relevant solid-state devices.

4.
ACS Nano ; 12(10): 10291-10300, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256610

RESUMO

Electric-field-controlled magnetism can boost energy efficiency in widespread applications. However, technologically, this effect is facing important challenges: mechanical failure in strain-mediated piezoelectric/magnetostrictive devices, dearth of room-temperature multiferroics, or stringent thickness limitations in electrically charged metallic films. Voltage-driven ionic motion (magneto-ionics) circumvents most of these drawbacks while exhibiting interesting magnetoelectric phenomena. Nevertheless, magneto-ionics typically requires heat treatments and multicomponent heterostructures. Here we report on the electrolyte-gated and defect-mediated O and Co transport in a Co3O4 single layer which allows for room-temperature voltage-controlled ON-OFF ferromagnetism (magnetic switch) via internal reduction/oxidation processes. Negative voltages partially reduce Co3O4 to Co (ferromagnetism: ON), resulting in graded films including Co- and O-rich areas. Positive bias oxidizes Co back to Co3O4 (paramagnetism: OFF). This electric-field-induced atomic-scale reconfiguration process is compositionally, structurally, and magnetically reversible and self-sustained, since no oxygen source other than the Co3O4 itself is required. This process could lead to electric-field-controlled device concepts for spintronics.

5.
Nano Lett ; 18(9): 5854-5861, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165026

RESUMO

The atomic structure of nanoparticles can be easily determined by transmission electron microscopy. However, obtaining atomic-resolution chemical information about the individual atomic columns is a rather challenging endeavor. Here, crystalline monodispersed spinel Fe3O4/Mn3O4 core-shell nanoparticles have been thoroughly characterized in a high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements performed with atomic resolution allow the direct mapping of the Mn2+/Mn3+ ions in the shell and the Fe2+/Fe3+ in the core structure. This enables a precise understanding of the core-shell interface and of the cation distribution in the crystalline lattice of the nanoparticles. Considering how the different oxidation states of transition metals are reflected in EELS, two methods of performing a local evaluation of the cation inversion in spinel lattices are introduced. Both methods allow the determination of the inversion parameter in the iron oxide core and manganese oxide shell, as well as detecting spatial variations in this parameter, with atomic resolution. X-ray absorption measurements on the whole sample confirm the presence of cation inversion. These results present a significant advance toward a better correlation of the structural and functional properties of nanostructured spinel oxides.

6.
Langmuir ; 34(22): 6470-6479, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747511

RESUMO

Colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) compete with molecular catalysts in the field of homogenous catalysis, offering easier recyclability and a number of potentially advantageous functionalities, such as tunable band gaps, plasmonic properties, or a magnetic moment. Using high-throughput printing technologies, colloidal NCs can also be supported onto substrates to produce cost-effective electronic, optoelectronic, electrocatalytic, and sensing devices. For both catalytic and technological application, NC surface chemistry and supracrystal organization are key parameters determining final performance. Here, we study the influence of the surface ligands and the NC organization on the catalytic properties of In2S3, both as a colloid and as a supported layer. As a colloid, NCs stabilized by inorganic ligands show the highest photocatalytic activities, which we associate with their large and more accessible surfaces. On the other hand, when NCs are supported on a substrate, their organization becomes an essential parameter determining performance. For instance, NC-based films produced through a gelation process provided five-fold higher photocurrent densities than those obtained from dense films produced by the direct printing of NCs.

7.
Nanotechnology ; 29(28): 285702, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664411

RESUMO

Graphene oxide (GO) is currently the object of extensive research because of its potential use in mass production of graphene-based materials, but also due to its tunability which holds great promise for new nanoscale electronic devices and sensors. To obtain a better understanding of the role of GO in electronic nano-devices, the elucidation of the effects of electrical current on a single GO sheet is of great interest. In this work, in situ transmission electron microscopy is used to study the effects of the electrical current flow through single GO sheets using an scanning tunneling microscope holder. In order to correlate the applied current with the structural properties of GO, Raman spectroscopy is carried out and data analysis is used to obtain information regarding the reduction grade and the disorder degree of the GO sheets before and after the application of current.

8.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(4)2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621198

RESUMO

The manufacturing of semiconducting films using solution-based approaches is considered a low cost alternative to vacuum-based thin film deposition strategies. An additional advantage of solution processing methods is the possibility to control the layer nano/microstructure. Here, we detail the production of mesoporous CuGaS2 (CGS) and ZnS layers from spin-coating and subsequent cross-linking through chalcogen-chalcogen bonds of properly functionalized nanocrystals (NCs). We further produce NC-based porous CGS/ZnS bilayers and NC-based CGS-ZnS composite layers using the same strategy. Photoelectrochemical measurements are used to demonstrate the efficacy of porous layers, and particularly the CGS/ZnS bilayers, for improved current densities and photoresponses relative to denser films deposited from as-produced NCs.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(18): 16041-16048, 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672016

RESUMO

We present a novel method to produce crystalline oxide aerogels which is based on the cross-linking of preformed colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) triggered by propylene oxide (PO). Ceria and titania were used to illustrate this new approach. Ceria and titania colloidal NCs with tuned geometry and crystal facets were produced in solution from the decomposition of a suitable salt in the presence of oleylamine (OAm). The native surface ligands were replaced by amino acids, rendering the NCs colloidally stable in polar solvents. The NC colloidal solution was then gelled by adding PO, which gradually stripped the ligands from the NC surface, triggering a slow NC aggregation. NC-based metal oxide aerogels displayed both high surface areas and excellent crystallinity associated with the crystalline nature of the constituent building blocks, even without any annealing step. Such NC-based metal oxide aerogels showed higher thermal stability compared with aerogels directly produced from ionic precursors using conventional sol-gel chemistry strategies.

10.
Ultramicroscopy ; 185: 42-48, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182918

RESUMO

In this work, the use of cluster analysis algorithms, widely applied in the field of big data, is proposed to explore and analyze electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) data sets. Three different data clustering approaches have been tested both with simulated and experimental data from Fe3O4/Mn3O4 core/shell nanoparticles. The first method consists on applying data clustering directly to the acquired spectra. A second approach is to analyze spectral variance with principal component analysis (PCA) within a given data cluster. Lastly, data clustering on PCA score maps is discussed. The advantages and requirements of each approach are studied. Results demonstrate how clustering is able to recover compositional and oxidation state information from EELS data with minimal user input, giving great prospects for its usage in EEL spectroscopy.

11.
Langmuir ; 33(39): 10351-10365, 2017 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895402

RESUMO

It has been long known that the physical encapsulation of oleic acid-capped iron oxide nanoparticles (OA-IONPs) with the cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA+) surfactant induces the formation of spherical iron oxide nanoparticle clusters (IONPCs). However, the behavior and functional properties of IONPCs in chemical reactions have been largely neglected and are still not well-understood. Herein, we report an unconventional ligand-exchange function of IONPCs activated when dispersed in an ethyl acetate/acetate buffer system. The ligand exchange can successfully transform hydrophobic OA-IONP building blocks of IONPCs into highly hydrophilic, acetate-capped iron oxide nanoparticles (Ac-IONPs). More importantly, we demonstrate that the addition of silica precursors (tetraethyl orthosilicate and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane) to the acetate/oleate ligand-exchange reaction of the IONPs induces the disassembly of the IONPCs into monodispersed iron oxide-acetate-silica core-shell-shell (IONPs@acetate@SiO2) nanoparticles. Our observations evidence that the formation of IONPs@acetate@SiO2 nanoparticles is initiated by a unique micellar fusion mechanism between the Pickering-type emulsions of IONPCs and nanoemulsions of silica precursors formed under ethyl acetate buffered conditions. A dynamic rearrangement of the CTA+-oleate bilayer on the IONPC surfaces is proposed to be responsible for the templating process of the silica shells around the individual IONPs. In comparison to previously reported methods in the literature, our work provides a much more detailed experimental evidence of the silica-coating mechanism in a nanoemulsion system. Overall, ethyl acetate is proven to be a very efficient agent for an effortless preparation of monodispersed IONPs@acetate@SiO2 and hydrophilic Ac-IONPs from IONPCs.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(36): 30872-30879, 2017 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28829574

RESUMO

Resistant and efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are desired to replace scarce and commercially expensive platinum electrodes. Thin-film electrodes of metal carbides are a promising alternative due to their reduced price and similar catalytic properties. However, most of the studied structures neglect long-lasting chemical and structural stability, focusing only on electrochemical efficiency. Herein we report on a new approach to easily deposit and control the micro/nanostructure of thin-film electrodes based on niobium carbide (NbC) and their electrocatalytic response. We will show that, by improving the mechanical properties of the NbC electrodes, microstructure and mechanical resilience can be obtained while maintaining high electrocatalytic response. We also address the influence of other parameters such as conductivity and chemical composition on the overall performance of the thin-film electrodes. Finally, we show that nanocomposite NbC electrodes are promising candidates toward HER and, furthermore, that the methodology presented here is suitable to produce other transition-metal carbides with improved catalytic and mechanical properties.

13.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 12(1): 336, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28482648

RESUMO

Recently, colored H-doped TiO2 (H-TiO2) has demonstrated enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance due to its unique crystalline core-disordered shell nanostructures and consequent enhanced conduction behaviors between the core-shell homo-interfaces. Although various hydrogenation approaches to obtain H-TiO2 have been developed, such as high temperature hydrogen furnace tube annealing, high pressure hydrogen annealing, hydrogen-plasma assisted reaction, aluminum reduction and electrochemical reduction etc., there is still a lack of a hydrogenation approach in a controlled manner where all processing parameters (temperature, time and hydrogen flux) were precisely controlled in order to improve the PEC performance of H-TiO2 and understand the physical insight of enhanced PEC performance. Here, we report for the first time a controlled and local rapid thermal annealing (RTA) approach to prepare hydrogenated core-shell H-TiO2 nanorods grown on F:SnO2 (FTO) substrate in order to address the degradation issue of FTO in the typical TiO2 nanorods/FTO system observed in the conventional non-RTA treated approaches. Without the FTO degradation in the RTA approach, we systematically studied the intrinsic relationship between the annealing temperature, structural, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties in order to understand the role of the disordered shell on the improved photoelectrochemical behavior of H-TiO2 nanorods. Our investigation shows that the improvement of PEC performance could be attributed to (i) band gap narrowing from 3.0 to 2.9 eV; (ii) improved optical absorption in the visible range induced by the three-dimensional (3D) morphology and rough surface of the disordered shell; (iii) increased proper donor density; (iv) enhanced electron-hole separation and injection efficiency due to the formation of disordered shell after hydrogenation. The RTA approach developed here can be used as a suitable hydrogenation process for TiO2 nanorods/FTO system for important applications such as photocatalysis, hydrogen generation from water splitting and solar energy conversion.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(33): 23264-76, 2016 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27499340

RESUMO

We present a detailed examination of a multiple InxGa1-xN quantum well (QW) structure for optoelectronic applications. The characterization is carried out using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), combining high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Fluctuations in the QW thickness and composition are observed in atomic resolution images. The impact of these small changes on the electronic properties of the semiconductor material is measured through spatially localized low-loss EELS, obtaining band gap and plasmon energy values. Because of the small size of the InGaN QW layers additional effects hinder the analysis. Hence, additional parameters were explored, which can be assessed using the same EELS data and give further information. For instance, plasmon width was studied using a model-based fit approach to the plasmon peak; observing a broadening of this peak can be related to the chemical and structural inhomogeneity in the InGaN QW layers. Additionally, Kramers-Kronig analysis (KKA) was used to calculate the complex dielectric function (CDF) from the EELS spectrum images (SIs). After this analysis, the electron effective mass and the sample absolute thickness were obtained, and an alternative method for the assessment of plasmon energy was demonstrated. Also after KKA, the normalization of the energy-loss spectrum allows us to analyze the Ga 3d transition, which provides additional chemical information at great spatial resolution. Each one of these methods is presented in this work together with a critical discussion of their advantages and drawbacks.

15.
Nano Lett ; 16(8): 5068-73, 2016 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383904

RESUMO

The physicochemical properties used in numerous advanced nanostructured devices are directly controlled by the oxidation states of their constituents. In this work we combine electron energy-loss spectroscopy, blind source separation, and computed tomography to reconstruct in three dimensions the distribution of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions in a FeO/Fe3O4 core/shell cube-shaped nanoparticle with nanometric resolution. The results highlight the sharpness of the interface between both oxides and provide an average shell thickness, core volume, and average cube edge length measurements in agreement with the magnetic characterization of the sample.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(12): 8232-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26953934

RESUMO

The long-term stability of InGaN photoanodes in liquid environments is an essential requirement for their use in photoelectrochemistry. In this paper, we investigate the relationships between the compositional changes at the surface of n-type In(x)Ga(1-x)N (x ∼ 0.10) and its photoelectrochemical stability in phosphate buffer solutions with pH 7.4 and 11.3. Surface analyses reveal that InGaN undergoes oxidation under photoelectrochemical operation conditions (i.e., under solar light illumination and constant bias of 0.5 VRHE), forming a thin amorphous oxide layer having a pH-dependent chemical composition. We found that the formed oxide is mainly composed of Ga-O bonds at pH 7.4, whereas at pH 11.3 the In-O bonds are dominant. The photoelectrical properties of InGaN photoanodes are intimately related to the chemical composition of their surface oxides. For instance, after the formation of the oxide layer (mainly Ga-O bonds) at pH 7.4, no photocurrent flow was observed, whereas the oxide layer (mainly In-O bonds) at pH 11.3 contributes to enhance the photocurrent, possibly because of its reported high photocatalytic activity. Once a critical oxide thickness was reached, especially at pH 7.4, no significant changes in the photoelectrical properties were observed for the rest of the test duration. This study provides new insights into the oxidation processes occurring at the InGaN/liquid interface, which can be exploited to improve InGaN stability and enhance photoanode performance for biosensing and water-splitting applications.

17.
Microsc Microanal ; 22(3): 706-16, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26868876

RESUMO

In the present work, the dielectric response of III-nitride semiconductors is studied using density functional theory (DFT) band structure calculations. The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the features in the low-loss electron energy-loss spectra of ternary alloys, but the results are also relevant to optical and UV spectroscopy results. In addition, the dependence of the most remarkable features with composition is tested, i.e. applying Vegard's law to band gap and plasmon energy. For this purpose, three wurtzite ternary alloys, from the combination of binaries AlN, GaN, and InN, were simulated through a wide compositional range (i.e., Al x Ga1-x N, In x Al1-x N, and In x Ga1-x N, with x=[0,1]). For this DFT calculations, the standard tools found in Wien2k software were used. In order to improve the band structure description of these semiconductor compounds, the modified Becke-Johnson exchange-correlation potential was also used. Results from these calculations are presented, including band structure, density of states, and complex dielectric function for the whole compositional range. Larger, closer to experimental values, band gap energies are predicted using the novel potential, when compared with standard generalized gradient approximation. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the collective excitation features in the dielectric response reveals their compositional dependence, which sometimes departs from a linear behavior (bowing). Finally, an advantageous method for measuring the plasmon energy dependence from these calculations is explained.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(6): 4109-17, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26804742

RESUMO

A new strategy to minimize magnetic interactions between nanowires (NWs) dispersed in a fluid is proposed. Such a strategy consists of preparing trisegmented NWs containing two antiparallel ferromagnetic segments with dissimilar coercivity separated by a nonmagnetic spacer. The trisegmented NWs exhibit a staircase-like hysteresis loop with tunable shape that depends on the relative length of the soft- and hard-magnetic segments and the respective values of saturation magnetization. Such NWs are prepared by electrodepositing CoPt/Cu/Ni in a polycarbonate (PC) membrane. The antiparallel alignment is set by applying suitable magnetic fields while the NWs are still embedded in the PC membrane. Analytic calculations are used to demonstrate that the interaction magnetic energy from fully compensated trisegmented NWs with antiparallel alignment is reduced compared to a single-component NW with the same length or the trisegmented NWs with the two ferromagnetic counterparts parallel to each other. The proposed approach is appealing for the use of magnetic NWs in certain biological or catalytic applications where the aggregation of NWs is detrimental for optimized performance.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(44): 24409-18, 2015 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26477357

RESUMO

(001)-Epitaxial La2WO6 (LWO) thin films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The α-phase (high-temperature phase in bulk) is successfully stabilized with an orthorhombic structure (a = 16.585(1) Å, b = 5.717(2) Å, c = 8.865(5) Å). X-ray-diffraction pole-figure measurements suggest that crystallographic relationships between the film and substrate are [100]LWO ∥ [110]STO, [010]LWO ∥ [11̅0]STO and [001]LWO ∥ [001]STO. From optical properties, investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry, we extract a refractive-index value around 2 (at 500 nm) along with the presence of two absorption bands situated, respectively at 3.07 and 6.32 eV. Ferroelectricity is evidenced as well on macroscale (standard polarization measurements) as on nanoscale, calling for experiments based on piezo-response force-microscopy, and confirmed with in situ scanning-and-tunneling measurements performed with a transmission electron microscope. This work highlights the ferroelectric behavior, at room temperature, in high-temperature LWO phase when stabilized in thin film and opens the way to new functional oxide thin films dedicated to advanced electronic devices.

20.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 453: 260-269, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25989057

RESUMO

Anisotropic and branched gold nanoparticles have great potential in optical, chemical and biomedical applications. However their syntheses involve multi-step protocols and the use of cytotoxic agents. Here, we report a novel one-step method for the preparation of gold nanostructures using only Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines as mild reducing agents. The substituent pattern of the dihydropyridine nucleus was closely related to the ease of formation, morphology and stability of the nanoparticles. We observed nanostructures such as spheres, rods, triangles, pentagons, hexagons, flowers, stars and amorphous. We focused mainly on the synthesis and characterization of well-defined gold nanostars, which were produced quickly at room temperature (25°C) in high yield and homogeneity. These nanostars presented an average size of 68 nm with mostly four or six tips. Based on our findings, we propose that the growth of the nanostars occurs in the (111) lattice plane due to a preferential deposition of the gold atoms in the early stages of particle formation. Furthermore, the nanostars were easily modified with peptides remaining stable for more than six months in their colloidal state and showing a better stability than unmodified nanostars in different conditions. We report a new approach using dihydropyridines for the straightforward synthesis of gold nanostructures with controlled shape, feasible for use in future applications.


Assuntos
Di-Hidropiridinas/química , Ouro/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Substâncias Redutoras/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos
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