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1.
Small ; 14(30): e1800804, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952138

RESUMO

Understanding the microstructure in heterostructured nanoparticles is crucial to harnessing their properties. Although microscopy is ideal for this purpose, it allows for the analysis of only a few nanoparticles. Thus, there is a need for structural methods that take the whole sample into account. Here, a novel bulk-approach based on the combined analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction with whole powder pattern modeling, Rietveld and pair distribution function is presented. The microstructural temporal evolution of FeO/Fe3 O4 core/shell nanocubes is studied at different time intervals. The results indicate that a two-phase approach (FeO and Fe3 O4 ) is not sufficient to successfully fit the data and two additional interface phases (FeO and Fe3 O4 ) are needed to obtain satisfactory fits, i.e., an onion-type structure. The analysis shows that the Fe3 O4 phases grow to some extent (≈1 nm) at the expense of the FeO core. Moreover, the FeO core progressively changes its stoichiometry to accommodate more oxygen. The temporal evolution of the parameters indicates that the structure of the FeO/Fe3 O4 nanocubes is rather stable, although the exact interface structure slightly evolves with time. This approach paves the way for average studies of interfaces in different kinds of heterostructured nanoparticles, particularly in cases where spectroscopic methods have some limitations.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(33): 10579-10583, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893037

RESUMO

The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is a structure-sensitive exothermic reaction that enables catalytic transformation of syngas to high quality liquid fuels. Now, monolithic cobalt-based heterogeneous catalysts were elaborated through a wet chemistry approach that allows control over nanocrystal shape and crystallographic phase, while at the same time enables heat management. Copper and nickel foams have been employed as supports for the epitaxial growth of hcp-Co nanowires directly from a solution containing a coordination compound of cobalt and stabilizing ligands. The Co/Cufoam catalyst was tested for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a fixed-bed reactor, showing stability and significantly superior activity and selectivity towards C5+ compared to a Co/SiO2 -Al2 O3 reference catalyst under the same conditions.

3.
Small ; 14(15): e1703963, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479814

RESUMO

Although cubic rock salt-CoO has been extensively studied, the magnetic properties of the main nanoscale CoO polymorphs (hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc blende structures) are rather poorly understood. Here, a detailed magnetic and neutron diffraction study on zinc blende and wurtzite CoO nanoparticles is presented. The zinc blende-CoO phase is antiferromagnetic with a 3rd type structure in a face-centered cubic lattice and a Néel temperature of TN (zinc-blende) ≈225 K. Wurtzite-CoO also presents an antiferromagnetic order, TN (wurtzite) ≈109 K, although much more complex, with a 2nd type order along the c-axis but an incommensurate order along the y-axis. Importantly, the overall magnetic properties are overwhelmed by the uncompensated spins, which confer the system a ferromagnetic-like behavior even at room temperature.

4.
Ultramicroscopy ; 185: 42-48, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182918

RESUMO

In this work, the use of cluster analysis algorithms, widely applied in the field of big data, is proposed to explore and analyze electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) data sets. Three different data clustering approaches have been tested both with simulated and experimental data from Fe3O4/Mn3O4 core/shell nanoparticles. The first method consists on applying data clustering directly to the acquired spectra. A second approach is to analyze spectral variance with principal component analysis (PCA) within a given data cluster. Lastly, data clustering on PCA score maps is discussed. The advantages and requirements of each approach are studied. Results demonstrate how clustering is able to recover compositional and oxidation state information from EELS data with minimal user input, giving great prospects for its usage in EEL spectroscopy.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(49): 15622-15627, 2017 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057559

RESUMO

A bis(pyrazolylpyridyl) ligand, L, containing a central photochromic dithienylethene spacer predictably forms a ferrous [Fe2 L3 ]4+ helicate exhibiting spin crossover (SCO). In solution, the compound [Fe2 L3 ](ClO4 )4 (1) preserves the magnetic properties and is fluorescent. The structure of 1 is photo-switchable following the reversible ring closure/opening of the central dithienylethene via irradiation with UV/visible light. This photoisomerization switches on and off some emission bands of 1 and provides a means of externally manipulating the magnetic properties of the assembly.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 56(12): 7048-7057, 2017 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28590121

RESUMO

The interaction of Mn(ClO4)2·6H2O with salicylaldoxime (H2sao) in the presence of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) sodium diclofenac (Nadicl) or indomethacin (Hindo) leads to the formation of the hexanuclear Mn(III) clusters [Mn6(O)2(dicl)2(sao)6(CH3OH)6] (1) and [Mn6(O)2(indo)2(sao)6(H2O)4] (2) both characterized as stepladder inverse-9-metallacrown-3 accommodating dicl- or indo- ligands, respectively. When the interaction of MnCl2·4H2O with Nadicl or Hindo is in the absence of H2sao, the mononuclear Mn(II) complexes [Mn(dicl)2(CH3OH)4] (3) and [Mn(indo)2(CH3OH)4] (4) were isolated. The complexes were characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques, and the structure of complexes 1 and 2 was characterized by X-ray crystallography. Magnetic measurements (dc and ac) were carried out in order to investigate the nature of magnetic interactions between the magnetic ions and the overall magnetic behavior of the complexes.

7.
Chemistry ; 23(55): 13648-13659, 2017 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28621917

RESUMO

Controlling the charges and spins of molecules lies at the heart of spintronics. A photoswitchable molecule consisting of two independent spins separated by a photoswitchable moiety was designed in the form of new ligand H4 L, which features a dithienylethene photochromic unit and two lateral coordinating moieties, and yields molecules with [MM⋅⋅⋅MM] topology. Compounds [M4 L2 (py)6 ] (M=Cu, 1; Co, 2; Ni, 3; Zn, 4) were prepared and studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD). Different metal centers can be selectively distributed among the two chemically distinct sites of the ligand, and this enables the preparation of many double-spin systems. Heterometallic [MM'⋅⋅⋅M'M] analogues with formulas [Cu2 Ni2 L2 (py)6 ] (5), [Co2 Ni2 L2 (py)6 ] (6), [Co2 Cu2 L2 (py)6 ] (7), [Cu2 Zn2 L2 (py)6 ] (8), and [Ni2 Zn2 L2 (py)6 ] (9) were prepared and analyzed by SCXRD. Their composition was established unambiguously. All complexes exhibit two weakly interacting [MM'] moieties, some of which embody two-level quantum systems. Compounds 5 and 8 each exhibit a pair of weakly coupled S=1/2 spins that show quantum coherence in pulsed Q-band EPR spectroscopy, as required for quantum computing, with good phase memory times (TM =3.59 and 6.03 µs at 7 K). Reversible photoswitching of all the molecules was confirmed in solution. DFT calculations on 5 indicate that the interaction between the two spins of the molecule can be switched on and off on photocyclization.

8.
Nano Lett ; 16(8): 5068-73, 2016 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383904

RESUMO

The physicochemical properties used in numerous advanced nanostructured devices are directly controlled by the oxidation states of their constituents. In this work we combine electron energy-loss spectroscopy, blind source separation, and computed tomography to reconstruct in three dimensions the distribution of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions in a FeO/Fe3O4 core/shell cube-shaped nanoparticle with nanometric resolution. The results highlight the sharpness of the interface between both oxides and provide an average shell thickness, core volume, and average cube edge length measurements in agreement with the magnetic characterization of the sample.

9.
Nanoscale ; 7(7): 3002-15, 2015 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25600147

RESUMO

The intimate relationship between stoichiometry and physicochemical properties in transition-metal oxides makes them appealing as tunable materials. These features become exacerbated when dealing with nanostructures. However, due to the complexity of nanoscale materials, establishing a distinct relationship between structure-morphology and functionalities is often complicated. In this regard, in the FexO/Fe3O4 system a largely unexplained broad dispersion of magnetic properties has been observed. Here we show, thanks to a comprehensive multi-technique approach, a clear correlation between the magneto-structural properties in large (45 nm) and small (9 nm) FexO/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles that can explain the spread of magnetic behaviors. The results reveal that while the FexO core in the large nanoparticles is antiferromagnetic and has bulk-like stoichiometry and unit-cell parameters, the FexO core in the small particles is highly non-stoichiometric and strained, displaying no significant antiferromagnetism. These results highlight the importance of ample characterization to fully understand the properties of nanostructured metal oxides.

10.
Nanoscale ; 6(20): 11911-20, 2014 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25174899

RESUMO

Core-shell nanoparticles attract continuously growing interest due to their numerous applications, which are driven by the possibility of tuning their functionalities by adjusting structural and morphological parameters. However, despite the critical role interdiffused interfaces may have in the properties, these are usually only estimated in indirect ways. Here we directly evidence the existence of a 1.1 nm thick (Fe,Mn)3O4 interdiffused intermediate shell in nominally γ-Fe2O3-Mn3O4 core-shell nanoparticles using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy combined with magnetic circular dichroism (RIXS-MCD). This recently developed magneto-spectroscopic probe exploits the unique advantages of hard X-rays (i.e., chemical selectivity, bulk sensitivity, and low self-absorption at the K pre-edge) and can be advantageously combined with transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy to quantitatively elucidate the buried internal structure of complex objects. The detailed information on the structure of the nanoparticles allows understanding the influence of the interface quality on the magnetic properties.

11.
Microsc Microanal ; 20(3): 698-705, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24750576

RESUMO

Physicochemical properties of transition metal oxides are directly determined by the oxidation state of the metallic cations. To address the increasing need to accurately evaluate the oxidation states of transition metal oxide systems at the nanoscale, here we present "Oxide Wizard." This script for Digital Micrograph characterizes the energy-loss near-edge structure and the position of the transition metal edges in the electron energy-loss spectrum. These characteristics of the edges can be linked to the oxidation states of transition metals with high spatial resolution. The power of the script is demonstrated by mapping manganese oxidation states in Fe3O4/Mn3O4 core/shell nanoparticles with sub-nanometer resolution in real space.

12.
Nanoscale ; 5(12): 5561-7, 2013 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23681182

RESUMO

The controlled filling of the pores of highly ordered mesoporous antiferromagnetic Co3O4 replicas with ferrimagnetic FexCo3-xO4 nanolayers is presented as a proof-of-concept toward the integration of nanosized units in highly ordered, heterostructured 3D architectures. Antiferromagnetic (AFM) Co3O4 mesostructures are obtained as negative replicas of KIT-6 silica templates, which are subsequently coated with ferrimagnetic (FiM) FexCo3-xO4 nanolayers. The tuneable magnetic properties, with a large exchange bias and coercivity, arising from the FiM/AFM interface coupling, confirm the microstructure of this novel two-phase core-shell mesoporous material. The present work demonstrates that ordered functional mesoporous 3D-materials can be successfully infiltrated with other compounds exhibiting additional functionalities yielding highly tuneable, versatile, non-siliceous based nanocomposites.

13.
ACS Nano ; 7(2): 921-31, 2013 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23320459

RESUMO

Here it is demonstrated that multiple-energy, anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) provides significant enhancement in sensitivity to internal material boundaries of layered nanoparticles compared with the traditional modeling of a single scattering energy, even for cases in which high scattering contrast naturally exists. Specifically, the material-specific structure of monodispersed Fe3O4|γ-Mn2O3 core|shell nanoparticles is determined, and the contribution of each component to the total scattering profile is identified with unprecedented clarity. We show that Fe3O4|γ-Mn2O3 core|shell nanoparticles with a diameter of 8.2 ± 0.2 nm consist of a core with a composition near Fe3O4 surrounded by a (Mn(x)Fe(1-x))3O4 shell with a graded composition, ranging from x ≈ 0.40 at the inner shell toward x ≈ 0.46 at the surface. Evaluation of the scattering contribution arising from the interference between material-specific layers additionally reveals the presence of Fe3O4 cores without a coating shell. Finally, it is found that the material-specific scattering profile shapes and chemical compositions extracted by this method are independent of the original input chemical compositions used in the analysis, revealing multiple-energy ASAXS as a powerful tool for determining internal nanostructured morphology even if the exact composition of the individual layers is not known a priori.

14.
Ultramicroscopy ; 122: 12-8, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22974761

RESUMO

Electron tomography is a widely spread technique for recovering the three dimensional (3D) shape of nanostructured materials. Using a spectroscopic signal to achieve a reconstruction adds a fourth chemical dimension to the 3D structure. Up to date, energy filtering of the images in the transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) is the usual spectroscopic method even if most of the information in the spectrum is lost. Unlike EFTEM tomography, the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum images (SI) for tomographic reconstruction retains all chemical information, and the possibilities of this new approach still remain to be fully exploited. In this article we prove the feasibility of EEL spectroscopic tomography at low voltages (80 kV) and short acquisition times from data acquired using an aberration corrected instrument and data treatment by Multivariate Analysis (MVA), applied to Fe(x)Co((3-x))O(4)@Co(3)O(4) mesoporous materials. This approach provides a new scope into materials; the recovery of full EELS signal in 3D.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(42): 16738-41, 2011 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21973012

RESUMO

Magnetic multilayered, onion-like, heterostructured nanoparticles are interesting model systems for studying magnetic exchange coupling phenomena. In this work, we synthesized heterostructured magnetic nanoparticles composed of two, three, or four components using iron oxide seeds for the subsequent deposition of manganese oxide. The MnO layer was allowed either to passivate fully in air to form an outer layer of Mn(3)O(4) or to oxidize partially to form MnO|Mn(3)O(4) double layers. Through control of the degree of passivation of the seeds, particles with up to four different magnetic layers can be obtained (i.e., FeO|Fe(3)O(4)|MnO|Mn(3)O(4)). Magnetic characterization of the samples confirmed the presence of the different magnetic layers.

16.
Dalton Trans ; 39(32): 7474-84, 2010 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20625577

RESUMO

Three novel mixed bridged trinuclear and one tetranuclear copper(II) complexes of tridentate NNO donor Schiff base ligands [Cu(3)(L(1))(2)(mu(1,1)-N(3))(2)(CH(3)OH)(2)(BF(4))(2)] (1), [Cu(3)(L(1))(2)(mu(1,1)-N(3))(2)(mu-NO(3)-1kappaO:2kappaO')(2)] (2), [Cu(3)(L(2))(2)(mu(1,1)-N(3))(2)(mu-NO(3)-1kappaO:2kappaO')(2)] (3) and [Cu(4)(L(3))(2)(mu(1,1)-N(3))(4)(mu-CH(3)COO-1kappaO:2kappaO')(2)] (4) have been synthesized by reaction of the respective tridentate ligands (L(1) = 2-[1-(2-dimethylamino-ethylimino)-ethyl]-phenol, L(2) = 2-[1-(2-diethylamino-ethylimino)-ethyl]-phenol, L(3) = 2-[1-(2-dimethylamino-ethylimino)-methyl]-phenol) with the corresponding copper(ii) salts in the presence of NaN(3). The complexes are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and variable-temperature magnetic measurements. Complex 1 is composed of two terminal [Cu(L(1))(mu(1,1)-N(3))] units connected by a central [Cu(BF(4))(2)] unit through nitrogen atoms of end-on azido ligands and a phenoxo oxygen atom of the tridentate ligand. The structures of 2 and 3 are very similar; the only difference is that the central unit is [Cu(NO(3))(2)] and the nitrate group forms an additional mu-NO(3)-1kappaO:2kappaO' bridge between the terminal and central copper atoms. In complex 4, the central unit is a di-mu(1,1)-N(3) bridged dicopper entity, [Cu(2)(mu(1,1)-N(3))(2)(CH(3)COO)(2)] that connects two terminal [Cu(L(3))(mu(1,1)-N(3))] units through end-on azido, phenoxo oxygen and mu-CH(3)COO-1kappaO:2kappaO' triple bridges to result in a tetranuclear unit. Analyses of variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data indicates that there is a global weak antiferromagnetic interaction between the copper(II) ions in complexes 1-3, with the exchange parameter J of -9.86, -11.6 and -19.98 cm(-1) for 1-3, respectively. In complex 4 theoretical calculations show the presence of an antiferromagnetic coupling in the triple bridging ligands (acetato, phenoxo and azido) while the interaction through the double end-on azido bridging ligand is strongly ferromagnetic.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 132(27): 9398-407, 2010 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20568759

RESUMO

The magnetic properties of bimagnetic core/shell nanoparticles consisting of an antiferromagnetic MnO core and a ferrimagnetic passivation shell have been investigated. It is found that the phase of the passivation shell (gamma-Mn(2)O(3) or Mn(3)O(4)) depends on the size of the nanoparticles. Structural and magnetic characterizations concur that while the smallest nanoparticles have a predominantly gamma-Mn(2)O(3) shell, larger ones have increasing amounts of Mn(3)O(4). A considerable enhancement of the Néel temperature, T(N), and the magnetic anisotropy of the MnO core for decreasing core sizes has been observed. The size reduction also leads to other phenomena such as persistent magnetic moment in MnO up to high temperatures and an unusual temperature behavior of the magnetic domains.

18.
Dalton Trans ; (25): 5015-22, 2009 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19662294

RESUMO

Three new polynuclear copper(II) complexes of singly deprotonated L-glutamic acid (L-glu), {[Cu(bipy)2][Cu(bipy)(L-glu)H2O]2(BF4)4 x (H2O)3}n (1), {[Cu(bipy)(L-glu)H2O][Cu(bipy)(L-glu)(ClO4)](ClO4) x (H2O)2}n (2) and [Cu(phen)(L-glu)H2O]2(NO3)2 x (H2O)4 (3) (bipy = 2,2-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), were synthesized in acidic pH (ca. 2.5) and characterized structurally. In all the complexes, L-glutamic acid acts as a bidentate chelating ligand, leaving the protonated carboxylic acid free. Both in 1 and 2, two different types of species [Cu(bipy)2](BF4)2 and [Cu(bipy)(L-glu)H2O]BF4 for 1 and [Cu(bipy)(L-glu)H2O]ClO4 and [Cu(bipy)(L-glu)(ClO4)] for 2 coexist in the solid state. In complex 1, the [Cu(bipy)(L-glu)H2O]+ units are joined together by syn-anti carboxylate bridges to form an enantiopure (M) helical chain and the [Cu(bipy)2]2+ presents a very rare example of the four-coordinate distorted tetrahedral geometry of Cu(II). In complex 2, the [Cu(bipy)(L-glu)(ClO4)] units are joined together by weakly coordinating perchlorate ions to form a 1D polymeric chain while the [Cu(bipy)(L-glu)H2O]+ units remain as mononuclear species. The different coordinating ability of the two counter anions along with their involvement in the H-bonding network seems likely to be responsible for the difference in the final polymeric structures in the two compounds. Variable-temperature (2-300 K) magnetic susceptibility measurements show negligible coupling for both the complexes. The structure of 3 consists of two independent monomeric [Cu(phen)(L-glu)H2O]+ cations, two nitrate anions and four water molecules. The copper atom occupies a five-coordinate square pyramidal environment with a water molecule in the axial position.


Assuntos
2,2'-Dipiridil/química , Ânions/química , Cobre/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ácido Glutâmico/química , Fenantrolinas/química , 2,2'-Dipiridil/síntese química , Ânions/síntese química , Quelantes/química , Ácido Glutâmico/síntese química , Magnetismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Fenantrolinas/síntese química
19.
Inorg Chem ; 47(17): 7784-91, 2008 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18671389

RESUMO

Formation of a quasi-symmetrical mu 3-carbonato-bridged self-assembled heteromolecular triangle of Ni(II), [(mu 3-CO 3){Ni 2(salmeNH) 2(NCS) 2}{Ni(salmeNH 2) 2].Et 2O.H 2O (HsalmeNH = 2-[(3-methylamino-propylimino)-methyl]-phenol) involves atmospheric CO 2 uptake in a neutral medium, by spontaneous self-reorganization of the starting mononuclear Ni(II)-Schiff-base complex, [Ni(salmeNH) 2]. The environment around Ni(II) in two of the subunits is different from the third one. The starting complex, [Ni(salmeNH) 2], and one of the possible intermediate species, [Ni(salmeNH 2) 2(NCS) 2], which has a very similar coordination environment to that in the third Ni(II) center, have been characterized structurally. A plausible mechanism for the formation of such a triangle has also been proposed. The compound shows a very strong antiferromagnetic coupling. Fit as a regular triangular arrangement gave J = -53.1, g = 2.24, and R = 1.5 x 10 (-4).

20.
Inorg Chem ; 45(20): 8239-50, 2006 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16999423

RESUMO

The reaction of Ln(NO3)3.aq with K3[Cr(CN)6] and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) in a water/ethanol solution led to two families of complexes: 4 one-dimensional (1D) complexes of the formula trans-[Cr(CN)4(mu-CN)2Ln(H2O)3(bpy)2]n.4nH2O.3.5nbpy (Ln3+ = La, Ce, Pr, and Nd) and 10 1D complexes of the formula trans-[Cr(CN)4(mu-CN)2Ln(H2O)4(bpy)]n.3.5nH2O.1.5nbpy (Ln3+ = Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu). The structures for the fourteen complexes [LaCr]n (1), [CeCr]n (2), [PrCr]n (3), [NdCr]n (4), [NdCr]n (4'), [SmCr]n (5), [EuCr]n (6), [TbCr]n (7), [DyCr]n (8), [HoCr]n (9), [ErCr]n (10), [TmCr]n (11), [YbCr]n (12), and [LuCr]n (13) have been solved. Complexes 1-4 crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pbam and are isomorphous; complexes 4'-13 crystallize in the triclinic space group PI and are isomorphous. The X-ray structural characterization of complexes 1-4 shows the presence of a discrete decameric water cluster built around a cyclic hexameric core stabilized by the solid-state structure, which represents another new mode of association of water molecules. The Ln3+-Cr3+ magnetic interaction is negligible in 6 and 12, antiferromagnetic in 2, 4', 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11, and unresolved for 3. The complex 5 is a ferrimagnet because its magnetic studies suggest the onset of a very weak ferromagnetic three-dimensional ordering.

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