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1.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-10, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442137

RESUMO

We conducted a phase Ib/II multi-arm, parallel cohort study to simultaneously evaluate various immunotherapeutic agents and combinations in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Overall, 50 patients were enrolled into one of 6 arms: (A) single agent PF-04518600 (OX40 agonist monoclonal antibody), (B) azacitidine + venetoclax + gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), (C) azacitidine + avelumab (anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody) + GO, (D) azacitidine + venetoclax + avelumab, (E) azacitidine + avelumab + PF-04518600, and (F) glasdegib + GO. Among all regimens evaluated, azacitidine + venetoclax + GO appeared most promising. In this arm, the CR/CRi rates among venetoclax-naïve and prior venetoclax-exposed patients were 50% and 22%, respectively, and the 1-year OS rate was 31%. This study shows the feasibility of a conducting a multi-arm trial to efficiently and simultaneously evaluate novel therapies in AML, a needed strategy in light of the plethora of emerging therapies. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03390296.

2.
Leukemia ; 36(5): 1324-1335, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35149845

RESUMO

Interactions between chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and T-cell subsets in the lymph node microenvironment are thought to play a central role in disease biology. To study these interactions in a model of the CLL lymph node microenvironment, we characterized T-cell subsets in CLL nurselike cell (NLC) co-cultures. We focused on T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells, which are characterized by CXCR5 expression and localization to B-cell follicles. In co-cultures from 28 different CLL patients, we detected an expansion of Tfh cells based on PD-1, BCL6, and ICOS expression, with increased IL-21 and downmodulated CD40L surface expression. Regulatory T cells (Treg), which promote immune tolerance, also expanded in NLC co-cultures. T-cell receptor (TR) gene repertoire analyses confirmed the clonal expansion of CD4+ T cells, with an enrichment of TR clonotypes commonly expanded also in primary CLL samples. Multicolor confocal microscopy revealed that Tfh, but not Treg co-localize with proliferating CLL cells in CLL lymph node sections. Collectively, these data provide new insight into the cellular and molecular cross-talk between CLL and T-cell subsets, resulting in clonal expansion of T-helper cells and interaction of Tfh cells with proliferating CLL cells which may open new avenues for therapeutic targeting.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Receptores CXCR5/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
Cancer ; 128(8): 1658-1665, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of myelofibrosis (MF) has changed over the last several years and could have an impact on patient outcome. This study evaluates the survival of patients with MF at the authors' institution to determine whether it changed in the last decade. METHODS: This retrospective study consists of 844 patients (64% male; median age, 66 years; range, 20-90 years) who were examined between 2000 and 2020 with a new diagnosis of MF. Only patients with available marrow biopsy who had reticulin fibrosis of grade 2 or higher were included. Patients were compared by year of presentation: 2000-2010 (n = 373) and 2011-2020 (n = 471). RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement in median survival in the last decade was noted: from 48 months (95% CI, 42-54 months) to 63 months (95% CI, 55-71 months) (P < .001; HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.64-0.95]). Improved survival was observed also in patients 65 years old or older and those having intermediate 2 or high-risk Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) or DIPSS-Plus risk scores. Among 532 patients treated with MF-directed therapy, patients exposed to JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib had superior outcomes with median overall survival of 84 months (95% CI, 70-94 months). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that survival of patients with MF has improved in the last decade. This improvement is likely due to increased disease awareness, advances in supportive care, and the development of effective treatments.


Assuntos
Mielofibrose Primária , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilas , Mielofibrose Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Blood Adv ; 5(16): 3163-3173, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424319

RESUMO

Outcomes in patients with high-risk and treatment-resistant myelofibrosis (MF) post-JAK inhibitor therapy remain poor, with no approved drug therapies beyond the JAK inhibitor class. In certain clinical situations, such as severe thrombocytopenia, administration of most JAK inhibitors are contraindicated. Thus, there is an unmet medical need for the development of novel agents for patients with MF. SMAC mimetics [or inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) antagonists] induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Because these agents are hypothesized to have increased activity in a tumor necrosis factor-α cytokine-rich microenvironment, as is the case with MF, we conducted a single-center, investigator-initiated phase 2 clinical trial, with a monovalent SMAC mimetic LCL161 (oral, starting dose, 1500 mg per week) in patients with intermediate to high-risk MF. In an older group, 66% with ≥2 prior therapies and a median baseline platelet count of 52 × 103/µL and 28% with ASXL1 mutations, we observed a 30% objective response by Revised International Working Group-Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment (IWG-MRT) 2013 criteria. Notably, 6 responding patients achieved clinical improvement of anemia: 4, hemoglobin response; 2, transfusion independence. Median OS was 34 months (range, 2.2-60.1+). Reductions of cIAPs were observed in all responders. The most common toxicity was nausea/vomiting (N/V) in 64% (mostly grade 1/2); fatigue in 46%; and dizziness/vertigo in 30%. There were 4 grade 3/4 adverse events (2, syncope; 1, N/V; 1, skin eruption/pruritis). There were 2 deaths during the study period, both unrelated to the study drug. SMAC mimetics may represent an option for older patients with thrombocytopenia or for those in whom prior JAK inhibitors has failed. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02098161.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mieloproliferativos , Mielofibrose Primária , Apoptose , Humanos , Mielofibrose Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis
5.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(8): 1213-1219, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110383

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Oral targeted therapies have advanced the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These therapies include Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors, used as monotherapy, and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax, typically combined with the CD20 monoclonal antibody. Preclinical studies have shown synergy between Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax. OBJECTIVE: To examine the rate of complete remission, complete remission with incomplete count recovery, and bone marrow-undetectable measurable residual disease (U-MRD) after treatment with the combination of ibrutinib and venetoclax. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A single-center, phase 2 nonrandomized trial enrolled patients from August 17, 2016, to June 5, 2018. Participants included previously untreated patients with CLL who met International Workshop on CLL 2008 criteria for treatment indication. Patients were required to have at least 1 of the following features: del(17p), TP53-mutated CLL, del(11q), unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene, or age 65 years or older. INTERVENTIONS: Therapy consisted of ibrutinib, 420 mg/d, monotherapy for 3 cycles, thereafter combined with venetoclax (standard weekly dose ramp-up to 400 mg/d) for a total of 24 cycles of combination treatment. Responses were assessed at serial points according to International Workshop on CLL 2008 criteria. Measurable residual disease (MRD) was assessed by multicolor flow cytometry with a sensitivity of 10-4. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Outcomes included complete remission, complete remission with incomplete count recovery, and bone marrow U-MRD rate. RESULTS: Eighty patients (57 [71%] men) were treated; median age was 65 years (range, 26-83 years). The median follow-up for all 80 patients was 38.5 months (range, 5.6-51.1 months). Five patients discontinued the study during the ibrutinib monotherapy phase; the remaining 75 patients received combination therapy. On an intent-to-treat analysis of combined treatment, 45 (56%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission at 12 cycles and 53 (66%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission at 24 cycles. Overall, 60 (75%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission as their best response. Responses were seen across all high-risk subgroups, independent of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene mutation status, fluorescence in situ hybridization category, or TP53 mutation. The 3-year progression-free survival was 93%, and 3-year overall survival was 96%. No patient had CLL progression; 2 patients developed Richter transformation. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings of this study suggest that combination therapy with ibrutinib and venetoclax might be beneficial for previously untreated patients with CLL. Remissions appeared to be durable during a follow-up of more than 3 years, with activity seen across high-risk disease subgroups, including those with del(17p)/TP53-mutated CLL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02756897.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperidinas , Sulfonamidas
6.
Br J Haematol ; 194(1): 61-68, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973230

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) rarely presents in adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients (patients aged 15-39 years). Disease characteristics and outcomes of AYA patients with CLL are not well understood, particularly in the era of novel oral targeted therapies. We analysed outcomes of 227 AYA patients with CLL diagnosed in the last two decades and evaluated at our institution. Median time to first treatment (TTFT) was 2·2 years, and five- and 10-year overall survival (OS) were 90% and 78%, respectively. Pre-treatment elevated beta 2-microglobulin, advanced Rai stage, del(11q) or del(17p) by FISH, unmutated IGHV and CD38 positivity were associated with both shorter TTFT and OS. Within the subgroup of patients who received oral targeted therapy at any time, del(11q) or del(17p) and complex karyotype were associated with shorter OS. First-line treatment choice was significantly associated with time to second treatment (P < 0·001). Patients harbouring del(11q) or del(17p) experienced shorter time to Richter transformation and were more likely to undergo an allogeneic stem cell transplant. There was a significant association between age and both OS and time to Richter transformation. Our study is the first analysis of AYA patients with CLL with a large number of patients treated with oral targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Cariótipo Anormal , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Linfoma de Células B/epidemiologia , Masculino , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
7.
Leukemia ; 35(12): 3421-3429, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34007049

RESUMO

Chemoimmunotherapy with combined fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR) has been an effective treatment for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We initiated a phase II trial for previously untreated patients with CLL with mutated IGHV and absence of del(17p)/TP53 mutation. Patients received ibrutinib, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and obinutuzumab (iFCG) for three cycles. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete count recvoery (CRi) with marrow undetectable measurable residual disease (U-MRD) received additional nine cycles of ibrutinib with three cycles of obinutuzumab; all others received nine additional cycles of ibrutinib and obinutuzumab. Patients in marrow U-MRD remission after cycle 12 discontinued all treatment, including ibrutinib. Forty-five patients were treated. The median follow-up is 41.3 months. Among the total 45 treated patients, after three cycles, 38% achieved CR/CRi and 87% achieved marrow U-MRD. After cycle 12, the corresponding numbers were 67% and 91%, respectively. Overall, 44/45 (98%) patients achieved marrow U-MRD as best response. No patient had CLL progression. The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 98% and 98%, respectively. Per trial design, all patients who completed cycle 12 discontinued ibrutinib, providing for a time-limited therapy. Grade 3-4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 58% and 40% patients, respectively. The iFCG regimen with only 3 cycles of chemotherapy is an effective, time-limited regimen for patients with CLL with mutated IGHV and without del(17p)/TP53 mutation.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Adenina/administração & dosagem , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados
8.
Haematologica ; 106(8): 2121-2130, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853292

RESUMO

FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with poor prognosis. We hypothesized that quizartinib, a selective and potent FLT3 inhibitor, with azacitidine (AZA) or low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) might improve the outcomes in patients with FLT3-ITD-mutated AML. In this open-label phase I/II trial, patients of any age receiving first-salvage treatment for FLT3-ITD AML or age >60 years with untreated myelodysplastic syndrome or AML were treated with quizartinib plus AZA or LDAC. Seventy-three patients were treated (34 frontline, 39 first-salvage). Among previously untreated patients, composite response (CRc) was achieved in 13/15 (87%, 8 CR, 4 Cri, 1 CRp) treated with quizartinib/AZA and 14/19 (74%, 1 CR, 8 CRi, 5 CRp) in quizartinib/LDAC. The median OS was 19.2 months for quizartinib/AZA and 8.5 months for quizartinib/LDAC cohort; RFS was 10.5 and 6.4 months, respectively. Among previously treated patients, 16 (64%) achieved CRc in quizartinib/AZA and 4 (29%) in quizartinib/LDAC. The median OS for patients treated with quizartinib/AZA and quizartinib/LDAC was 12.8 vs. 4 months, respectively. QTc prolongation grade 3 occurred in only 1 patient in each cohort. Quizartinib-based combinations, particularly with AZA, appear effective in both frontline and first-salvage for patients with FLT3-ITD-mutated AML and are well tolerated.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Azacitidina , Benzotiazóis , Citarabina , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Compostos de Fenilureia , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
10.
Am J Hematol ; 96(8): 914-924, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901324

RESUMO

The treatment of older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using intensive chemotherapy is associated with treatment intolerance and poor survival. We evaluated two new lower-intensity regimens with clofarabine (n = 119) or cladribine (n = 129) combined with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) alternating with decitabine. We reviewed response rates by subgroup and long term outcomes of 248 patients with newly diagnosed non core-binding-factor AML treated on two clinical trials investigating double nucleoside-analogue therapy (DNT) alternating with HMA from October, 2008 to April, 2018. Of 248 patients with a median age of 69 years (range, 49-85 years), 102 patients (41%) were ≥ 70 years, and 108 (44%) had adverse karyotype. Overall, 164 patients (66%) responded: 147 (59%) complete remission (CR) and 17 (7%) CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi). With a median follow up of 60 months, median relapse-free and overall survival (OS) were 10.8 and 12.5 months, respectively. The 2-year OS was 29%. Among patients with normal karyotype, the CR/CRi rate was 79% and the median OS 19.9 months. High response rates and OS were observed in patients with mutations in NPM1, FLT3, IDH2, and RUNX1. The 4- and 8-week mortality rates were 2% and 11%, respectively. The backbone of clofarabine or cladribine and LDAC alternating with decitabine was effective and safe for the treatment of older patients with newly diagnosed AML. Incorporating targeted therapies could extend the efficacy of this approach and provide more curative therapeutic options in this AML population.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cladribina/uso terapêutico , Clofarabina/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Cladribina/farmacologia , Clofarabina/farmacologia , Citarabina/farmacologia , Decitabina/farmacologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cancer ; 127(17): 3113-3124, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the clonal mechanisms underlying leukemogenesis, prognostic factors, and optimal therapy for atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). METHODS: The authors evaluated the clinicopathologic features, outcomes, and responses to therapy of 65 patients with aCML. The median age was 67 years (range, 46-89 years). RESULTS: The most frequently mutated genes included ASXL1 (83%), SRSF2 (68%), and SETBP1 (58%). Mutations in SETBP1, SRSF2, TET2, and GATA2 appeared at variant allele frequencies (VAFs) greater than 40%, whereas other RAS pathway mutations were more likely to appear at low VAFs. The acquisition of new, previously undetectable mutations at transformation was observed in 63% of the evaluable patients, with the most common involving signaling pathway mutations. Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) were associated with the highest response rates but with a short duration of response (median, 2.7 months). Therapy with ruxolitinib was not associated with clinically significant responses as a single agent or in combination with an HMA. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation was the only therapy associated with improved outcomes (hazard ratio, 0.144; 95% CI, 0.035-0.593; P = .007). Age, platelet counts, bone marrow blast percentages, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were independent predictors of survival and were integrated in a multivariable model that allowed the prediction of 1- and 3-year survival. CONCLUSIONS: aCML is characterized by high frequencies of ASXL1, SRSF2, and SETBP1 mutations and is associated with a high risk of acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Response and survival outcomes with current therapies remain poor. The incorporation of age, platelet counts, bone marrow blast percentages, and LDH levels can allow survival prediction, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation should be considered for all eligible patients.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa , Idoso , Medula Óssea/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa/genética , Mutação , Prognóstico
12.
Blood Adv ; 5(8): 2156-2164, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885751

RESUMO

In patients with acute myeloid leukemia evolving from myeloproliferative neoplasms (post-MPN-AML), the clinical activity of the B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitor venetoclax remains to be determined. We review our experience with venetoclax-based regimens in 14 newly diagnosed (frontline [FL]) and 17 relapsed/refractory (R/R) post-MPN-AML patients. Venetoclax was used in combination with hypomethylating agents in 58% of cases and in 19% with intensive chemotherapy (treatment including cytarabine ≥1 g/m2 or CPX-351); the remaining patients received cladribine and low-dose cytarabine or isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 inhibitors. The median dose of venetoclax during the initial cycle was 100 mg in all patients (range, 50-800 mg) and 200 mg (range, 100-800 mg) for FL patients. The venetoclax dose was adjusted when used concomitantly with azole antifungal agents. In FL patients, complete remission with and without count recovery in 6 patients (median duration of 6.4 months) and partial remission in 1 patient was noted, with a median overall survival of 7 months. In R/R patients, no formal responses were seen, with a median overall survival of 3 months. Hematologic toxicities and adverse events were frequent; 83% of patients developed grade 3 or higher infection during the initial cycle. Severe hemorrhagic complications were observed in 14 patients, including 6 cases of intracranial and subdural hemorrhage. Overall 4-week and 8-week mortality were 10% and 32%, respectively. Given the substantial treatment-associated hematologic toxicity and mortality, and modest short-lived responses only in newly diagnosed patients with venetoclax-based regimens, additional treatment options are urgently needed for these patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos
13.
Oncotarget ; 12(5): 401-411, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747356

RESUMO

The glioma associated oncogene-1 (GLI1), a downstream effector of the embryonic Hedgehog pathway, was detected in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but not normal adult cells. GLI1 activating mutations were identified in 10% of patients with CLL. However, what induces GLI1 expression in GLI1-unmutated CLL cells is unknown. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in CLL cells and sequence analysis detected putative STAT3-binding sites in the GLI1 gene promoter, we hypothesized that STAT3 induces the expression of GLI1. Western immunoblotting detected GLI1 in CLL cells from 7 of 7 patients, flow cytometry analysis confirmed that CD19+/CD5+ CLL cells co-express GLI1 and confocal microscopy showed co-localization of GLI1 and phosphorylated STAT3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that STAT3 protein co-immunoprecipitated GLI1 as well as other STAT3-regulated genes. Transfection of CLL cells with STAT3-shRNA induced a mark decrease in GLI1 levels, suggesting that STAT3 binds to and induces the expression of GLI1 in CLL cells. An electromobility shift assay confirmed that STAT3 binds, and a luciferase assay showed that STAT3 activates the GLI1 gene. Transfection with GLI1-siRNA significantly increased the spontaneous apoptosis rate of CLL cells, suggesting that GLI1 inhibitors might provide therapeutic benefit to patients with CLL.

14.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 21(5): 318-327.e6, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of bone marrow (BM) blasts on the outcome of patients with myelofibrosis (MF) is poorly understood, unless they are ≥ 10% and represent a more aggressive accelerated phase. Similarly, the role of the JAK inhibitor, ruxolitinib (RUX), has not been assessed in correlation with BM blasts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Herein, we present clinical characteristics and outcomes of 1412 patients with MF stratified by BM blasts and therapy. RESULTS: Seven percent and 4% of patients had 5% to 9% and ≥ 10% BM blasts, respectively. Forty-four percent of patients were treated with RUX throughout their disease course. Overall survival (OS) differed among patients with 0% to 1%, 2% to 4%, and 5% to 9% BM blasts, with median OS of 64, 48, and 22 months, respectively (P < .001). Patients with 5% to 9% BM blasts had similar OS as patients with ≥ 10% BM blasts (22 vs. 14 months; P = .73). All patients with < 10% blasts who were treated with RUX showed superior OS to patients who did not receive RUX. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that patients with MF with ≥ 5% BM blasts represent a high-risk group with adverse clinical characteristics and inferior outcome. However, they still appear to derive substantial survival benefit from therapy with RUX.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Nitrilas/uso terapêutico , Mielofibrose Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Prognóstico , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cancer ; 127(11): 1894-1900, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New drug combinations have led to significant improvements in remission rates for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, many patients with high-risk AML who respond to their initial treatment and are not candidates for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) will eventually relapse with poor outcomes. METHODS: In this phase 2 trial, the efficacy of lenalidomide maintenance was evaluated in patients with high-risk AML who had achieved their first or second remission after induction chemotherapy and at least 1 consolidation cycle and who were not candidates for immediate ASCT. Lenalidomide was given orally at 10 to 20 mg daily on days 1 to 28 of a 28-day cycle for up to 24 cycles. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients were enrolled in this study with a median age of 61 years (range, 24-87 years). The median number of cycles was 8 (range, 1-24 cycles). Ten patients (36%) completed 24 months of maintenance treatment. With a median follow-up of 22.5 months (range, 2.6-55 months), 12 patients (43%) relapsed after a median of 3 months (range, 0.7-23 months). The median duration of remission for all patients was 18.7 months (range, 0.7-55.1 months). The 2-year overall survival and relapse-free survival rates from the time of enrollment were 63% and 50%, respectively. Overall, lenalidomide was well tolerated; serious adverse events of grade 3 or 4, including rash (n = 5), thrombocytopenia (n = 4), neutropenia (n = 4), and fatigue (n = 2), were observed in 13 patients (46%). CONCLUSIONS: Lenalidomide is a safe and feasible maintenance strategy in patients with high-risk AML who are not candidates for ASCT, and it has beneficial effects for patients with negative measurable residual disease.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese , Lenalidomida , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 100(3): 352-360, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphocytic variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome (L-HES) is a subtype of HES driven by cytokines produced by clonal T-cells. Due to the rarity of its occurrence and challenges in diagnosis, this subtype of HES is under recognized. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report seven patients with L-HES, diagnosed from a group of 136 patients who were referred to our institution for the work-up of hypereosinophilia. The clinical presentation, symptoms and signs were heterogeneous and uncharacteristic; indistinguishable from idiopathic HES. Flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis revealed aberrant T-cells in all patients, with a Th2 immunophenotype, CD2 + CD3-CD4 + CD5 + CD7dim+/-CD8- in six of seven (86%) cases. CD10 was partially expressed in one of seven (14%) cases, and clonal TCR gene rearrangement was detected by PCR in five of seven (71%) patients. All patients were treated with corticosteroids and two of seven (29%) patients received anti-IL5 antibody therapy. With a median follow-up time of 7.5 years (2.3-14.1 years), one (11%) patient developed peripheral T-cell lymphoma 6.1 years after the initial diagnosis of L-HES and responded well to chemotherapy. All patients were alive at the last follow-up. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, a combination of flow cytometry immunophenotyping and molecular analysis allows the identification of aberrant T-cells, facilitating a diagnosis of L-HES in patients with eosinophilia. A correct diagnosis is essential for the proper management of these patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/patologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/metabolismo , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): 1755-1763, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mold-active primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) is routinely recommended in neutropenic patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy (RIC). Isavuconazole (ISAV) is an extended spectrum mold-active triazole and has superior tolerability and fewer significant drug-drug interactions compared with other triazoles. METHODS: In our investigator-initiated, phase 2 trial, treatment-naive adult patients with AML or MDS starting RIC received ISAV per the dosing recommendations in the US label until neutrophil recovery (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] ≥ 0.5 × 109/L) and attainment of complete remission, occurrence of invasive fungal infection (IFI), or for a maximum of 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the incidence of proven/probable IFI during ISAV PAP and up to 30 days after the last dose. RESULTS: Sixty-five of 75 enrolled patients received ISAV PAP (median age, 67 years, median ANC at enrollment, 0.72 × 109/L). Thirty-two patients (49%) received oral targeted leukemia treatments (venetoclax, FTL3 inhibitors). Including the 30-day follow-up period, probable/proven and possible IFIs were encountered in 4 (6%) and 8 patients (12%), respectively. ISAV trough serum concentrations were consistently > 1 µg/mL, showed low intraindividual variation, and were not significantly influenced by chemotherapy regimen. Tolerability of ISAV was excellent, with only 3 cases (5%) of mild to moderate elevations of liver function tests and no QTc prolongations. CONCLUSIONS: ISAV is a safe and effective alternative for PAP in patients with newly diagnosed AML/MDS undergoing RIC in the era of recently approved or emerging small-molecule antileukemia therapies. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT03019939.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Micoses , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Adulto , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilas , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas , Triazóis/uso terapêutico
18.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 62(1): 224-228, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955970

RESUMO

The recurring translocation t(1;19) (q23;p13) with TCF3-PBX1 rearrangements are uncommon in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and their prognostic impact remains to be described in the era of modern chemotherapies. We investigated 427 adult patients with newly diagnosed pre-B ALL, 16 (4%) had t(1;19)(q23;p13) at diagnosis. All 16 patients achieved complete remission after induction with intensive chemotherapy, and with a median of 7-year follow-up, 2 relapsed. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse and overall survival rates were 14% and 82%, respectively. Our analysis showed that adult patients with t(1;19)(q23;p13) positive ALL had favorable prognosis with intensive chemotherapy regimens.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Translocação Genética
19.
Haematologica ; 106(9): 2384-2396, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732359

RESUMO

Phenotypic characterization of T cells in myelofibrosis (MF) is intriguing owing to increased inflammation, markedly elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, and altered distribution of T-cell subsets. Constitutive activation of Janus kinase-2 (JAK2) in the majority of MF patients contributes to the expression of the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD1) and T-cell exhaustion. We wondered whether T-cell activation affects treatment outcome of patients with MF and sought to determine whether the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib affects the activation of T-cell subsets. T cells from 47 MF patients were analyzed and the percent of either helper (CD4+) or cytotoxic (CD8+) naive, central memory, effector memory, or effector T cells; and fractions of PD1-expressing cells in each subset were assessed. An increased number of T cells coexpressing CD4/PD1 and CD8/PD1 in MF compared to healthy controls (n=28) was found, and the T cells were significantly skewed toward an effector phenotype in both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, consistent with a shift from a quiescent to an activated state. Over the course of ruxolitinib treatment, the distribution of aberrant T-cell subsets significantly reversed towards resting cell phenotypes. CD4+ and CD8+ subsets at baseline correlated with monocyte and platelet counts, and their PD1-positive fractions correlated with leukocyte counts and spleen size. Low numbers of PD1+/CD4+ and PD1+/CD8+ cells were associated with complete resolution of palpable splenomegaly and improved survival rate, suggesting that low levels of exhausted T cells confer a favorable response to ruxolitinib treatment.


Assuntos
Mielofibrose Primária , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Citocinas , Humanos , Mielofibrose Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Leukemia ; 35(6): 1610-1620, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087831

RESUMO

The chemoattractant CXCL13 organizes the cellular architecture of B-cell follicles and germinal centers. During adaptive immune responses, CXCL13 plasma concentrations transiently increase and function as a biomarker for normal germinal center activity. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells express high levels of CXCR5, the receptor for CXCL13, and proliferate in pseudofollicles within secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). Given the morphologic and functional similarities between normal and CLL B-cell expansion in SLO, we hypothesized that CXCL13 plasma concentrations would correlate with CLL disease activity and progression. We analyzed CXCL13 plasma concentrations in 400 CLL patients and correlated the findings with other prognostic markers, time to treatment (TTT), CCL3 and CCL4 plasma concentrations, and in vivo CLL cell proliferation. We found that CXCL13 plasma concentrations were higher in CLL patients with active and advanced stage disease, resulting in a significantly shorter TTT. Accordingly, high CXCL13 levels correlated with other markers of disease activity and CCL3 levels. Higher CLL cell birth rates in vivo also associated with higher CXCL13 plasma concentrations. Interestingly, elevated CXCL13 plasma levels normalized during ibrutinib therapy, and increased in ibrutinib resistance patients. Collectively, these studies emphasize the importance of CXCL13 in crosstalk between CLL cells and the SLO microenvironment.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL13/sangue , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adenina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/sangue , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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