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1.
Clin Nutr ; 40(11): 5556-5567, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peanuts are rich in bioactive compounds that may have a positive impact on memory and stress response. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of regular consumption of peanut products on cognitive functions and stress response in healthy young adults. DESIGN: A three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted in 63 healthy young adults that consumed 25 g/day of skin roasted peanuts (SRP, n = 21), 32 g/d of peanut butter (PB, n = 23) or 32 g/d of a control butter made from peanut oil (free of phenolic compounds and fiber) (CB, n = 19) for six months. Polyphenol intake, cognitive functions, and anxiety and depression scores were evaluated using validated tests. Fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and plasma and fecal fatty acids were assessed by chromatographic methods. Urinary cortisol was quantified by an enzymatic method. RESULTS: Comparing the two interventions with the control, a significant reduction in anxiety scores was observed in the SRP compared to the CB group. After the intervention, consumers of SRP and PB had an improved immediate memory (p = 0.046 and p = 0.011). Lower anxiety scores were associated with SRP and PB (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively) and lower depression scores with SRP, PB and CB (p = 0.007, p = 0.003 and p = 0.032, respectively). Memory functions and stress response were significantly correlated with polyphenol intake, fecal SCFAs, plasma and fecal very long chain saturated fatty acids (VLCSFAs). CONCLUSIONS: Regular peanut and peanut butter consumption may enhance memory function and stress response in a healthy young population. These effects seem to be associated with the intake of peanut polyphenols, increased levels of fecal SCFAs, and unexpectedly, VLCSFAs, which were also present in the control product.

2.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(12): 1392-1401, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647580

RESUMO

AIMS: Physical activity has consistently been shown to improve cardiovascular health and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. However, only small and heterogeneous studies have investigated the effect of exercise on high-density lipoprotein functions. Our aim is to evaluate, in the largest observational study to date, the association between leisure time physical activity and a range of high-density lipoprotein functional traits. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 296 Spanish adults at high cardiovascular risk. Usual leisure time physical activity and eight measures of high-density lipoprotein functionality were averaged over two measurements, one year apart. Multivariable linear regression models were used to explore the association between leisure time physical activity (exposure) and each high-density lipoprotein functional trait (outcome), adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Higher levels of leisure time physical activity were positively and linearly associated with average levels over one year of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I, paraoxonase-1 antioxidant activity, high-density lipoprotein capacity to esterify cholesterol and cholesterol efflux capacity in individuals free of type 2 diabetes only. The increased cholesterol esterification index with increasing leisure time physical activity reached a plateau at around 300 metabolic equivalents.min/day. In individuals with diabetes, the relationship with cholesteryl ester transfer protein followed a U-shape, with a decreased cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity from 0 to 300 metabolic equivalents.min/day, but increasing from there onwards. Increasing levels of leisure time physical activity were associated with poorer high-density lipoprotein vasodilatory capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In a high cardiovascular risk population, leisure time physical activity was associated not only with greater circulating levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, but also with better markers of high-density lipoprotein functionality, namely cholesterol efflux capacity, the capacity of high-density lipoprotein to esterify cholesterol and paraoxonase-1 antioxidant activity in individuals free of diabetes and lower cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

3.
J Nutr ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell membrane fatty acid composition has been related to inflammation and cardiovascular risk. Dysregulation of HDL functionis also considered a cardiovascular risk factor. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether the content of cell membrane fatty acids and HDL functionality are linked to each other as well as to inflammation. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis involved 259 participants (67.9 y) with overweight/obesity (body mass index 29.5 kg/m2) from a coronary heart disease case-control study nested within the PREDIMED trial for which HDL functional parameters (Apolipoproteins (Apo) A-1, A-IV and C-III, cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), HDL oxidative inflammatory index (HOII), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), serum amyloid A (SAA) and complement-3 (C3) protein) were quantified. We also assessed 22 fatty acids in blood cell membranes using gas chromatography and inflammatory markers (interferon-γ (IFNγ) and interleukins (IL)-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) in serum. Associations of HDL-related variables with cell membrane fatty acids and with inflammatory markers were assessed using multivariable linear regression analyses with elastic net penalty. RESULTS: ApoA-1, ApoC-III, CEC, HOII, S1P, and SAA, but not ApoA-IV and C3 protein, were associated with membrane fatty acids. S1P and SAA were directly associated with IL-6, while ApoA-1 and C3 protein showed inverse association with IL-6. Specific fatty acids including 14:0 and long chain n-6 fatty acids being negatively and positively, respectively, associated with IL-8 were also found to be positively associated with SAA. CONCLUSION: This study suggests interrelationships between indicators of inflammation and both blood cell membrane fatty acid composition and HDL structure/functional parameters in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk.

4.
Clin Nutr ; 40(10): 5269-5277, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between intake of simple sugars and cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality in a prospective cohort study based on the PREDIMED trial conducted from 2003 to 2010. METHODS: Participants were older individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Exposures were total sugar, glucose and fructose from solid or liquid sources, and fructose from fruit and 100% fruit juice. Cancer incidence was the primary outcome; cancer mortality and all-cause mortality were secondary outcomes. Multivariable-adjusted, time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models were used. RESULTS: Of 7447 individuals enrolled, 7056 (94.7%) were included (57.6% women, aged 67.0 ± 6.2 years). 534 incident cancers with 152 cancer deaths and 409 all-cause deaths were recorded after a median follow-up of 6 years. Intake of simple sugars in solid form was unrelated to outcomes. Higher cancer incidence was found per 5 g/day increase in intake of liquid sugars, with multivariable-adjusted HR of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.13) for total liquid sugar, 1.19 (95% CI, 1.07-1.31) for liquid glucose, 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05-1.23) for liquid fructose, and 1.39 (95% CI, 1.10-1.74) for fructose from fruit juice. Cancer and all-cause mortality increased to a similar extent with intake of all sugars in liquid form. In categorical models, cancer risk was dose-related for all liquid sugars. CONCLUSIONS: Simple sugar intake in drinks and fruit juice was associated with an increased risk of overall cancer incidence and mortality and all-cause mortality. This suggests that sugary beverages are a modifiable risk factor for cancer and all-cause mortality.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of a Mediterranean diet, adequate levels of physical activity, and energy-restricted lifestyle interventions have been individually associated with improvements in HDL functions. Evidence of intensive interventions with calorie restriction and physical activity is, however, scarce. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether an intensive lifestyle intervention with an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet plus physical activity enhanced HDL function compared to a non-hypocaloric Mediterranean eating pattern without physical activity. METHODS: In 391 older adults with metabolic syndrome (mean age, 65 years; mean BMI, 33.3 kg/m2) from 1 of the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea-Plus trial centers, we evaluated the impact of a 6-month intervention with an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet plus physical activity (intensive lifestyle; n = 190) relative to a nonrestrictive Mediterranean diet without physical activity (control; n = 201) on a set of HDL functional traits. These included cholesterol efflux capacity, HDL oxidative/inflammatory index, HDL oxidation, and levels of complement component 3, serum amyloid A, sphingosine-1-phosphate, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins A-I, A-IV, C-III, and E in apoB-depleted plasma. RESULTS: The intensive-lifestyle intervention participants displayed greater 6-month weight reductions (-3.83 kg; 95% CI: -4.57 to -3.09 kg) but no changes in HDL cholesterol compared with control-diet participants. Regarding HDL functional traits, the intensive lifestyle decreased triglyceride levels (-0.15 mg/g protein; 95% CI: -0.29 to -0.014 mg/g protein) and apoC-III (-0.11 mg/g protein; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.026 mg/g protein) compared to the control diet, with weight loss being the essential mediator (proportions of mediation were 77.4% and 72.1% for triglycerides and apoC-III levels in HDL, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In older adults with metabolic syndrome, an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet plus physical activity improved the HDL triglyceride metabolism compared with a nonrestrictive Mediterranean diet without physical activity. This trial is registered at isrctn.com as ISRCTN89898870.

6.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340911

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Quantification of cardiovascular risk has been based on scores such as Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR, SCORE or Life's Simple 7 (LS7). In vitro, animal, and randomized clinical studies have shown that polyphenols may provide benefits to the vascular system and reduce the inflammatory response. However, some clinical-epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent results. Our aim was to assess the possible association between intake of the various polyphenol classes and established cardiovascular scores. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis involved 6633 PREDIMED-Plus study participants. Food polyphenol content was estimated by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, adjusted for total energy intake according to the residual method. The association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular risk was tested using linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Total polyphenol and flavonoid intake were directly and significantly associated only with the LS7 scale. Intake of lignans was directly and significantly associated with SCORE and LS7 scales, stilbene intake with SCORE, and phenolic acid intake with Framingham and Framingham-REGICOR scores. Other polyphenol classes were associated in a protective and significant manner in Framingham, SCORE and LS7 scores. In women, intake of all the polyphenol classes, except phenolic acids, showed a protective trend in the results of the Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR scores and LS7 scale. CONCLUSIONS: An inverse association was found between consumption of the 'other polyphenols' class and, especially among women, with estimated cardiovascular risk. The results were similar to those of Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR and LS7 (after eliminating the diet component) and differed from those of SCORE, but the predictors included were limited in the latter case.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371982

RESUMO

The association between ultra-processed food (UPF) and risk of cardiometabolic disorders is an ongoing concern. Different food processing-based classification systems have originated discrepancies in the conclusions among studies. To test whether the association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic markers changes with the classification system, we used baseline data from 5636 participants (48.5% female and 51.5% male, mean age 65.1 ± 4.9) of the PREDIMED-Plus ("PREvention with MEDiterranean DIet") trial. Subjects presented with overweight or obesity and met at least three metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria. Food consumption was classified using a 143-item food frequency questionnaire according to four food processing-based classifications: NOVA, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), International Food Information Council (IFIC) and University of North Carolina (UNC). Mean changes in nutritional and cardiometabolic markers were assessed according to quintiles of UPF consumption for each system. The association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic markers was assessed using linear regression analysis. The concordance of the different classifications was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC3, overall = 0.51). The highest UPF consumption was obtained with the IARC classification (45.9%) and the lowest with NOVA (7.9%). Subjects with high UPF consumption showed a poor dietary profile. We detected a direct association between UPF consumption and BMI (p = 0.001) when using the NOVA system, and with systolic (p = 0.018) and diastolic (p = 0.042) blood pressure when using the UNC system. Food classification methodologies markedly influenced the association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic risk markers.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/classificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/classificação , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Idoso , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/classificação , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445043

RESUMO

Postmenopausal women are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to changes in lipid profile and body fat, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of urinary tartaric acid, a biomarker of wine consumption, with anthropometric (weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio), blood pressure, and biochemical variables (blood glucose and lipid profile) that may be affected during the menopausal transition. This sub-study of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial included a sample of 230 women aged 60-80 years with high cardiovascular risk at baseline. Urine samples were diluted and filtered, and tartaric acid was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Correlations between tartaric acid and the study variables were adjusted for age, education level, smoking status, physical activity, BMI, cholesterol-lowering, antihypertensive, and insulin treatment, total energy intake, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and raisins. A strong association was observed between wine consumption and urinary tartaric acid (0.01 µg/mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.01), p-value < 0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were inversely correlated with urinary tartaric acid (-3.13 µg/mg (-5.54, -0.71), p-value = 0.016 and -3.03 µg/mg (-5.62, -0.42), p-value = 0.027, respectively), whereas other biochemical and anthropometric variables were unrelated. The results suggest that wine consumption may have a positive effect on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women, underpinning its nutraceutical properties.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/urina , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Tartaratos/urina , Vinho , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Clin Nutr ; 40(8): 4971-4979, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short dietary assessment tools can be useful to estimate food intake and diet quality in large-scale epidemiological studies with time constraints. OBJECTIVE: To determine the concurrent validity of the 17-item energy-restricted Mediterranean Adherence Screener (er-MEDAS) used in the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea)-Plus trial and to analyse its capacity to detect 1-year changes in diet and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: Validation study nested in the PREDIMED-Plus (n = 6760, 55-75 years). Dietary data were collected by the 17-item er-MEDAS and a 143-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after 1-year intervention. Cardiometabolic risk markers were measured at both time points. A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) score was derived from both instruments. Concurrent validity was evaluated by Pearson and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland and Altman limits of agreement. Construct validity was evaluated by assessing 1-year changes in FFQ-reported dietary intake and cardiometabolic profile changes in relation to changes in er-MEDAS. RESULTS: A moderate to good correlation between the MedDiet score calculated by both measurement instruments was found: r = 0.61 and ICC = 0.60 (both p < 0.001). Agreement of each of the er-MEDAS items ranged from 55.4% to 85.0% with a moderate mean concordance (kappa = 0.41). Between baseline and 1-year follow-up, energy intake measured by the FFQ decreased by 242 kcal, while Mediterranean food consumption increased in participants with the highest increase in the er-MEDAS MedDiet score. An increase in the er-MEDAS MedDiet score ratings was associated with a decrease in BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, fasting glucose, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (p < 0.001 for all), and with an increase in HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The er-MEDAS shows a modest to good concurrent validity compared with FFQ data. It shows acceptable construct validity, as a greater er-MEDAS score was associated with more favourable dietary and cardiometabolic profiles over time. TRIAL REGISTRY: ISRCTN89898870; registration date, 24 July 2014. https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870.

10.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368892

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We explored the cross-sectional association between the adherence to three different provegetarian (PVG) food patterns defined as general (gPVG), healthful (hPVG) and unhealthful (uPVG), and the cardiometabolic risk in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) of the PREDIMED-Plus randomized intervention study. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 6439 participants of the PREDIMED-Plus randomized intervention study. The gPVG food pattern was built by positively scoring plant foods (vegetables/fruits/legumes/grains/potatoes/nuts/olive oil) and negatively scoring, animal foods (meat and meat products/animal fats/eggs/fish and seafood/dairy products). The hPVG and uPVG were generated from the gPVG by adding four new food groups (tea and coffee/fruit juices/sugar-sweetened beverages/sweets and desserts), splitting grains and potatoes and scoring them differently. Multivariable-adjusted robust linear regression using MM-type estimator was used to assess the association between PVG food patterns and the standardized Metabolic Syndrome score (MetS z-score), a composed index that has been previously used to ascertain the cardiometabolic risk, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: A higher adherence to the gPVG and hPVG was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in multivariable models. The regression coefficients for 5th vs. 1st quintile were - 0.16 (95% CI: - 0.33 to 0.01) for gPVG (p trend: 0.015), and - 0.23 (95% CI: - 0.41 to - 0.05) for hPVG (p trend: 0.016). In contrast, a higher adherence to the uPVG was associated with higher cardiometabolic risk, 0.21 (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.38) (p trend: 0.019). CONCLUSION: Higher adherence to gPVG and hPVG food patterns was generally associated with lower cardiovascular risk, whereas higher adherence to uPVG was associated to higher cardiovascular risk.

11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(10): 2870-2886, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD), decrease metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim was to assess 1-year changes of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), sedentary behavior, and diet quality according to MetS severity in older population at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective analysis of 55-75-year-old 4359 overweight/obese participants with MetS (PREDIMED-Plus trial) categorized in tertiles according to 1-year changes of a validated MetS severity score (MetSSS). Anthropometrics, visceral adiposity index, triglycerides and glucose index, dietary nutrient intake, biochemical marker levels, dietary inflammatory index, and depression symptoms were measured. Diet quality was assessed by 17-item MD questionnaire. PAs were self-reported using the Minnesota-REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire and 30-s chair stand test. Sedentary behaviors were measured using the Spanish version of the Nurses' Health Study questionnaire. After 1-year follow-up, decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole grain cereals, white fish, and bluefish and low intake of refined cereals, red and processed meat, cookies/sweets, and snacks/ready-to-eat-meals. It resulted in high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, fiber, vitamins B1, B6, B9, C, D, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus and low glycemic index and saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and carbohydrates intake. Regarding PA and sedentary behavior, decreasing MetSSS was associated with increased moderate-to-vigorous LTPA, chair stand test, and decreased sedentary and TV-viewing time. CONCLUSION: Decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high LTPA, high MD adherence, low sedentary time, and low depression risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício Físico , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Estado Funcional , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-14, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225548

RESUMO

The traditional Mediterranean diet is considered the world's most evidence-based eating pattern for promoting health and longevity. However, institutional food environments and their busy consumers often sacrifice health benefits for the convenience of faster and cheaper foods that generally are of lower quality and are more processed, and thus, contribute to the current epidemics of obesity and diabetes. Expert consensus has even identified the Mediterranean diet as the easiest to follow among healthy eating patterns. Nonetheless, fewer American families cook at home and many food services have been slow to implement healthier food options compatible with the Mediterranean diet. In September 2019, we convened a group of thought leaders at an exploratory seminar entitled: "Mediterranean Diet: Promotion and Dissemination of Healthy Eating", hosted by the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Studies at Harvard University. The multidisciplinary faculty discussed best practices for translating traditional Mediterranean lifestyle principles to modern society.

14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209273

RESUMO

The menopausal transition can be a challenging period for women's health and a trigger of uncomfortable symptoms. Beer is the main food source of isoxanthohumol, a precursor of 8-prenylnaringenin, the strongest phytoestrogen identified to date. As phytoestrogens are reported to reduce perimenopausal symptoms, we evaluated if a daily moderate consumption of beer with (AB) and without alcohol (NAB) could improve menopausal symptoms and modify cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 37 postmenopausal women were enrolled in a parallel controlled intervention trial and assigned to three study groups: 16 were administered AB (330 mL/day), 7 NAB (660 mL/day), and 14 were in the control group. After a 6-month follow-up of the 34 participants who finished the trial, both interventions (AB and NAB) significantly reduced the severity of the menopause-related symptoms (p-value AB vs. Control: 0.009; p-value NAB vs. Control: 0.033). Moreover, AB had a beneficial net effect on psychological menopausal discomforts compared to the control group. As the sex hormone profile did not differ significantly between the study groups, the effects of both types of beers (AB and NAB) are attributed to the non-alcoholic fraction of beer. Furthermore, moderate NAB consumption improved the lipid profile and decreased blood pressure in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Etanol/análise , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Idoso , Antropometria , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Cromatografia Líquida , Climatério/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Flavanonas/análise , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is linked to inflammation. We hypothesize that metabolites implicated in this pathway may be associated with the risk of heart failure (HF) or atrial fibrillation (AF) in a population at high risk of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively analyze the associations of kynurenine-related metabolites with the risk of HF and AF and to analyze a potential effect modification by the randomized interventions of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). METHODS: Two case-control studies nested within the PREDIMED trial were designed. We selected 324 incident HF cases and 502 incident AF cases individually matched with ≤3 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted. Interactions with the intervention were tested for each of the baseline plasma metabolites measured by LC-tandem MS. RESULTS: Higher baseline kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (OR for 1 SD: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.43) and higher levels of kynurenic acid (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.40) were associated with HF. Quinolinic acid was associated with AF (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.32) and HF (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49). The MedDiet intervention modified the positive associations of kynurenine (Pinteraction = 0.006), kynurenic acid (Pinteraction = 0.008), and quinolinic acid (Pinteraction = 0.033) with HF and the association between kynurenic acid and AF (Pinteraction = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We found that tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolites were prospectively associated with higher HF risk and to a lesser extent with AF risk. Moreover, an effect modification by MedDiet was observed for the association between plasma baseline kynurenine-related metabolites and the risk of HF, showing that the positive association of increased levels of these metabolites and HF was restricted to the control group.

16.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064328

RESUMO

Clinical data on the direct health effects of energy deficit or surplus beyond its impact on body weight are scarce. We aimed to assess the association with all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality of (1) sustained energy deficit or surplus, calculated according to each individual's en-ergy intake (EI) and theoretical energy expenditure (TEE), and (2) mid-term change in total EI in a prospective study. In 7119 participants in the PREDIMED Study (PREvención con DIeta MEDi-terránea) with a mean age of 67 years, energy intake was derived from a 137-item food frequency questionnaire. TEE was calculated as a function of age, sex, height, body weight and physical ac-tivity. The main exposure was the proportion of energy requirement covered by energy intake, cumulative throughout the follow-up. The secondary exposure was the change in energy intake from baseline. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% con-fidence intervals for all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Over a median follow-up of 4.8 years, there were 239 deaths (excluding the first 2 years). An energy intake exceeding energy needs was associated with an increase in mortality risk (continuous HR10% over energy needs = 1.10; 95% CI 1.02, 1.18), driven by cardiovascular death (HR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.11, 1.43). However, consum-ing energy below estimated needs was not associated with a lower risk. Increments over time in energy intake were associated with greater all-cause mortality (HR10% increase = 1.09; 95% CI 1.02, 1.17). However, there was no evidence that a substantial negative change in energy intake would reduce mortality risk. To conclude, in an older Mediterranean cohort, energy surplus or increase over a 5-year period was associated with greater risk of mortality, particularly cardiovascular mortality. Energy deficit, or reduction in energy intake over time were not associated with mortal-ity risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta/mortalidade , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066238

RESUMO

Accuracy of dietary assessment instruments such as food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is crucial in the evaluation of diet-disease relationships. Test-retest reliability and concurrent and construct validity of a FFQ were evaluated in 150 pregnant women at high risk to develop fetal growth restriction randomly selected from those included in the improving mothers for better prenatal care trial Barcelona (IMPACT BCN). The FFQ and dietary records were performed at baseline and 34-36 weeks of gestation. Test-retest reliability of the FFQ for 12 food groups and 17 nutrients was moderate (ICC = 0.55) and good (ICC = 0.60), respectively. Concurrent validity between food, nutrients and a composite Mediterranean diet score (MedDiet score) and food records was fair for foods and nutrients (ρ average = 0.38 and 0.32, respectively) and moderate (r = 0.46) for the MedDiet score. Validation with biological markers ranged from poor (r = 0.07) for olives to moderate (r = 0.41) for nuts. A fair concordance between methods were found for nutrients (weighted κ = 0.22) and foods (weighted κ = 0.27). The FFQ-derived MedDiet score correlated in anticipated directions with intakes of nutrients and foods derived by food records. The FFQ showed a moderate test-retest reliability and reasonable validity to rank women according to their food and nutrient consumption and adherence to the Mediterranean diet.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Trials ; 22(1): 362, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects 7-10% of all pregnancies resulting in a higher risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality, long-term disabilities, and cognitive impairment. Due to its multifactorial etiology, changes in maternal lifestyle, including suboptimal maternal diet and stress, have increasingly been associated with its prevalence. We present a protocol for the Improving Mothers for a better PrenAtal Care Trial Barcelona (IMPACT BCN), which evaluates two different maternal lifestyle strategies (improved nutrition by promoting Mediterranean diet and stress reduction program based on mindfulness techniques) on perinatal outcomes. The primary objective is to reduce the prevalence of FGR. Secondary aims are to reduce adverse perinatal outcomes and to improve neurodevelopment and cardiovascular profile in children at 2 years of age. METHODS: A randomized parallel, open-blind, single-center trial following a 1:1:1 ratio will select and randomize high-risk singleton pregnancies for FGR (N=1218), according to the criteria of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (19.0-23.6 weeks' gestation), into three arms: Mediterranean diet, mindfulness-based stress reduction program, and usual care without any intervention. Compliance to the interventions will be randomly tested in 30% of participants with specific biomarkers. Maternal socio-demographic, clinical data, biological samples, and lifestyle questionnaires will be collected at enrollment and at the end of the interventions (34.0-36.6 weeks' gestation), together with a fetoplacental ultrasound and magnetic resonance. Fetoplacental biological samples and perinatal outcomes will be recorded at delivery. Postnatal follow-up is planned up to 2 years of corrected age including neurodevelopmental tests and cardiovascular assessment. Intention-to-treat and population per-protocol analysis will be performed. DISCUSSION: This is the first randomized study evaluating the impact of maternal lifestyle interventions during pregnancy on perinatal outcomes. The maternal lifestyle interventions (Mediterranean diet and mindfulness-based stress reduction program) are supported by scientific evidence, and their compliance will be evaluated with several biomarkers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03166332 . Registered on April 19, 2017.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Atenção Plena , Criança , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2825-2836, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Portfolio and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets have been shown to lower cardiometabolic risk factors in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, the Portfolio diet has only been assessed in RCTs of hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, to assess the Portfolio diet in a population with metabolic syndrome (MetS), we conducted a longitudinal analysis of one-year data of changes in the Portfolio and DASH diet scores and their association with cardiometabolic risk factors in Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus trial. METHODS: PREDIMED-Plus is an ongoing clinical trial (Trial registration: ISRCTN89898) conducted in Spain that includes 6874 older participants (mean age 65 y, 48% women) with overweight/obesity fulfilling at least three criteria for MetS. Data for this analysis were collected at baseline, six months and one year. Adherence to the Portfolio and DASH diet scores were derived from a validated 143-item food frequency questionnaire. We used linear mixed models to examine the associations of 1-SD increase and quartile changes in the diet scores with concomitant changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for several potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in the Portfolio diet score was significantly associated with lower HbA1c (ß [95% CI]: -0.02% [-0.02, -0.01], P < 0.001), fasting glucose (-0.47 mg/dL [-0.83, -0.11], P = 0.01), triglycerides (-1.29 mg/dL [-2.31, -0.28], P = 0.01), waist circumference (WC) (-0.51 cm [-0.59, -0.43], P < 0.001), and body mass index (BMI) (-0.17 kg/m2 [-0.19, -0.15], P < 0.001). A 1-SD increase in the DASH diet score was significantly associated with lower HbA1c (-0.03% [-0.04, -0.02], P < 0.001), glucose (-0.84 mg/dL [-1.18, -0.51], P < 0.001), triglycerides (-3.38 mg/dL [-4.37, -2.38], P < 0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (-0.47 mg/dL [-0.91, -0.04], P = 0.03), WC (-0.69 cm [-0.76, -0.60 cm], P < 0.001), BMI (-0.25 kg/m2 [-0.28, -0.26 kg/m2], P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (-0.57 mmHg [-0.81, -0.32 mmHg], P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (-0.15 mmHg [-0.29, -0.01 mmHg], P = 0.03), and with higher HDL-cholesterol (0.21 mg/dL [0.09, 0.34 mg/dL, P = 0.001]). Similar associations were seen when both diet scores were assessed as quartiles, comparing extreme categories of adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults at high cardiovascular risk with MetS, greater adherence to the Portfolio and DASH diets showed significant favourable prospective associations with several clinically relevant cardiometabolic risk factors. Both diets are likely beneficial for cardiometabolic risk reduction.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
20.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050394

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated whether the intake of dietary vitamin D is associated with the incidence of both colorectal cancer (CRC) and colon cancer in the framework of the PREDIMED cohort of older adults at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We analyzed data from 7216 men and women (55-80 years) without CRC at baseline from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study. Baseline consumption of vitamin D was assessed using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) of CRC and colon cancer incidence were estimated for quartiles and per 1-SD of baseline vitamin D intake. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 6 years, we documented 97 incident CRC cases after the exclusion of subjects with no baseline dietary data and/or outliers of energy intake. A non-significant HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CRC for the comparison of extreme quartiles (4th vs 1st) of vitamin D intake were observed [0.55 (0.30-1.00), P for trend = 0.072], whereas it was significant for colon cancer incidence alone [0.44 (0.22-0.90), P for trend = 0.032]. However, this association became significant in CRC and colon cancer incidence, after excluding 391 subjects consuming baseline vitamin D and/or calcium medication or prescribed supplements [0.52 (0.28-0.96) and 0.41 (0.12-0.85), respectively]. CONCLUSION: A higher dietary intake of vitamin D was significantly associated with a reduced CRC risk in individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

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