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1.
Suma psicol ; 24(1): 25-33, ene.-jun. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-904057

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize dieting and non-dieting university students by gender, Received 14 September 2016 based on their satisfaction with life and their food-related life, self-discrepancy, food behavior and health-related aspects. A non-probabilistic sample of 305 students from five Chilean state universities responded a questionnaire that included the Revised Restraint Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale, the Health-related Quality of Life Index, the Nutrition Interest Scale and the Self-Discrepancy Index. Sociodemographic characteristics, food behavior, and approximate weight and height were also enquired. Chronic dieters and non-dieters were distinguished according to the median score of the Revised Restraint Scale. 51.1% of women and 55.5% of men classified as chronic dieters, sharing characteristics such as nutrition concern, mental health problems, higher body mass index, and physical and economic self-discrepancy. Women dieters reported lower life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life, more health problems and health-related restriction of food, while men dieters showed higher social and emotional self-discrepancy.


RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar a estudiantes universitarios dietantes y no dietantes de distinto género, según su satisfacción con la vida y con la alimentación, discrepancia del yo, comportamiento alimentario y aspectos relacionados con la salud. Se aplicó un cuestionario a una muestra no probabilística de 305 estudiantes de cinco universidades estatales de Chile. El cuestionario incluyó la Escala Revisada de Restricción Alimentaria, la Escala de Satisfacción con la Vida, la Escala de Satisfacción con la Alimentación, el Índice de Calidad de Vida relativo a la Salud, la Escala de Interés por la Nutrición y la Escala de Discrepancia del Yo. Se consultaron características sociodemográficas, comportamiento alimentario y el peso y estatura aproximados. Con base en la mediana de la Escala Revisada de Restricción Alimentaria se distinguieron dietantes crónicos y no dietantes. El 51.1% de las mujeres y el 55.5% de los hombres fueron clasificados como dietantes crónicos, quienes comparten características como la preocupación por la nutrición, problemas de salud mental, mayor índice de masa corporal, y discrepancia del yo en los ámbitos físico y económico. Las mujeres dietantes estuvieron menos satisfechas con su vida y con su alimentación, reportaron más problemas de salud y superior restricción de alimentos por motivos de salud. Los hombres dietantes mostraron mayor discrepancia del yo en los ámbitos social y emocional.

2.
Eat Behav ; 21: 123-8, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26835591

RESUMO

Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Dieta Redutora/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Chile , Análise por Conglomerados , Emoções , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Ciências da Nutrição , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutr Hosp ; 31(6): 2752-63, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26040392

RESUMO

AIM: To characterize types of university students based on satisfaction with life domains that affect eating habits, satisfaction with food-related life and subjective happiness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was applied to a nonrandom sample of 305 students of both genders in five universities in Chile. The questionnaire included the abbreviated Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Eating habits, frequency of food consumption in and outside the place of residence, approximate height and weight and sociodemographic variables were measured. RESULTS: Using factor analysis, the five-domain structure of the MSLSS was confirmed with 26 of the 30 items of the abbreviated version: Family, Friends, Self, Environment and University. Using cluster analysis four types of students were distinguished that differ significantly in the MSLSS global and domain scores, SWFL and SHS scores, gender, ownership of a food allowance card funded by the Chilean government, importance attributed to food for well-being and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of life satisfaction and happiness are associated with greater satisfaction with food-related life. Other major life domains that affect students' subjective well-being are Family, Friends, University and Self. Greater satisfaction in some domains may counterbalance the lower satisfaction in others.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Felicidade , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Chile , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(6): 2752-2763, jun. 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-142266

RESUMO

Aim: to characterize types of university students based on satisfaction with life domains that affect eating habits, satisfaction with food-related life and subjective happiness. Materials and methods: a questionnaire was applied to a nonrandom sample of 305 students of both genders in five universities in Chile. The questionnaire included the abbreviated Multidimensional Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Eating habits, frequency of food consumption in and outside the place of residence, approximate height and weight and sociodemographic variables were measured. Results: using factor analysis, the five-domain structure of the MSLSS was confirmed with 26 of the 30 items of the abbreviated version: Family, Friends, Self, Environment and University. Using cluster analysis four types of students were distinguished that differ significantly in the MSLSS global and domain scores, SWFL and SHS scores, gender, ownership of a food allowance card funded by the Chilean government, importance attributed to food for well-being and socioeconomic status. Conclusions: higher levels of life satisfaction and happiness are associated with greater satisfaction with food-related life. Other major life domains that affect students’ subjective well-being are Family, Friends, University and Self. Greater satisfaction in some domains may counterbalance the lower satisfaction in others (AU)


Objetivo: caracterizar tipologías de estudiantes universitarios según la satisfacción en dominios de la vida que afectan a los hábitos alimentarios, satisfacción con la alimentación y nivel de felicidad subjetiva. Material y método: se aplicó un cuestionario a una muestra no probabilística de 305 estudiantes de ambos géneros de cinco universidades de Chile. El cuestionario incluyó: Escala Multidimensional de Satisfacción con la Vida para Estudiantes (MSLSS) abreviada, Satisfacción con la Alimentación (SWFL) y la Escala de Felicidad Subjetiva (SHS). Se consultaron hábitos de consumo de alimentos, frecuencia de comidas dentro y fuera del lugar de residencia, peso y estatura aproximada y variables sociodemográficas. Resultados: mediante análisis factorial se confirmó la estructura de cinco dominios de la MSLSS, con 26 de los 30 ítems de la versión abreviada: Familia, Amigos, Sí mismo, Entorno de vida y Universidad. Mediante análisis clúster se distinguieron cuatro tipologías que difirieron significativamente en los puntajes de los dominios de la MSLSS y en su puntaje global, en los puntajes de la SWFL, SHS, género, contar con una tarjeta de alimentación financiada por el Estado chileno, importancia asignada a la alimentación para el bienestar personal y nivel socioeconómico Conclusiones: mayores niveles de satisfacción con la vida y de felicidad se asocian con una mayor satisfacción con la alimentación. Otros dominios importantes que afectan al bienestar subjetivo de los estudiantes corresponden a la familia, los amigos, la universidad y el sí mismo. La mayor satisfacción en unos dominios compensaría la menor satisfacción en otros (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Felicidade , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Estudantes/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Satisfação Pessoal
5.
Appetite ; 89: 203-14, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25675858

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to distinguish and characterize university student typologies according to their life satisfaction and satisfaction with their food-related life. An online survey was applied between June and August 2013 in five state universities in Chile, to 369 university students (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals in the place of residence and the frequency of consumption of eight food groups. A cluster analysis was used to determine student typologies. Three typologies of students were distinguished with significant differences in the average scores of the SWLS and SWFL scales, self-perception of health, days with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Saúde , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Chile , Análise por Conglomerados , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pais , Características de Residência , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutr Hosp ; 30(2): 453-61, 2014 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25208802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize university students typologies according to chronic food restriction, satisfaction with life and food consumption. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A questionnaire was applied on a non-probability sample of 369 male and female students from five Chilean universities. The questionnaire included: Revised Restraint Scale (RRS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) and the Health-related Quality of Life Index. The survey included food and drink consumption habits, weight and approximate height and sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Two factors in the RRS were detected by exploratory factor analysis: Preoccupation with Diet (PD) and Weight fluctuations (WF). A confirmatory factor analysis validated the bifactor structure of the RRS with an acceptable adjustment kindness. The cluster analysis allowed a distinction of four typologies with a significant variation in PD, WF, SWLS and SWFL scoring, number of days with mental health problems, frequency of alcoholic drinks consumption, restraint on the consumption of certain foods, drinks and spices, consumption frequency of fruit out of the main meals and types. Typologies did not differ on their body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Both, students preoccupied with diet and those who are not, experience higher levels of satisfaction with life and with food. Lower levels of global life satisfaction and satisfaction with food are related with the fluctuations in weight.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Chile , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutr. hosp ; 30(2): 453-461, ago. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-142546

RESUMO

Objective: To characterize university students typologies according to chronic food restriction, satisfaction with life and food consumption. Materials and method: A questionnaire was applied on a non-probability sample of 369 male and female students from five Chilean universities. The questionnaire included: Revised Restraint Scale (RRS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) and the Health-related Quality of Life Index. The survey included food and drink consumption habits, weight and approximate height and sociodemographic variables. Results: Two factors in the RRS were detected by exploratory factor analysis: Preoccupation with Diet (PD) and Weight fluctuations (WF). A confirmatory factor analysis validated the bifactor structure of the RRS with an acceptable adjustment kindness. The cluster analysis allowed a distinction of four typologies with a significant variation in PD, WF, SWLS and SWFL scoring, number of days with mental health problems, frequency of alcoholic drinks consumption, restraint on the consumption of certain foods, drinks and spices, consumption frequency of fruit out of the main meals and types. Typologies did not differ on their body mass index. Conclusions: Both, students preoccupied with diet and those who are not, experience higher levels of satisfaction with life and with food. Lower levels of global life satisfaction and satisfaction with food are related with the fluctuations in weight (AU)


Objetivo: Caracterizar tipologías de estudiantes universitarios según restricción alimentaria crónica, satisfacción con la vida y con la alimentación. Material y método: Se aplicó un cuestionario a una muestra no probabilística de 369 estudiantes de ambos géneros de cinco universidades de Chile. El cuestionario incluyó: Escala Revisada de Restricción Alimentaria (RRS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) y el Índice de Calidad de Vida relativo a la Salud. Se consultaron hábitos de consumo de alimentos y bebidas, peso y estatura aproximada y variables sociodemográficas. Resultados: Mediante análisis factorial exploratorio se detectaron dos factores en la RRS: Preocupación por la Dieta (PD) y Fluctuaciones de Peso (FP). Mediante análisis factorial confirmatorio se validó la estructura bifactorial de la RRS con una aceptable bondad de ajuste. Mediante análisis clúster se distinguieron cuatro tipologías que difirieron significativamente en los puntajes de PD y FP, los puntajes de la SWLS y SWFL, número de días con problemas de salud mental, frecuencia de consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, restricción del consumo de algunos alimentos, bebidas y condimentos, frecuencia de consumo de fruta a deshora y género. Las tipologías no difirieron en su índice de masa corporal. Conclusiones: Tanto los estudiantes que se preocupan por la dieta como los que no, experimentan mayores niveles satisfacción con la vida y con su alimentación. Menores niveles de satisfacción global y en el dominio de la alimentación se relacionan con las fluctuaciones de peso (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Restrição Calórica/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento Alimentar , Psicometria/instrumentação , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Saúde Mental
8.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 12(1): 225-241, ene.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-709057

RESUMO

La participación política de los jóvenes ha decrecido en los últimos años, en especial en aquellos países con democracias consolidadas. Considerando esto, la presente investigación se plantea como objetivo estudiar el comportamiento político de los jóvenes a través de la teoría de personalidad de marca. Se pretende analizar el descontento de los jóvenes hacia la política a través de los rasgos de personalidad humana que atribuyen a los partidos políticos. Se evaluó la personalidad de marca de los ocho principales partidos políticos de Chile a través de un modelo compuesto por las siguientes dimensiones: sinceridad, ambición, competencia, estimulante, tradicional, sofisticado, rudeza y elitistas. Los resultados permiten concluir que aun cuando los partidos políticos difieren en sus atributos de personalidad, comparten en común que son considerados como no competentes.


Political participation among young people has decreased in the last few years, especially in those countries with consolidated democracies. Considering this, the present research tackles as its main objective the study of the political behavior of young people by means of the theory of brand personality. We intend to analyze discontent towards politics among young people through the human personality traits attributed to political parties. The brand personality of the 8 main political parties in Chile was evaluated by means of a model made up of the following dimensions: sincere, ambitious, competent, stimulating, traditional, sophisticated, tough and elitist. The results enable us to conclude that even when political parties differ in their personality attributes, they share a common ground: they are all considered not competent.


Assuntos
Chile
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