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1.
Artigo em Espanhol, Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51080

RESUMO

[EXTRACTO]. La investigación para la salud es el eje de los sistemas de salud que son eficaces y eficientes. Para mejorar la salud pública y comprender los aspectos económicos y la mecánica de los sistemas de salud, se requiere una amplia gama de métodos de investigación. En los últimos decenios, con el rápido incremento en el acceso al conocimiento científico, también han aumentado las expectativas de que ese conocimiento se aplique y se traduzca en una mejor salud. Hoy en día, la sociedad espera que las decisiones estén fundamentadas en el mejor conocimiento disponible, pero todavía no se organizan ni se gestionan de manera adecuada las iniciativas de investigación… En el 2009, los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) aprobaron la Política de investigación para la salud de la Región de las Américas, la primera política regional de este tipo en la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Esta política fue elaborada en consonancia con la Estrategia de la OMS sobre investigaciones en pro de la salud y la complementa…


[EXTRACTO]. A pesquisa em saúde é o eixo central de sistemas de saúde eficazes e eficientes. Uma ampla gama de métodos de pesquisa é necessária para melhorar a saúde pública e a equidade, e para compreender os fundamentos econômicos e mecanismos operacionais dos sistemas de saúde. À medida que o acesso ao conhecimento científico cresceu nas últimas décadas, as expectativas quanto à adoção desse conhecimento para melhorar a saúde também aumentaram. As sociedades agora esperam que as decisões sejam informadas pelas melhores evidências, mas a organização e a gestão das pesquisas continuam inadequadas... Em 2009, os Estados Membros da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) aprovaram uma política regional para a pesquisa em saúde nas Américas – a primeira políticas regional da OMS para este fim. Foi desenvolvida para se harmonizar com a Estratégia da OMS sobre Pesquisa em Saúde e complementá-la.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Avaliação de Políticas de Pesquisa , Sistemas de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Avaliação de Políticas de Pesquisa , Agenda de Pesquisa em Saúde , Agenda de Pesquisa em Saúde
2.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49698

RESUMO

Men’s health as an issue warranting specific attention has begun to attract more notice as growing evidence emerges of differential epidemiological trends between men and women (1), particularly with respect to men’s premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and morbidity linked to poor health-seeking behaviors, mental health and violence, including homicide and injuries. In almost every country of the world, men are more likely than women to die before age 70 (2–4), and data from the World Health Organization (WHO) (5) suggest that approximately 52% of all NCD deaths worldwide occurred among men. Across the life course, mortality is higher in men than in women, and overall life expectancy for men is universally shorter. Compared with women, men have a mortality rate 4 times greater due to external causes and a 7 times greater risk of dying from homicide. The probability of men dying from cardiac ischemic diseases is 75% higher compared with women. Furthermore, 36% of deaths in men are preventable, compared with 19% in women.


Assuntos
Saúde do Homem , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Saúde Mental , Uso de Tabaco , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas
3.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49571

RESUMO

The 2007 Declaration of Port of Spain, “Uniting to stop the epidemic of chronic NCDs,” resulted from a historic and unprecedented effort by heads of state of the Caribbean subregion who recognized the devastating burden and consequences of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) on their citizens and the need to respond at the highest political level. The Port of Spain Declaration (POSD) comprises 27 commitments to action in key areas including risk factor reduction and health promotion; improving quality of care; the development of appropriate legislative frameworks and the establishment of NCD commissions or similar entities to provide oversight of NCD prevention and control efforts.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Fatores de Risco , Promoção da Saúde , Políticas , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Região do Caribe
4.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42, sep. 2018. Special Issue Alma-Ata.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49500

RESUMO

Forty years ago, the Region of the Americas played a critical role in the development and negotiation of the Alma-Ata Declaration, which identified primary health care as a central strategy to the goal of health for all and a comprehensive approach to the organization of health systems. Since then, the values and principles of primary health care, which include the right to health, equity, solidarity, social justice and participation, and multisectoral action, among others, have formed the basis of many PAHO mandates and have guided health systems transformation in the Region. The positive impact of primary health care on the reduction of mortality, morbidity, and inequities in health is well known. What’s more, primary health care consumes less financial resources than curative approaches and promotes a chain of positive results from improved health to increased economic output, growth and productivity


Hace cuarenta años, la Región de las Américas desempeñó un papel crucial en la elaboración y la negociación de la Declaración de Alma-Ata, en la que se definió la atención primaria de salud como una estrategia esencial para la meta de salud para todos y como un enfoque integral para la organización de los sistemas de salud. Desde entonces, los valores y principios de la atención primaria de salud, que incluyen el derecho a la salud, la equidad, la solidaridad, la justicia social y la participación y la acción multisectorial, entre otros, han constituido la base de muchos mandatos de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) y han guiado la transformación de los sistemas de salud en la Región. Las repercusiones positivas de la atención primaria de salud sobre la reducción de la mortalidad, la morbilidad y las inequidades en materia de salud son bien conocidas. Además la atención primaria de salud consume menos recursos económicos que los enfoques curativos, y promueve una cadena de resultados positivos, desde la mejor salud hasta una mayor producción, crecimiento y productividad de la economía.


Assuntos
Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Acesso Universal aos Serviços de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Equidade , Direito à Saúde , Justiça Social
6.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49114

RESUMO

The global health burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is large and growing, as this group of diseases already accounts for 70% of total deaths. Global evidence indicates that the high health burden of NCDs translates into significant economic and social costs that threaten to diminish the quality of life of millions of individuals, impoverish families, jeopardize universal health coverage, and increase health disparities within and between countries. On the other hand, less than 2% of global donor health funding is directed towards preventing these diseases. Recognizing the trends in NCDs and the global evidence on their multidimensional costs and their potential to hamper development, Goal 3 of the Sustainable Development Goals includes a specific target (Target 3.4) of reducing mortality from NCDs by one-third by 2030.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Pobreza , Américas
7.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49113

RESUMO

Investing in health is a whole-of-society commitment and a requirement for sustainable development. The links between health, development and economic growth have been well established with abundant evidence that demonstrates the benefits of increased health investment for sustainable human development, economic growth and population well-being. Evidence also reveals that better health outcomes and healthier populations contribute to higher productivity and therefore better economic results. The reality in the Region of the Americas remains challenging in this regard. Health systems are under-funded and characterized by segmentation and fragmentation in financing and service provision, with inefficiencies in the allocation and use of limited resources. These problems result in poorer health outcomes and contribute to persistent poverty and inequities, with the greatest impact on populations in conditions of vulnerability. The way forward then is two-fold: find new public sources of funding while simultaneously increasing efficiency in health systems financing and health services organization to better respond to population needs.


Assuntos
Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indicadores de Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Saúde , Pobreza , Américas
8.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34908

RESUMO

[ESPAÑOL]. A 40 años de Alma-Ata, la implementación de la Estrategia para el Acceso Universal a la Salud y la Cobertura Universal de Salud de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) –conocida como Salud Universal–, se posiciona como la principal herramienta para alcanzar la salud para todos en el siglo XXI. Los países de la Región de las Américas han avanzado en mayor o menor medida en esta vía, y desde 2014 un número significativo de ellos ha definido hojas de ruta y dispuesto marcos para monitorear y evaluar su camino hacia la Salud Universal. Cuba es uno de los países que muestra mayores avances en este sentido; de ahí la importancia de conocer mejor su experiencia tanto en la construcción de su Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS) como en el alcance de sus logros.


[ENGLISH]. Forty years after Alma-Ata, implementation of the Strategy for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage –Universal Health– (1) of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has emerged as the main tool for achieving health for all in the 21st century. The countries of the Region of the Americas have made varying degrees of progress on this path and, since 2014, a significant number of them have established road maps and frameworks for monitoring and evaluating their progress toward Universal Health. Cuba is one of the countries that shows the greatest progress in this regard; hence the importance of better understanding its experience in the construction of its national health system, as well as the scope of its achievements.


Assuntos
Cuba , Sistemas de Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Acesso Universal aos Serviços de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde
11.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34588

RESUMO

Childhood immunization programs have had a dramatic impact on child morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Latin America and the Caribbean, nearly 174 000 deaths were prevented through vaccination of children under 5 years of age in 2006 – 2011 in Latin America and the Caribbean according to Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) estimates. In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI); and in 1977, PAHO, the WHO Regional Office for the Americas, launched its own EPI. In 1978, a Resolution was approved by the Pan American Sanitary Conference, establishing the working capital for the PAHO Revolving Fund operations. The PAHO Revolving Fund—a mechanism facilitating pooled vaccine procurement—was created based on principles of Pan-American solidarity, equitable access to high quality vaccines, and transparency. Under the stellar leadership of Dr. Ciro A. de Quadros, the PAHO EPI became the flagship of the Organization.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Mortalidade da Criança , América Latina , Região do Caribe , Vacinação , Imunização
12.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34062

RESUMO

Advancing towards universal health requires resilient and functional health systems based on equitable and sustainable financing and capable of delivering quality, timely and people-centered health services while eliminating direct payments at the point of service. Building such systems is therefore a centerpiece in the quest for universal health. However, this is not an easy undertaking. Strong health systems need appropriate infrastructure, affordable and safe medicines; well-trained professionals, adequate in numbers and distribution; integrated health-care networks; sufficient financial resources; and sound and evidence-based decisions about what services to provide. All this in turn requires sustained political will, strong leadership with clear objectives and goals, regulatory frameworks to ensure the quality and safety of health interventions, and a legal foundation to promote and protect people’s right to health [...] This special issue of the Pan American Journal of Public Health examines Ecuador’s recent experience in health system reform through a series of articles on specific areas that have undergone major transformations as part of the health reform process. It is our hope that this special issue will help Ecuador’s health authorities take stock of their accomplishments and remaining challenges while encouraging health leaders in other countries to implement the changes their health systems need to advance further toward universal health.


Assuntos
Equador , Política Pública , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Política Pública , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde
13.
18.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 40(6), dic. 2016
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-33673

RESUMO

The Region of the Americas has been a pioneer in its response to HIV and has achieved admirable results. Over the course of the last 30 years, its countries have strengthened their national responses by building on the principles of equity and human rights, employing a gender perspective and scaling up HIV prevention, care and treatment programs to advance toward universal access. In Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), coverage of antiretroviral treatment (ART) reached 55% of the estimated 2 million persons living with HIV in 2015, a level exceeded only by Western and Central Europe and North America (59%). The Region’s adoption in 2011 of the Treatment 2.0 initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS provided a solid evidence-based approach for the expansion of ART through innovation, optimization, improved efficiency for sustainability and community participation. More recently, Argentina, Brazil and Mexico have been among the first countries worldwide to implement the new WHO “treat all” approach. Regionwide, the expansion of ART coverage has led to a 25% reduction in AIDS-related deaths since 2000. Additionally, strong prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs in LAC have driven rates of vertical transmission of HIV from 14% in 2010 to 8% in 2015, averting an estimated 28 000 new infections in children. Just last year, Cuba became the first country in the world to receive validation of dual elimination of vertical transmission of HIV and syphilis. Furthermore, in a global scenario of flat-lined investment and declining donor assistance, countries in the Region have shown increasing commitment to financing their HIV responses domestically...


Assuntos
HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Américas , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Fortalecimento Institucional , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
20.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 40(3), oct. 2016
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-31298

RESUMO

Though the devastating health effects of tobacco use are well known, tobacco’s negative repercussions extend well beyond the obvious health outcomes. Tobacco consumption creates a significant economic burden on societies because of both the high costs of health care and the associated lost productivity. In addition, tobacco use contributes to health inequalities and exacerbates poverty within and between countries through the diversion of resources away from food and other essential needs as well as through foregone income. These and other adverse consequences of the tobacco epidemic disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries, where more than 80% of the world’s smokers now live, including 127 million (or 11.4%), in the Region of the Americas. Considering its tremendous health and economic costs, the tobacco epidemic has the potential to undermine both social and economic development. The global response to tobacco is the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which has been ratified by 180 countries worldwide and 30 countries in the Americas. The FCTC provides a blueprint for governments to effectively curb the tobacco epidemic by implementing specific evidence-based interventions to reduce consumption. These include: adopting tax and price measures to reduce tobacco consumption; banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship; creating smoke-free work and public spaces; requiring prominent health warnings on tobacco packages; and combating illicit trade in tobacco products. These interventions have been identified as “best buys” in the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, which calls for a 30% relative reduction in the prevalence of tobacco use by 2025. Of note, raising taxes has proven to be the single most potent and cost-effective strategy for reducing tobacco use...


Assuntos
Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Américas
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