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2.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 26(2): 197-202, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined factors that determine bisphosphonate (BP) continuation beyond 5 years in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with BP continuation among women who completed 5 years of BP therapy. METHODS: Women who received 5 consecutive years of oral BP treatment entered the cohort during 2002-2014 and were followed up to 5 additional years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of demographic and clinical factors with adherent treatment continuation. RESULTS: The cohort included 19,091 women with a median age of 72 years. Baseline and time-varying factors associated with increased odds of BP continuation after 5 years were (a) most recent bone mineral density (BMD) T-score -2 to -2.4 (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.25-1.38), T-score -2.5 to -2.9 (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.39-1.57), and T-score ≤ -3.0 (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.47-1.68) versus T-scores above -2.0; (b) index date before 2008 (OR =1.35, 95% CI = 1.29-1.41); and (c) diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.01-1.16). In contrast, factors associated with decreased odds of BP continuation were (a) recent hip (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.52-0.71) or humerus (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66-0.94) fracture or fracture other than hip, wrist, spine, or humerus (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.84-0.97); (b) Charlson Comorbidity Index score > 2 (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.84-0.98); (c) history of rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.80-0.99); (d) Hispanic (OR = 0.89, 95% CI=0.85-0.94) or Asian (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.85-0.94) race/ethnicity; and (e) use of proton pump inhibitors (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.59-0.71). Patient age and fracture before BP initiation were not associated with treatment continuation. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical factors predicting continued BP treatment beyond 5 years include low BMD T-score, absence of recent fracture, and earlier era of treatment. Use of proton pump inhibitors was associated with lower likelihood of BP continuation. Other clinical and demographic factors were also noted to have variable effects on BP treatment continuation. DISCLOSURES: This study was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Aging and National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases at the National Institutes of Health (NIH; R01AG047230, S1). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH or Kaiser Permanente. Lo has received previous research funding from Amgen and Sanofi, unrelated to the current study. Adams has received previous research funding from Merck, Amgen, Otsuka, and Radius Health, unrelated to the current study. Ettinger has served as an expert witness for Teva Pharmaceuticals, unrelated to the current study. Ott previously attended a scientific advisory meeting for Amgen but declined the honorarium. The other authors have nothing to disclose. These data were presented at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR), September 28-October 1, 2018, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

4.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(6): 719-723, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assigning drug exposure is a necessary first step in examining bisphosphonate (BP) treatment in observational studies using pharmacy data. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the choice of adherence level using the proportion of days covered (PDC) affected BP exposure assignment. METHODS: 10,381 female health plan members who initiated oral BP therapy between 2002 and 2010 and had received 5 consecutive years of treatment were identified and subsequently followed up to 5 additional years. In each 90-day interval of follow-up, a woman was considered "on treatment" if she received the drug for more than a predetermined PDC based on pharmacy days supply and "off treatment" if she received the drug for less than that PDC. Women who continued on therapy above the PDC threshold during follow-up were considered continuously on therapy. Women who were off treatment during the first 90-days of follow-up were classified as off therapy and were followed to determine if they remained continuously off treatment. This study evaluated the extent to which varying the PDC threshold (≥ 0.5, ≥ 0.6, and ≥ 0.7) affected the proportion of women classified as "continuously on" or "continuously off" BP during follow-up. RESULTS: Under PDC thresholds of 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7, 48%, 43%, and 36% of women who remained on follow-up were categorized as continuously on treatment at year 2 of follow-up, and 18%, 14%, and 12% were categorized as continuously on treatment by the end of follow-up. Using these same PDC thresholds, 9%, 12%, and 15% of women were categorized as off therapy during the first quarter of follow-up and were highly likely to remain off therapy: 4%, 5%, and 5% were classified as continuously off therapy at year 2, and 4% of women were classified as such by the end of follow-up for all 3 thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: A PDC of 0.6 was chosen as a practical threshold for drug adherence. Varying the PDC to 0.5 or 0.7 resulted in modest changes in the proportions of women considered continuously on BP therapy. DISCLOSURES: This study was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Aging and National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases at the National Institutes of Health (R01AG047230, S1). Lo has received previous research funding from Amgen and Sanofi, outside of the current study. Chandra has received previous research funding from Amgen outside of the current study. Adams has received previous research funding from Merck, Amgen, Otsuka, and Radius Health, outside of the current study. Ott previously attended a scientific advisory meeting for Amgen but declined the honorarium. Ettinger previously served as an expert witness for Teva Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Osteoporose/complicações , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
6.
Menopause ; 25(11): 1187-1190, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358711

RESUMO

Discontinuation of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is much more common than what is reported in randomized, double-blind clinical trials. Our purpose in this retrospective study, using a prescription database, was to compare the continuation rate among women who took cyclic combination therapy adding progesterone to estrogen (CYC-PERT) or continuous combined estrogen progestin therapy (CC-PERT). The study subjects were 1,532 women, ≥45 years old, who initially filled index prescriptions for 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens. They were divided into two groups (CYC-PERT = 644, CC-PERT = 888) on the basis of coprescribed medroxyprogesterone. We found that for all women initiating therapy, 35-40% did not return for a refill and 76-81% stopped therapy within 3 years. Those prescribed CC-PERT initially were more likely to stop than those prescribed CYC-PERT (rate ratio [RR] = 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-1.35). Adjustments for age, year of starting medication, cost of medication, and prescriber specialty did not affect the difference in discontinuation between the two regimens (RR 1.18, 95% CI = 1.04-1.34). We conclude that the likelihood of women continuing HRT beyond 3 years of initiation is low. Furthermore, compared with CYC-PERT users, those receiving CC-PERT have a slightly higher probability of discontinuation. Efforts should be made to understand why three quarters of women beginning HRT will stop it long before it can provide major long-term benefit.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Progesterona/uso terapêutico , Progestinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Amenorreia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/economia , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/economia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Medroxiprogesterona/economia , Medroxiprogesterona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Menopause ; 25(11): 1191-1194, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358712

RESUMO

Reports of a role of postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy in the development of breast cancer have been inconsistent. Although many epidemiologic studies have failed to show an association between short-term use of estrogen and breast cancer, there are indications that long-term use may present an increased risk. We undertook a long-term, retrospective cohort study of the incidence of breast cancer in women who had taken long-term estrogen (average 17.2 years), compared to women who had not taken estrogen. Subjects were 454 women born between 1900 and 1915, who were members of a large health maintenance organization in northern California. By the end of 1995, 26 (11.2%) of estrogen users developed breast cancer, as did 9 (4.1%) of the nonusers; the relative risk (RR) for estrogen use was 2.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-5.9]. Adjustment for age and multiple breast cancer risk factors, including breast cancer surveillance, reduced the RR for estrogen to 2.0 (95% CI 0.9-4.5). We conclude that long-term estrogen use is associated with a substantially increased risk of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Pós-Menopausa , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , São Francisco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Menopause ; 25(11): 1306-1312, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The results of the Women's Health Initiative led to a sharp decline in postmenopausal hormone therapy use. Subsequently, treatment guidelines were revised to recommend hormone therapy at the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible duration. The objective of this analysis was to assess trends in nationwide hormone therapy prescription claims from 2002 to 2009. METHODS: This study was a retrospective database analyses of pharmacy claims from MedImpact Healthcare Systems Inc. Data from women with claims for oral or transdermal hormone therapy were analyzed to assess trends in hormone therapy claims, including route of administration, dose, and physician specialty. RESULTS: By the end of 2002, the total number of hormone therapy claims dropped approximately 30% from 2002 second quarter claims. This trend continued during the next 7 years, and by 2009, hormone therapy claims were reduced by more than 70%. The proportion of low-dose oral claims rose fourfold, whereas the proportion of standard/high-dose claims decreased 30%. The proportion of claims for transdermal formulations more than doubled, and the proportion of claims for low-dose transdermal hormone therapy increased 10-fold. Although reductions in overall claims, routes of administration, and dose categories were similar between physician specialties, obstetrician/ gynecologists prescribed transdermal hormone therapy nearly twice as often as all other types of providers. CONCLUSIONS: Since the publication of the Women's Health Initiative results, there has been a sustained decrease in hormone therapy claims. The proportional use of low-dose oral and transdermal formulations has increased, but as of 2009, claims for these formulations accounted for approximately one in four total hormone therapy claims.


Assuntos
Administração Cutânea , Administração Oral , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/métodos , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/tendências , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prescrições , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
9.
Am J Manag Care ; 23(12): e421-e422, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29261250

RESUMO

In the setting of changing temporal trends in the management of osteoporosis, we examined how select characteristics of new oral bisphosphonate (BP) initiators changed over time among 94,073 women within a large, integrated healthcare organization during the period 2004 to 2012. In the earlier era (2004-2007), approximately half of women younger than 65 years initiating BP therapy (47%-54%) had osteoporosis by bone mineral density (BMD) criteria, but this proportion increased sharply in the later era (2008-2012), with 55% to 81% having osteoporosis. This trend was not evident in older women (≥65 years). The proportion of younger women with prior fracture increased from 15% in 2008 to 32% in 2012, after remaining relatively stable (10%-15%) during the earlier era. Again, this trend was not observed among older women. Thus, among women younger than 65 years, we observed a marked temporal shift in initiation of BP treatment toward women at high risk (including those with prior fracture and those with osteoporosis by BMD testing) and away from those at lower risk (such as those with osteopenia and/or no prior fracture).


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/complicações , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
10.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 23(4): 503-512, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28345435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Examining drug exposure is essential to pharmacovigilance, especially for bisphosphonate (BP) therapy. OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in 4 measures of oral BP exposure: treatment discontinuation, adherence, persistence, and nonpersistence. METHODS: Among women aged ≥ 50 years who initiated oral BP therapy during 2002-2007 with at least 3 years of health plan membership follow-up, discontinuation was defined by evidence of no further treatment during the study observation period. Among those with at least 2 filled BP prescriptions during the study period, adherence was calculated for each year of follow-up using the (modified) proportion of days covered (mPDC) metric that allows for stockpiling of prescription/refills overlap ≤ 30 days supply. Persistence was quantified by treatment duration, allowing a gap of up to 60 days between prescription/refill days covered. Nonpersistence was quantified by the periods without drugs outside this allowable gap. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare age and race groups and the relationships of early adherence (adherence during the first year) with subsequent adherence. RESULTS: Among 48,390 women initiating oral BP therapy and followed for 3 years, 26.7% discontinued in year 1, and 14.7% of the remaining 35,456 women discontinued in year 2. Discontinuation rates were slightly higher (29.4%, P < 0.001) for women aged ≥ 75 years and somewhat lower (21.1%, P < 0.001) for Asian women. During the first year, 60.4% of the women achieved an mPDC of ≥ 75%, with demographic differences in adherence similar to that seen for treatment discontinuation. Over the 3 years, the median mPDC levels for BP therapy were 86%, 84%, and 85% in years 1, 2, and 3, respectively, for those receiving treatment. Cumulative persistence was 2.3 years (median, IQR = 1.0-3.0) overall and slightly greater for Asian versus white women and lower for older women. There were 18,174 (42.9%) women with at least 1 period of nonpersistence during 3 years follow-up in excess of the 60-day allowable gap between prescription/refills (median cumulative nonpersistence = 0.65, IQR = 0.30-1.25 years). Women with mPDC ≥ 75% during the first year had a 12-fold and 6-fold increased odds of mPDC ≥ 75% during year 2 and year 3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: BP discontinuation rates are highest for women during the first year. Among those continuing treatment in subsequent years, adherence rates were relatively stable. Persistence and adherence varied slightly by age and was somewhat higher in Asians, contributing to differences in cumulative BP exposure. We also found evidence that optimal adherence in the first year was highly predictive of optimal adherence in the subsequent 1-2 years. Hence, subgroups of patients receiving oral BP drugs may require different levels of support and monitoring to maximize treatment benefit, especially based on early patterns of use. DISCLOSURES: This study was supported by grants from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Community Benefit Program and the National Institutes of Health, 1R01AG047230-01A1. The opinions expressed in this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of Kaiser Permanente or the National Institutes of Health. Hui, Yi, and Chandra have received past research funding from Amgen not related to the current study. Adams has received research funding from Amgen, Merck, and Otsuka not related to the current study. Niu has received research funding from Bristol-Myers Squibb not related to the current study. Ettinger has received past legal fees in litigation involving Fosamax. Lo has received past research funding from Amgen and current research funding from Sanofi not related to the current study. The data from this study were presented at the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy Annual Meeting; April 19-22, 2016; San Francisco, California. Study concept and design were contributed primarily by Hui and Lo, along with Adams, Niu, Yi, and Ettinger. Hui took the lead in data collection, along with Chandra, and data interpretation was performed by Niu, Yi, and Lo, along with the other authors. The manuscript was written by Hui, Adams, and Lo, along with Niu, Yi, and Ettinger, and revised by Ettinger, Hui, Lo, and Niu, along with the other authors.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Americanos Asiáticos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos
12.
Bone ; 85: 142-7, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26769007

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several epidemiologic studies suggest that compared to white women, Asians have a greater propensity to suffer an atypical femur fracture (AFF) while taking bisphosphonate therapy. This study examines the relative risk of AFF following bisphosphonate initiation for Asian compared to white women. METHODS: Using data from a large integrated northern California healthcare delivery system, we examined diaphyseal femur fracture outcomes among women age≥50years old who initiated oral bisphosphonate therapy during 2002-2007. An AFF was defined by the 2013 American Society of Bone and Mineral Research Task Force criteria. The risk of radiographically-confirmed AFF was examined for Asian compared to white women, adjusting for differences in bisphosphonate exposure and other potential risk factors. RESULTS: Among 48,390 women (65.3% white, 17.1% Asian) who newly initiated bisphosphonate therapy and were followed for a median of 7.7years, 68 women experienced an AFF. The rate of AFF was 18.7 per 100,000 person-years overall and eight-fold higher among Asian compared to white women (64.2 versus 7.6 per 100,000 person-years). Asians were also more likely to have longer bisphosphonate treatment duration compared to whites (median 3.8 versus 2.7years). The age-adjusted relative hazard for AFF was 8.5 (95% confidence interval 4.9-14.9) comparing Asian to white women, and was only modestly reduced to 6.6 (3.7-11.5) after adjusting for bisphosphonate duration and current use. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms marked racial disparity in AFF risk that should be further investigated, particularly the mechanisms accounting for this difference. These findings also underscore the need to further examine the association of bisphosphonate duration and AFF in women of Asian race, as well as differential risk across Asian subgroups. In the interim, counseling of Asian women about osteoporosis drug continuation should include consideration of their potentially higher AFF risk.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Grupos Étnicos , Fraturas do Fêmur/induzido quimicamente , Fraturas do Fêmur/epidemiologia , Administração Oral , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
13.
Menopause ; 20(10): 1092-7, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24048261

RESUMO

CLINICAL SCENARIO: One of your patients, a 59-year-old postmenopausal Asian woman (menopause, age 52), took hormone therapy for about one year for her menopause symptoms. When she was 54, her mother (age 80) suffered a hip fracture, and she requested a bone density test at her next gynecology visit. The t-score results were spine, -1.1; total hip, -1.8; and femoral neck, -2.1, all in the osteopenic range. After some discussion, she was started on alendronate 70 mg once a week, together with calcium and vitamin D. Follow-up dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry testing after 2 and 5 years of therapy showed increases in bone mineral density, resulting in t-score improvements of about 0.3 to 0.5 units (spine was now normal; femoral neck was -1.8). The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool estimated her 10-year risk of hip fracture to be 0.4% and her 10-year risk of any of 4 major osteoporotic fractures to be 7.5%. During her most recent gynecology visit, she expressed concern about unusual femoral fractures being linked to long-term use of alendronate. She asks if there is reason for her to stop using this drug.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Fraturas do Fêmur/induzido quimicamente , Comitês Consultivos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alendronato/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Sociedades Médicas , Vitamina D
15.
J Clin Densitom ; 15(3): 334-42, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22445858

RESUMO

We evaluated the performance of the Fracture Risk Calculator (FRC) in 5893 men who participated in the baseline visit (March 2000-April 2002) of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study. FRC estimates for 10-yr hip and major osteoporotic (hip, clinical spine, forearm, and shoulder) fractures were calculated and compared with observed 10-yr fracture probabilities. Possible enhancement of the tool's performance when bone mineral density (BMD) was included was evaluated by comparing areas under receiver operating characteristic curves and by Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI). A total of 5893 men were followed-up for an average of 8.4 yr. For most quintiles of predicted fracture risk, the ratios of observed to predicted probabilities were close to unity. Area under the curves improved when BMD was included (p<0.001; 0.79 vs 0.71 for hip fracture and 0.70 vs 0.66 for major osteoporotic fracture, respectively). Using National Osteoporosis Foundation clinical treatment thresholds, BMD inclusion increased NRI significantly, 8.5% (p<0.01) for hip and 4.0% (p=0.01) for major osteoporotic fracture. We conclude that the FRC calibrates well with hip and major osteoporotic fractures observed among older men. Further, addition of BMD to the fracture risk calculation improves the tool's performance.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
16.
Bone ; 51(1): 181-4, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22414379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports of atypical femur fracture in bisphosphonate-exposed women have prompted interest in characterizing the clinical profiles of these patients. METHODS: Among women age ≥60 years with hip or femur fracture during 2007-2008, we identified 79 with low-trauma subtrochanteric or femoral shaft fracture. Radiographic images were reviewed to assign fracture pattern and distinguish atypical femur fracture from non-atypical femur fracture. Differences in clinical characteristics and pharmacologic exposures were compared. RESULTS: Among 79 women (38 subtrochanteric and 41 femoral shaft fracture), 38 had an atypical femur fracture. Compared to those with a non-atypical femur fracture, women with atypical femur fracture were significantly younger (74.0 vs 81.0 years), more likely to be Asian (50.0 vs 2.4%) and to have received bisphosphonate therapy (97.4 vs 41.5%). Similarly, the contralateral femur showed a stress or complete fracture in 39.5% of atypical femur fractures vs 2.4% non-atypical femur fracture, and focal cortical hypertrophy of the contralateral femur in an additional 21.1% of atypical cases. CONCLUSIONS: Women suffering atypical femur fractures have a markedly different clinical profile from those sustaining typical fractures. Women with atypical femur fracture tend to be younger, Asian, and bisphosphonate-exposed. The high frequency of contralateral femur findings suggests a generalized process.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas do Fêmur/etnologia , Fraturas do Quadril/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/etnologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Menopause ; 19(6): 610-5, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22207318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The results of the Women's Health Initiative led to a sharp decline in postmenopausal hormone therapy use. Subsequently, treatment guidelines were revised to recommend hormone therapy at the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible duration. The objective of this analysis was to assess trends in nationwide hormone therapy prescription claims from 2002 to 2009. METHODS: This study was a retrospective database analyses of pharmacy claims from MedImpact Healthcare Systems Inc. Data from women with claims for oral or transdermal hormone therapy were analyzed to assess trends in hormone therapy claims, including route of administration, dose, and physician specialty. RESULTS: By the end of 2002, the total number of hormone therapy claims dropped approximately 30% from 2002 second quarter claims. This trend continued during the next 7 years, and by 2009, hormone therapy claims were reduced by more than 70%. The proportion of low--dose oral claims rose fourfold, whereas the proportion of standard/high-dose claims decreased 30%. The proportion of claims for transdermal formulations more than doubled, and the proportion of claims for low-dose transdermal hormone therapy increased 10-fold. Although reductions in overall claims, routes of administration, and dose categories were similar between physician specialties, obstetrician/gynecologists prescribed transdermal hormone therapy nearly twice as often as all other types of providers. CONCLUSIONS: Since the publication of the Women's Health Initiative results, there has been a sustained decrease in hormone therapy claims. The proportional use of low-dose oral and transdermal formulations has increased, but as of 2009, claims for these formulations accounted for approximately one in four total hormone therapy claims.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/tendências , Menopausa , Saúde da Mulher/tendências , Administração Cutânea , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados como Assunto , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/métodos , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Clin Densitom ; 14(4): 407-15, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21958955

RESUMO

Area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve is often used to evaluate risk models. However, reclassification tests provide an alternative assessment of model performance. We performed both evaluations on results from FRAX (World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, UK), a fracture risk tool, using Kaiser Permanente Northern California women older than 50yr with bone mineral density (BMD) measured during 1997-2003. We compared FRAX performance with and without BMD in the model. Among 94,489 women with mean follow-up of 6.6yr, 1579 (1.7%) sustained a hip fracture. Overall, AUROCs were 0.83 and 0.84 for FRAX without and with BMD, suggesting that BMD did not contribute to model performance. AUROC decreased with increasing age, and BMD contributed significantly to higher AUROC among those aged 70yr and older. Using an 81% sensitivity threshold (optimum level from receiver operating characteristic curve, corresponding to 1.2% cutoff), 35% of those categorized above were reassigned below when BMD was added. In contrast, only 10% of those categorized below were reassigned to the higher risk category when BMD was added. The net reclassification improvement was 5.5% (p<0.01). Two versions of this risk tool have similar AUROCs, but alternative assessments indicate that addition of BMD improves performance. Multiple methods should be used to evaluate risk tool performance with less reliance on AUROC alone.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , California , Feminino , Sistemas Pré-Pagos de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
Am J Manag Care ; 17(3): 188-94, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21504255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of the Fracture Risk Calculator (FRC, Foundation for Osteoporosis Research and Education) for predicting 10-year hip fracture risk within a "real world" population. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: We identified female members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California aged ≥50 years with bone mineral density (BMD) measured during 1997-2003. Hospitalization for hip fracture was ascertained up to 10 years following the BMD date, and 10-year observed hip fracture probabilities were calculated. Baseline data for fracture risk calculation were extracted from health plan databases, including age, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, prior fracture, rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid use, disorders associated with bone loss, and femoral neck BMD. Predicted 10-year FRC hip fracture probabilities were compared with observed 10-year hip fracture probabilities. RESULTS: Among 94,489 women (mean age 62.8 +/- 8.6 years, average femoral neck Z-score +0.1),the median duration of follow-up was 6.6 years, during which 1579 (1.7%) hip fractures occurred. Using the FRC, 23% met or exceeded the National Osteoporosis Foundation's 3% hip fracture threshold. The FRC somewhat underestimated observed hip fracture probabilities; across 10-year risk categories <1%, 1% to 2.9%, and 3% to 4.9%, ratios of observed to median predicted probabilities ranged from 1.3 to 1.4. CONCLUSIONS: The FRC tool can be applied to assess fracture risk in large populations using data from administrative databases. Despite some underestimation, this relatively simple tool may assist targeting of at-risk populations for more complete fracture risk assessment.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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