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1.
Psychophysiology ; : e14089, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521807

RESUMO

Mean pupil size during fixation has been suggested to reflect interindividual differences in working memory and fluid intelligence. However, due to small samples with limited age range (17-35 years) and suboptimal light conditions in previous studies, these associations are still controversial and it is unclear whether they are observed at older ages. Therefore, we assessed whether interindividual differences in cognitive performance are reflected in pupil diameter during fixation and whether these associations are age-dependent. We analyzed pupillometry and cognition data of 4560 individuals aged 30-95 years of the community-based Rhineland Study. Pupillometry data were extracted from a one-minute fixation task. The cognitive test battery included tests of oculomotor control, working memory, episodic verbal memory, processing speed, executive function, and crystallized intelligence. For data analysis, we used multivariable regression models. Working memory and global cognition were not associated with pupil diameter during fixation. Better processing speed performance was associated with larger pupil diameter during fixation. Associations between cognition and pupil diameter during fixation hardly varied with age, but pupil diameter during fixation declined linearly with age (adjusted decline: 0.33 mm per 10 years of age). There were no significant sex differences in pupil size. We conclude that interindividual differences in mean pupil diameter during fixation may partly reflect interindividual differences in the speed of processing and response generation. We could not confirm that interindividual differences in working memory and fluid intelligence are reflected in pupil size during fixation; however, our sample differed in age range from previous studies.

2.
Assessment ; : 10731911221089193, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435010

RESUMO

Neuropsychological assessments are often surprisingly inaccurate in mapping clinically-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, presumably due to their low ecological validity. Virtual reality (VR) might offer a potential solution for this problem, given its capability to generate standardized and yet highly realistic virtual environments. As the first adaptation of existing virtual classroom scenarios to an adult population, we developed a Virtual Seminar Room (VSR) for multimodal characterization of ADHD symptoms. To test its feasibility, N = 35 healthy participants were immersed into the VSR via a head-mounted display and carried out a VR-embedded continuous performance task (CPT) under varying levels of distractions in two experimental blocks (24 min each). CPT performance, electroencephalography (EEG) measures, and head movements (actigraphy) were simultaneously recorded and analyzed offline. Although CPT performance remained constant throughout the task, head movements increased significantly from Block 1 to Block 2. In addition, EEG theta (4-7 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) power was higher during Block 1 than Block 2, and during distractor-present than distractor-absent phases. Moreover, P300 amplitudes were higher during Block 1 than Block 2, and P300 latencies were prolonged in distractor-absent compared with distractor-present phases. Although the paradigm awaits further improvements, this study confirms the general feasibility of the VSR and provides a first step toward a multimodal, ecologically valid, and reliable VR-based adult ADHD assessment.

3.
Behav Res Methods ; 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384605

RESUMO

In this paper, we present a review of how the various aspects of any study using an eye tracker (such as the instrument, methodology, environment, participant, etc.) affect the quality of the recorded eye-tracking data and the obtained eye-movement and gaze measures. We take this review to represent the empirical foundation for reporting guidelines of any study involving an eye tracker. We compare this empirical foundation to five existing reporting guidelines and to a database of 207 published eye-tracking studies. We find that reporting guidelines vary substantially and do not match with actual reporting practices. We end by deriving a minimal, flexible reporting guideline based on empirical research (Section "An empirically based minimal reporting guideline").

4.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389740

RESUMO

Despite many research efforts dedicated toward deciphering the functional architecture underlying metacognition, it is still unclear if there is a common metacognitive resource for different functional requirements. Here, using laboratory measures of metacognition across several domains in a large sample (N = 155), we examined whether metacognitive ability is determined by universal or modular processes, and whether "online" laboratory measures are related to "offline" self-report measures of real-world metacognition. Trial-by-trial ratings of confidence were collected in pairs of tasks tapping into the domains of visual perception and episodic memory, whereas in the attention-to-action domain, one task obtained trial-by-trial confidence ratings and the other signal-dependent measures of error awareness. Relationships between metacognitive efficiency scores across paradigms and domains were assessed using a combination of correlational and latent variable approaches. The results point to a mixture of domain-general (unity) and domain-specific (diversity) components. Specifically, Bayesian correlation estimates of metacognitive efficiency as well as confirmatory factor analysis of interdomain correlations suggested metacognition about perceptual judgments to be mostly domain-specific, whereas convergent indications for interrelations between metacognition in the domains of attention-to-action and memory implied the coexistence of partly specialized metacognitive subsystems. Notably, offline measures of metacognition represented online metacognitive bias rather than online metacognitive efficiency, underscoring prevalent skepticism whether self-report questionnaires provide a useful proxy in metacognition research, as they appear susceptible to potentially unreliable introspections and memory distortions. Overall, our results indicate a constitution of both universal and specialized parts for task-based metacognition. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(2): 1167-1176, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707236

RESUMO

Neuroanatomical abnormalities have been reported along a continuum from at-risk stages, including high schizotypy, to early and chronic psychosis. However, a comprehensive neuroanatomical mapping of schizotypy remains to be established. The authors conducted the first large-scale meta-analyses of cortical and subcortical morphometric patterns of schizotypy in healthy individuals, and compared these patterns with neuroanatomical abnormalities observed in major psychiatric disorders. The sample comprised 3004 unmedicated healthy individuals (12-68 years, 46.5% male) from 29 cohorts of the worldwide ENIGMA Schizotypy working group. Cortical and subcortical effect size maps with schizotypy scores were generated using standardized methods. Pattern similarities were assessed between the schizotypy-related cortical and subcortical maps and effect size maps from comparisons of schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and major depression (MDD) patients with controls. Thicker right medial orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mOFC/vmPFC) was associated with higher schizotypy scores (r = 0.067, pFDR = 0.02). The cortical thickness profile in schizotypy was positively correlated with cortical abnormalities in SZ (r = 0.285, pspin = 0.024), but not BD (r = 0.166, pspin = 0.205) or MDD (r = -0.274, pspin = 0.073). The schizotypy-related subcortical volume pattern was negatively correlated with subcortical abnormalities in SZ (rho = -0.690, pspin = 0.006), BD (rho = -0.672, pspin = 0.009), and MDD (rho = -0.692, pspin = 0.004). Comprehensive mapping of schizotypy-related brain morphometry in the general population revealed a significant relationship between higher schizotypy and thicker mOFC/vmPFC, in the absence of confounding effects due to antipsychotic medication or disease chronicity. The cortical pattern similarity between schizotypy and schizophrenia yields new insights into a dimensional neurobiological continuity across the extended psychosis phenotype.

6.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 239(2): 489-507, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854936

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Nicotine has been widely studied for its pro-dopaminergic effects. However, at the behavioural level, past investigations have yielded heterogeneous results concerning effects on cognitive, affective, and motor outcomes, possibly linked to individual differences at the level of genetics. A candidate polymorphism is the 40-base-pair variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (rs28363170) in the SLC6A3 gene coding for the dopamine transporter (DAT). The polymorphism has been associated with striatal DAT availability (9R-carriers > 10R-homozygotes), and 9R-carriers have been shown to react more strongly to dopamine agonistic pharmacological challenges than 10R-homozygotes. OBJECTIVES: In this preregistered study, we hypothesized that 9R-carriers would be more responsive to nicotine due to genotype-related differences in DAT availability and resulting dopamine activity. METHODS: N=194 non-smokers were grouped according to their genotype (9R-carriers, 10R-homozygotes) and received either 2-mg nicotine or placebo gum in a between-subject design. Spontaneous blink rate (SBR) was obtained as an indirect measure of striatal dopamine activity and smooth pursuit, stop signal, simple choice and affective processing tasks were carried out in randomized order. RESULTS: Reaction times were decreased under nicotine compared to placebo in the simple choice and stop signal tasks, but nicotine and genotype had no effects on any of the other task outcomes. Conditional process analyses testing the mediating effect of SBR on performance and how this is affected by genotype yielded no significant results. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we could not confirm our main hypothesis. Individual differences in nicotine response could not be explained by rs28363170 genotype.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina , Nicotina , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Cognição , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Genótipo , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Nicotina/farmacologia
7.
Psychol Med ; 52(2): 342-351, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical psychotic-like experiences (PLE), resembling key symptoms of psychotic disorders, are common throughout the general population and possibly associated with psychosis risk. There is evidence that such symptoms are also associated with structural brain changes. METHODS: In 672 healthy individuals, we assessed PLE and associated distress with the symptom-checklist-90R (SCL-90R) scales 'schizotypal signs' (STS) and 'schizophrenia nuclear symptoms' (SNS) and analysed associations with voxel- and surfaced-based brain structural parameters derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T with CAT12. RESULTS: For SNS, we found a positive correlation with the volume in the left superior parietal lobule and the precuneus, and a negative correlation with the volume in the right inferior temporal gyrus [p < 0.05 cluster-level Family Wise Error (FWE-corrected]. For STS, we found a negative correlation with the volume of the left and right precentral gyrus (p < 0.05 cluster-level FWE-corrected). Surface-based analyses did not detect any significant clusters with the chosen statistical threshold of p < 0.05. However, in exploratory analyses (p < 0.001, uncorrected), we found a positive correlation of SNS with gyrification in the left insula and rostral middle frontal gyrus and of STS with the left precuneus and insula, as well as a negative correlation of STS with gyrification in the left temporal pole. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that brain structures in areas implicated in schizophrenia are also related to PLE and its associated distress in healthy individuals. This pattern supports a dimensional model of the neural correlates of symptoms of the psychotic spectrum.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Lobo Parietal/patologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/patologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações
8.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol ; 43(6): 637-653, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636711

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Detecting early pathological cognitive decline is critical for dementia and aging-related research and clinical diagnostics. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is commonly used to measure episodic verbal memory. The test requires participants to learn a list of 15 words over several trials. Since multiple testing is often required to detect cognitive decline, but repeating the same test can bias results, we developed 10 German AVLT word lists. METHOD: We randomly assigned the lists to 4,000 participants (aged 30-94 years) from a population-based cohort to test their comparability, as well as aging effects and sex differences. RESULTS: Nine lists were highly comparable, with only one being slightly more difficult. Recall performance decreased on average by 0.6-1.1 words per trial per decade of age. Perseveration errors decreased with increasing age. Women remembered on average between 0.8 and 1.5 words per trial more than men, regardless of age. Women also outperformed men in the sum of Trials 1-5, learning over trials, retroactive inhibition, and false-positive and interference errors. Proactive inhibition remained stable across age and was unaffected by sex. CONCLUSION: This German AVLT version presents comparable lists including detailed age and sex references and therefore allows test repetition excluding training effects. These versions are a valuable resource for research and clinical application.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Aprendizagem Verbal , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Testes Neuropsicológicos
9.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with substantial heritability. The use of endophenotypes may help clarify its aetiology. Measures from the smooth pursuit and antisaccade eye movement tasks have been identified as endophenotypes for schizophrenia in twin and family studies. However, the genetic basis of the overlap between schizophrenia and these oculomotor markers is largely unknown. Here, we tested whether schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) were associated with oculomotor performance in the general population. METHODS: Analyses were based on the data of 2956 participants (aged 30-95) of the Rhineland Study, a community-based cohort study in Bonn, Germany. Genotyping was performed on Omni-2.5 exome arrays. Using summary statistics from a recent meta-analysis based on the two largest schizophrenia genome-wide association studies to date, we quantified genetic risk for schizophrenia by creating PRS at different p value thresholds for genetic markers. We examined associations between PRS and oculomotor performance using multivariable regression models. RESULTS: Higher PRS were associated with higher antisaccade error rate and latency, and lower antisaccade amplitude gain. PRS showed inconsistent patterns of association with smooth pursuit velocity gain and were not associated with saccade rate during smooth pursuit or performance on a prosaccade control task. CONCLUSIONS: There is an overlap between genetic determinants of schizophrenia and oculomotor endophenotypes. Our findings suggest that the mechanisms that underlie schizophrenia also affect oculomotor function in the general population.

10.
J Psychopharmacol ; 35(12): 1496-1509, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhibitory control is a crucial executive function with high relevance to mental and physical well-being. However, there are still unanswered questions regarding its neural mechanisms, including the role of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). AIMS: This study examined the effects of lorazepam (0.5 mg and 1 mg), a positive allosteric modulator at the GABAA receptor, on response inhibition and interference control. We also explored the heterogeneity of inhibitory control and calculated delta plots to explore whether lorazepam affects the gradual build-up of inhibition and activation over time. METHODS: N = 50 healthy participants performed antisaccade, Eriksen flanker and Simon tasks in a within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized design. RESULTS: Lorazepam increased reaction time (RT) and error rates dose dependently in all tasks (p ⩽ 0.005). In the antisaccade and Simon tasks, lorazepam increased congruency effects for error rate (p ⩽ 0.029) but not RT (p ⩾ 0.587). In the Eriksen flanker task, both congruency effects were increased by the drug (p ⩽ 0.031). Delta plots did not reflect drug-induced changes in inhibition and activation over time. Delta plots for RT in the Simon task were negative-going, as expected, whereas those for the antisaccade and flanker tasks were positive-going. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for GABAergic involvement in performance on response inhibition and interference control tasks. Furthermore, our findings highlight the diversity of the broader construct of inhibitory control while also pointing out similarities between different inhibitory control tasks. In contrast to RT and error rates, the cognitive processes indexed by delta plots may not be sensitive to GABAergic modulation.


Assuntos
Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Executiva/efeitos dos fármacos , GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Inibição Psicológica , Lorazepam/farmacologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores de GABA-A/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 219: 103364, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245980

RESUMO

When we follow a slowly moving target with our eyes, we perform smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM). Previous investigations point to significantly and robustly reduced SPEM performance in the presence of a stationary background and at higher compared to lower target velocities. However, the reliability of these background and target velocity effects has not yet been investigated systematically. To address this issue, 45 healthy participants (17 m, 28 f) took part in two experimental sessions 7 days apart. In each session, participants were instructed to follow a horizontal SPEM target moving sinusoidally between ±7.89° at three different target velocities, corresponding to frequencies of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 Hz. Each target velocity was presented once with and once without a stationary background, resulting in six blocks. The blocks were presented twice per session in order to additionally explore potential task length effects. To assess SPEM performance, velocity gain was calculated as the ratio of eye to target velocity. In line with previous research, detrimental background and target velocity effects were replicated robustly in both sessions with large effect sizes. Good to excellent test-retest reliabilities were obtained at higher target velocities and in the presence of a stationary background, whereas lower reliabilities occurred with slower targets and in the absence of background stimuli. Target velocity and background effects resulted in largely good to excellent reliabilities. These findings not only replicated robust experimental effects of background and target velocity at group level, but also revealed that these effects can be translated into reliable individual difference measures.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Acompanhamento Ocular Uniforme , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diminished inhibitory control is one of the main characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and impairments in oculomotor inhibition have been proposed as a potential biomarker of the disorder. The present meta-analysis summarizes the effects reported in studies comparing oculomotor inhibition in ADHD patients and healthy control subjects. METHODS: Inhibitory outcomes were derived from oculomotor experimental paradigms including the antisaccade (AS), memory-guided saccade, and prolonged fixation tasks. Temporal and spatial measures were also extracted from these tasks and from visually guided saccade tasks as secondary outcomes. Data were available from k = 31 studies (N = 1567 participants). Summary effect sizes were computed using random-effects models and a restricted maximum-likelihood estimator. RESULTS: Among inhibitory outcomes, direction errors in AS, after correcting for publication bias, showed a moderate effect and large between-study heterogeneity (k = 18, n = 739, g = 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.27, 0.88], I2= 74%); anticipatory saccades in memory-guided saccade showed a large effect and low heterogeneity (k = 11, n = 487; g = 0.86, 95% CI [0.64, 1.08], I2 = 17.7%); and saccades during prolonged fixation evidenced large effect size and heterogeneity (k = 6, n = 325 g = 1.11, 95% CI [0.56, 1.65], I2 = 79.1%) partially related to age. Among secondary outcomes, saccadic reaction time in AS (k = 22, n = 932, g = 0.34, 95% CI [0.06, 0.63], I2 = 53.12%) and coefficient of variability in visually guided saccade (k = 5, n = 282, g = 0.53, 95% CI [0.28, 0.78], I2 = 0.01%) indicated significant effects with small to moderate effects sizes. CONCLUSIONS: ADHD groups commit more oculomotor inhibition failures than control groups. The substantial effects support the conclusion that oculomotor disinhibition is a relevant ADHD-related mechanism. Moderate effects observed in saccadic reaction time variability suggest that fluctuant performance in oculomotor tasks is another relevant characteristic of ADHD.

13.
NPJ Schizophr ; 7(1): 24, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980870

RESUMO

It is unclear whether early psychosis in the context of cannabis use is different from psychosis without cannabis. We investigated this issue by examining whether abnormalities in oculomotor control differ between patients with psychosis with and without a history of cannabis use. We studied four groups: patients in the early phase of psychosis with a history of cannabis use (EPC; n = 28); patients in the early phase of psychosis without (EPNC; n = 25); controls with a history of cannabis use (HCC; n = 16); and controls without (HCNC; n = 22). We studied smooth pursuit eye movements using a stimulus with sinusoidal waveform at three target frequencies (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 Hz). Participants also performed 40 antisaccade trials. There were no differences between the EPC and EPNC groups in diagnosis, symptom severity or level of functioning. We found evidence for a cannabis effect (χ2 = 23.14, p < 0.001), patient effect (χ2 = 4.84, p = 0.028) and patient × cannabis effect (χ2 = 4.20, p = 0.04) for smooth pursuit velocity gain. There was a large difference between EPC and EPNC (g = 0.76-0.86) with impairment in the non cannabis using group. We found no significant effect for antisaccade error whereas patients had fewer valid trials compared to controls. These data indicate that impairment of smooth pursuit in psychosis is more severe in patients without a history of cannabis use. This is consistent with the notion that the severity of neurobiological alterations in psychosis is lower in patients whose illness developed in the context of cannabis use.

14.
Front Psychol ; 12: 643670, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935897

RESUMO

Intertemporal choice involves deciding between smaller, sooner and larger, later rewards. People tend to prefer smaller rewards that are available earlier to larger rewards available later, a phenomenon referred to as temporal or delay discounting. Despite its ubiquity in human and non-human animals, temporal discounting is subject to considerable individual differences. Here, we provide a critical narrative review of this literature and make suggestions for future work. We conclude that temporal discounting is associated with key socio-economic and health-related variables. Regarding personality, large-scale studies have found steeper temporal discounting to be associated with higher levels of self-reported impulsivity and extraversion; however, effect sizes are small. Temporal discounting correlates negatively with future-oriented cognitive styles and inhibitory control, again with small effect sizes. There are consistent associations between steeper temporal discounting and lower intelligence, with effect sizes exceeding those of personality or cognitive variables, although socio-demographic moderator variables may play a role. Neuroimaging evidence of brain structural and functional correlates is not yet consistent, neither with regard to areas nor directions of effects. Finally, following early candidate gene studies, recent Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) approaches have revealed the molecular genetic architecture of temporal discounting to be more complex than initially thought. Overall, the study of individual differences in temporal discounting is a maturing field that has produced some replicable findings. Effect sizes are small-to-medium, necessitating future hypothesis-driven work that prioritizes large samples with adequate power calculations. More research is also needed regarding the neural origins of individual differences in temporal discounting as well as the mediating neural mechanisms of associations of temporal discounting with personality and cognitive variables.

15.
Neurosci Conscious ; 2021(1): niaa028, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747545

RESUMO

Only little research has been conducted on the pharmacological underpinnings of metacognition. Here, we tested the modulatory effects of a single intravenous dose (100 ng/ml) of the N-methyl-D-aspartate-glutamate-receptor antagonist ketamine, a compound known to induce altered states of consciousness, on metacognition and its neural correlates. Fifty-three young, healthy adults completed two study phases of an episodic memory task involving both encoding and retrieval in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fMRI study. Trial-by-trial confidence ratings were collected during retrieval. Effects on the subjective state of consciousness were assessed using the 5D-ASC questionnaire. Confirming that the drug elicited a psychedelic state, there were effects of ketamine on all 5D-ASC scales. Acute ketamine administration during retrieval had deleterious effects on metacognitive sensitivity (meta-d') and led to larger metacognitive bias, with retrieval performance (d') and reaction times remaining unaffected. However, there was no ketamine effect on metacognitive efficiency (meta-d'/d'). Measures of the BOLD signal revealed that ketamine compared to placebo elicited higher activation of posterior cortical brain areas, including superior and inferior parietal lobe, calcarine gyrus, and lingual gyrus, albeit not specific to metacognitive confidence ratings. Ketamine administered during encoding did not significantly affect performance or brain activation. Overall, our findings suggest that ketamine impacts metacognition, leading to significantly larger metacognitive bias and deterioration of metacognitive sensitivity as well as unspecific activation increases in posterior hot zone areas of the neural correlates of consciousness.

16.
Vision Res ; 178: 124-133, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387946

RESUMO

Assessing physiological changes that occur with healthy ageing is prerequisite for understanding pathophysiological age-related changes. Eye movements are studied as biomarkers for pathological changes because they are altered in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. However, there is a lack of data from large samples assessing age-related physiological changes and sex differences in oculomotor performance. Thus, we assessed and quantified cross-sectional relations of age and sex with oculomotor performance in the general population. We report results from the first 4,000 participants (aged 30-95 years) of the Rhineland Study, a community-based prospective cohort study in Bonn, Germany. Participants completed fixation, smooth pursuit, prosaccade and antisaccade tasks. We quantified associations of age and sex with oculomotor outcomes using multivariable linear regression models. Performance in 12 out of 18 oculomotor measures declined with increasing age. No differences between age groups were observed in five antisaccade outcomes (amplitude-adjusted and unadjusted peak velocity, amplitude gain, spatial error and percentage of corrected errors) and for blink rate during fixation. Small sex differences occurred in smooth pursuit velocity gain (men have higher gain) and blink rate during fixation (men blink less). We conclude that performance declines with age in two thirds of oculomotor outcomes but that there was no evidence of sex differences in eye movement performance except for two outcomes. Since the percentage of corrected antisaccade errors was not associated with age but is known to be affected by pathological cognitive decline, it represents a promising candidate preclinical biomarker of neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Movimentos Sacádicos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Acompanhamento Ocular Uniforme
17.
Psychophysiology ; 58(1): e13628, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621782

RESUMO

Previous research has suggested reduced parasympathetic cardiac regulation during cognitive activity in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about possible abnormalities in sympathetic control and cardiovascular reactivity. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of autonomic cardiovascular control in the context of executive functions in MDD. Thirty six MDD patients and 39 healthy controls participated. Parameters of sympathetic (pre-ejection period, PEP) and parasympathetic control (high and low frequency heart rate variability, HF HRV, LF HRV; and baroreflex sensitivity, BRS) as well as RR interval were obtained at rest and during performance of executive function tasks (number-letter task, n-back task, continuous performance test, and Stroop task). Patients, as compared to controls, exhibited lower HF HRV and LF HRV during task execution and smaller shortenings in PEP and RR interval between baseline and tasks. They displayed longer reaction times during all conditions of the tasks and more omission errors and false alarms on the continuous performance test. In the total sample, on-task HF HRV, LF HRV and BRS, and reactivity in HF HRV, LF HRV, and PEP, were positively associated with task performance. As performance reduction arose independent of executive function load of the tasks, the behavioral results reflect impairments in attention and processing speed rather than executive dysfunctions in MDD. Abnormalities in cardiovascular control during cognition in MDD appear to involve both divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Low tonic parasympathetic control and blunted sympathetic reactivity imply reduced physiological adjustment resources and, by extension, provide suboptimal conditions for cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 271(4): 635-645, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646383

RESUMO

Schizotypal personality traits show similarity with schizophrenia at various levels of analysis. It is generally agreed that schizotypal personality is multidimensional; however, it is still debated whether impulsive nonconformity should be incorporated into theories and measurement of schizotypy. In addition, relatively little is known about the network structure of the four-dimensional model of schizotypal personality. To estimate the network structure of schizotypy, we used data from participants recruited from the community (N = 11,807) who completed the short version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences, a widespread self-report instrument that assesses the positive, negative, disorganised and impulsive domains of schizotypy. We performed community detection, then examined differences between communities in terms of centralities and compared the strength of edges within and between communities. We found communities that almost perfectly corresponded to the a priori-defined subscales (93% overlap, normalised mutual information = 0.74). Items in the disorganisation community had higher closeness centrality relative to items in the other communities (Cliff's Δs ranged from 0.55 to 0.83) and weights of edges within the disorganisation community were stronger as compared to the negative schizotypy and impulsive nonconformity communities (Cliff's Δs = 0.33). Our findings imply that the inclusion of impulsive nonconformity items does not dilute the classical three-factor structure of positive, negative and disorganised schizotypy. The high closeness centrality of disorganisation concurs with theories positing that cognitive slippage and associative loosening are core features of the schizophrenic phenotype.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Psychophysiology ; 58(1): e13706, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095460

RESUMO

Deficits on saccade tasks, particularly antisaccade performance, have been reliably reported in schizophrenia. However, less evidence is available on saccade performance in relation to schizotypy, a personality constellation harboring risk for schizophrenia. Here, we report a large empirical study of the associations of schizotypy and neuroticism with antisaccade and prosaccade performance (Study I). Additionally, we carried out meta-analyses of the association between schizotypy and antisaccade error rate (Study II). In Study I, N = 526 healthy individuals from the general population aged 18-54 years completed prosaccade and antisaccade tasks as well as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Schizotypy was significantly associated with increased antisaccade error rate, with the disorganized dimension emerging as strongest predictor (ß = .118, p = .007). Neuroticism emerged as a significant predictor for prosaccade gain (ß = .103, p = .023) and antisaccade latency (ß = .101, p = .025). In Study II, random-effects meta-analyses were performed on the published data and those from Study I. Meta-analyses revealed significant associations (all p ≤ .003) of antisaccade error rate with positive (g = 0.37), negative (g = 0.26), disorganized (g = 0.36) and overall schizotypy (g = 0.37). Overall, the present work replicates the association between antisaccade direction errors and schizotypy. Significant findings from meta-analyses provide further evidence of the antisaccade error rate as a putative schizophrenia spectrum marker.


Assuntos
Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/fisiopatologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cereb Cortex ; 31(4): 2013-2025, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279967

RESUMO

Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) represents an important factor for multiple processes including neurodevelopment, brain functioning or cognitive functions. Evidence from animal research suggests an effect of NRG1 on the excitation-inhibition (E/I) balance in cortical circuits. However, direct evidence for the importance of NRG1 in E/I balance in humans is still lacking. In this work, we demonstrate the application of computational, biophysical network models to advance our understanding of the interaction between cortical activity observed in neuroimaging and the underlying neurobiology. We employed a biophysical neuronal model to simulate large-scale brain dynamics and to investigate the role of polymorphisms in the NRG1 gene (rs35753505, rs3924999) in n = 96 healthy adults. Our results show that G/G-carriers (rs3924999) exhibit a significant difference in global coupling (P = 0.048) and multiple parameters determining E/I-balance such as excitatory synaptic coupling (P = 0.047), local excitatory recurrence (P = 0.032) and inhibitory synaptic coupling (P = 0.028). This indicates that NRG1 may be related to excitatory recurrence or excitatory synaptic coupling potentially resulting in altered E/I-balance. Moreover, we suggest that computational modeling is a suitable tool to investigate specific biological mechanisms in health and disease.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Genótipo , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Neuregulina-1/genética , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuregulina-1/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sinapses/genética , Sinapses/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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