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1.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 223-235, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444972

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is necessary for tumor growth and has been targeted in breast cancer; however, it is unclear which patients will respond and benefit from antiangiogenic therapy. We report noninvasive monitoring of patient response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy given alone or in combination with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (bevacizumab) in a randomized clinical trial. At four time points during neoadjuvant chemotherapy ± bevacizumab of receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2-negative breast cancers, we measured metabolites and inflammation-related markers in patient's serum. We report significant changes in the levels of several molecules induced by bevacizumab, the most prominent being an increase in pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). Serum levels of AXL, VWF and pulmonary and activation-regulated cytokine (PARC/CCL18) reflected response to chemotherapy alone or in combination with bevacizumab. We further analyzed serum cytokines in relation to tumor characteristics such as gene expression, tumor metabolites and tumor infiltrating leukocytes. We found that VWF and growth-differentiation factor 15 tumor mRNA levels correlated with their respective serum protein levels suggesting that these cytokines may be produced by tumors and outflow to the bloodstream while influencing the tumor microenvironment locally. Finally, we used binomial logistic regression which allowed to predict patient's response using only 10 noninvasive biomarkers. Our study highlights the potential of monitoring circulating levels of cytokines and metabolites during breast cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante
2.
J Proteome Res ; 18(10): 3681-3688, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476120

RESUMO

Metabolic profiling of biofluids by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy serves as an important tool in disease characterization, and its accuracy largely depends on the quality of samples. We aimed to explore possible effects of repeated freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) on concentrations of lipoprotein parameters in serum and metabolite concentrations in serum and urine samples. After one to five FTCs, serum and urine samples (n= 20) were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy, and 112 lipoprotein parameters, 20 serum metabolites, and 35 urine metabolites were quantified by a commercial analytical platform. Principal component analysis showed no systematic changes related to FTCs, and samples from the same donor were closely clustered, showing a higher between-subject variation than within-subject variation. The coefficients of variation were small (medians of 4.3%, 11.0%, and 4.9%  for lipoprotein parameters and serum and urine metabolites, respectively). Minor, but significant accumulated freeze-thaw effects were observed for 32 lipoprotein parameters and one serum metabolite (acetic acid) when comparing FTC1 to further FTCs. Remaining lipoprotein and metabolite concentrations showed no significant change. In conclusion, five FTCs did not significantly alter the concentrations of urine metabolites and introduced only minor changes to serum lipoprotein parameters and metabolites evaluated by the NMR-based platform.

3.
J Proteome Res ; 18(10): 3649-3660, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483662

RESUMO

Patients with locally advanced breast cancer have a worse prognosis compared to patients with localized tumors and require neoadjuvant treatment before surgery. The aim of this study was to characterize the systemic metabolic effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with large primary breast cancers and to relate these changes to treatment response and long-term survival. This study included 132 patients with large primary breast tumors randomized to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without the addition of the antiangiogenic drug Bevacizumab. Tumor biopsies and serum were collected before and during treatment and, serum additionally 6 weeks after surgery. Samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Correlation analysis showed low correlations between metabolites measured in cancer tissue and serum. Multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed clear changes in serum metabolite levels during treatment (p-values ≤ 0.001), including unfavorable changes in lipid levels. PLS-DA revealed metabolic differences between tissue samples from survivors and nonsurvivors collected 12 weeks into treatment with an accuracy of 72% (p-value = 0.005); however, this was not evident in serum samples. Our results demonstrate a potential clinical application for serum-metabolomics for patient monitoring during and after treatment, and indicate potential for tissue NMR spectroscopy for predicting patient survival.

4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1786: 237-257, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786797

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy, and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death among men, worldwide. A major unsolved clinical challenge in prostate cancer is the ability to accurately distinguish indolent cancer types from the aggressive ones. Reprogramming of metabolism is now a widely accepted hallmark of cancer development, where cancer cells must be able to convert nutrients to biomass while maintaining energy production. Metabolomics is the large-scale study of small molecules, commonly known as metabolites, within cells, biofluids, tissues, or organisms. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is commonly applied in metabolomics studies of cancer. This chapter provides protocols for NMR-based metabolomics of cell cultures, biofluids (serum and urine), and intact tissue, with concurrent advice for optimal biobanking and sample preparation procedures.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos
5.
NMR Biomed ; : e3927, 2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672973

RESUMO

This review describes the current status of NMR-based metabolomics of biofluids with respect to cancer risk assessment, detection, disease characterization, prognosis, and treatment monitoring. While the metabolism of cancer cells is altered compared with that of non-proliferating cells, the metabolome of blood and urine reflects the entire organism. We conclude that many studies show impressive associations between biofluid metabolomics and cancer progression, but translation to clinical practice is currently hindered by lack of validation, difficulties in biological interpretation, and non-standardized analytical procedures.

7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1711: 167-189, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344890

RESUMO

Metabolic profiles reflect biological conditions as a result of biochemical changes within a living system. It is therefore possible to associate metabolic signatures with clinical endpoints of diseases, such as breast cancer. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most common techniques used for metabolic profiling, and produces high dimensional datasets from which meaningful biological information can be extracted. Here, we present an overview of data analysis techniques used to achieve this, describing key steps in the procedure. Moreover, examples of clinical endpoints of interest are provided. Although these are specific for breast cancer, the procedures for the analysis of NMR spectra as described here are applicable to any type of cancer and to other diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Mama/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Prognóstico , Software
8.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 47(6): 1589-1600, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Steady state susceptibility contrast (SSC)-MRI provides information on vascular morphology but is a rarely used method. PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of the ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIOs) GEH121333 for measuring tumor response to bevacizumab and compare this with gadolinium-based DCE-MRI. STUDY TYPE: Prospective preclinical animal model study. ANIMAL MODEL: Mice bearing subcutaneous TOV-21G human ovarian cancer xenografts treated with bevacizumab (n = 9) or saline (n = 9). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker Biospec. For SSC-MRI with GEH121333 we acquired R1 -maps (RARE-sequence with variable TR), R2 -maps (multi-spin echo), and R2*-maps (multi-gradient echo). Additionally, R1 and R2 maps were measured on the days after USPIO injection. For DCE-MRI with gadodiamide we acquired 200 T1 -weighted images (RARE-sequence). ASSESSMENT: ΔR1 , ΔR2 , and ΔR2* maps were computed from SSC-MRI. DCE-MRI was analysed using the extended Tofts model. STATISTICAL TESTS: Results from pre- and 3 days posttreatment SSC-MRI were compared using paired-sample t-tests. Treatment and control groups were compared using independent sample t-tests. Performance of SSC- and DCE-MRI was compared using multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis. RESULTS: Already one day after treatment and USPIO injection, R1 and R2 values were lower in treated (R1 = 0.49 ± 0.03s-1 , R2 = 23.07 ± 1.49s-1 ) compared with control tumors (R1 = 0.52 ± 0.02s-1 , R2 = 24.98 ± 1.01s-1 ), indicating lower USPIO accumulation. Posttreatment SSC-MRI displayed significantly decreased tumor blood volume (change in ΔR2 = -0.43 ± 0.26s-1 , P = 0.001) and vessel density (change in Q = -0.032 ± 0.020s-1/3 , P = 0.002). DCE-MRI showed among others lower Ktrans in treated tumors (control = 0.064 ± 0.011min-1 , tx = 0.046 ± 0.008min-1 , P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis suggests that SSC-MRI was slightly inferior to DCE-MRI in distinguishing treated from control tumors (accuracy = 75%, P = 0.058 versus 80%, P = 0.028), but a combination of both was best (accuracy = 85%; P = 0.003). DATA CONCLUSION: SSC-MRI with GEH121333 is sensitive to early (<24 h) and late changes in tumor vasculature. SSC-MRI and DCE-MRI provide complementary information and can be used to assess different aspects of vascular responses to anti-angiogenic therapies. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:1589-1600.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Meios de Contraste/química , Dextranos/química , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Front Oncol ; 7: 290, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29250485

RESUMO

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) enables non-invasive, quantitative staging of prostate cancer via measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water within tissues. In cancer, more advanced disease is often characterized by higher cellular density (cellularity), which is generally accepted to correspond to a lower measured ADC. A quantitative relationship between tissue structure and in vivo measurements of ADC has yet to be determined for prostate cancer. In this study, we establish a theoretical framework for relating ADC measurements with tissue cellularity and the proportion of space occupied by prostate lumina, both of which are estimated through automatic image processing of whole-slide digital histology samples taken from a cohort of six healthy mice and nine transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. We demonstrate that a significant inverse relationship exists between ADC and tissue cellularity that is well characterized by our model, and that a decrease of the luminal space within the prostate is associated with a decrease in ADC and more aggressive tumor subtype. The parameters estimated from our model in this mouse cohort predict the diffusion coefficient of water within the prostate-tissue to be 2.18 × 10-3 mm2/s (95% CI: 1.90, 2.55). This value is significantly lower than the diffusion coefficient of free water at body temperature suggesting that the presence of organelles and macromolecules within tissues can drastically hinder the random motion of water molecules within prostate tissue. We validate the assumptions made by our model using novel in silico analysis of whole-slide histology to provide the simulated ADC (sADC); this is demonstrated to have a significant positive correlation with in vivo measured ADC (r2 = 0.55) in our mouse population. The estimation of the structural properties of prostate tissue is vital for predicting and staging cancer aggressiveness, but prostate tissue biopsies are painful, invasive, and are prone to complications such as sepsis. The developments made in this study provide the possibility of estimating the structural properties of prostate tissue via non-invasive virtual biopsies from MRI, minimizing the need for multiple tissue biopsies and allowing sequential measurements to be made for prostate cancer monitoring.

10.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 18(1): 497, 2017 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis that develops in patients with psoriasis. Inflammatory edema in the spine may reflect subclinical disease activity and be a predictor of radiographic progression. A semi-quantitative method established by the spondyloarthritis research consortium of Canada (SPARCC) is commonly used to assess the disease activity in MR images of the spine. This study aims to evaluate thresholding for quantification of subtle bone marrow inflammation in the spine and the sacroiliac (SI) joints of patients with PsA and compare it with the SPARCC scoring system. METHODS: Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) MR images of the spine (N = 85) and the SI joints (N = 95) of patients with PsA (N = 41) were analyzed. A threshold was applied to visible bone marrow in order to mask areas with higher signal intensity, which are consistent with inflammation. These areas were considered as inflammatory lesions. The volume and relative signal intensity of the lesions were calculated. Results from thresholding were compared to SPARCC scores using linear mixed-effects models. The specificity and sensitivity of thresholding were also calculated. RESULTS: A significant positive correlation between the volumes and mean relative signal intensities, which were calculated by thresholding analysis, and the SPARCC scores was detected for both spine (p < 0.001) and SI joints (p < 0.001). For the spine, thresholding had sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 76% respectively, while for the SI joints the values were 51% and 88% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Thresholding allows quantification of subtle bone marrow inflammatory edema in patients with psoriatic arthritis, and could support SPARCC scoring of the spine. Improved image processing and inclusion of automatic segmentation are required for thresholding of STIR images to become a rapid and reliable method for quantitative measures of inflammation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02995460 (December 14, 2016) - Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação Sacroilíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Psoriásica/complicações , Edema/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Br J Cancer ; 117(11): 1656-1664, 2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robust biomarkers that identify prostate cancer patients with high risk of recurrence will improve personalised cancer care. In this study, we investigated whether tissue metabolites detectable by high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS MRS) were associated with recurrence following radical prostatectomy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective ex vivo study using HR-MAS MRS on tissue samples from 110 radical prostatectomy specimens obtained from three different Norwegian cohorts collected between 2002 and 2010. At the time of analysis, 50 patients had experienced prostate cancer recurrence. Associations between metabolites, clinicopathological variables, and recurrence-free survival were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression modelling, Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and concordance index (C-index). RESULTS: High intratumoural spermine and citrate concentrations were associated with longer recurrence-free survival, whereas high (total-choline+creatine)/spermine (tChoCre/Spm) and higher (total-choline+creatine)/citrate (tChoCre/Cit) ratios were associated with shorter time to recurrence. Spermine concentration and tChoCre/Spm were independently associated with recurrence in multivariate Cox proportional hazards modelling after adjusting for clinically relevant risk factors (C-index: 0.769; HR: 0.72; P=0.016 and C-index: 0.765; HR: 1.43; P=0.014, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Spermine concentration and tChoCre/Spm ratio in prostatectomy specimens were independent prognostic markers of recurrence. These metabolites can be noninvasively measured in vivo and may thus offer predictive value to establish preoperative risk assessment nomograms.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espermina/metabolismo
12.
Metabolites ; 7(2)2017 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28509845

RESUMO

Despite progress in early detection and therapeutic strategies, breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women globally. Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of tumor biology, breast cancer patients with similar diagnosis might have different prognosis and response to treatment. Thus, deeper understanding of individual tumor properties is necessary. Cancer cells must be able to convert nutrients to biomass while maintaining energy production, which requires reprogramming of central metabolic processes in the cells. This phenomenon is increasingly recognized as a potential target for treatment, but also as a source for biomarkers that can be used for prognosis, risk stratification and therapy monitoring. Magnetic resonance (MR) metabolomics is a widely used approach in translational research, aiming to identify clinically relevant metabolic biomarkers or generate novel understanding of the molecular biology in tumors. Ex vivo proton high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR MAS) MR spectroscopy is widely used to study central metabolic processes in a non-destructive manner. Here we review the current status for HR MAS MR spectroscopy findings in breast cancer in relation to glucose, amino acid and choline metabolism.

13.
J Proteome Res ; 16(5): 1868-1879, 2017 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28290700

RESUMO

Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are unresponsive to endocrine and anti-HER2 pharmacotherapy, limiting their therapeutic options to chemotherapy. TNBC is frequently associated with abnormalities in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway; drugs targeting this pathway are currently being evaluated in these patients. However, the response is variable, partly due to heterogeneity within TNBC, conferring a need to identify biomarkers predicting response and resistance to targeted therapy. In this study, we used a metabolomics approach to assess response to the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in a panel of TNBC patient-derived xenografts (PDX) (n = 103 animals). Tumor metabolic profiles were acquired using high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Partial least-squares-discriminant analysis on relative metabolite concentrations discriminated treated xenografts from untreated controls with an accuracy of 67% (p = 0.003). Multilevel linear mixed-effects models (LMM) indicated reduced glycolytic lactate production and glutaminolysis after treatment, consistent with PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibition. Although inherent metabolic heterogeneity between different PDX models seemed to hinder prediction of treatment response, the metabolic effects following treatment were more pronounced in responding xenografts compared to nonresponders. Additionally, the metabolic information predicted p53 mutation status, which may provide complementary insight into the interplay between PI3K signaling and other drivers of disease progression.


Assuntos
Everolimo/farmacologia , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Xenoenxertos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Cancer Metab ; 4: 12, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27350877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The heterogeneous biology of breast cancer leads to high diversity in prognosis and response to treatment, even for patients with similar clinical diagnosis, histology, and stage of disease. Identifying mechanisms contributing to this heterogeneity may reveal new cancer targets or clinically relevant subgroups for treatment stratification. In this study, we have merged metabolite, protein, and gene expression data from breast cancer patients to examine the heterogeneity at a molecular level. METHODS: The study included primary tumor samples from 228 non-treated breast cancer patients. High-resolution magic-angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR MAS MRS) was performed to extract the tumors metabolic profiles further used for hierarchical cluster analysis resulting in three significantly different metabolic clusters (Mc1, Mc2, and Mc3). The clusters were further combined with gene and protein expression data. RESULTS: Our result revealed distinct differences in the metabolic profile of the three metabolic clusters. Among the most interesting differences, Mc1 had the highest levels of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and phosphocholine (PCho), Mc2 had the highest levels of glucose, and Mc3 had the highest levels of lactate and alanine. Integrated pathway analysis of metabolite and gene expression data uncovered differences in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and glycerophospholipid metabolism between the clusters. All three clusters had significant differences in the distribution of protein subtypes classified by the expression of breast cancer-related proteins. Genes related to collagens and extracellular matrix were downregulated in Mc1 and consequently upregulated in Mc2 and Mc3, underpinning the differences in protein subtypes within the metabolic clusters. Genetic subtypes were evenly distributed among the three metabolic clusters and could therefore contribute to additional explanation of breast cancer heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Three naturally occurring metabolic clusters of breast cancer were detected among primary tumors from non-treated breast cancer patients. The clusters expressed differences in breast cancer-related protein as well as genes related to extracellular matrix and metabolic pathways known to be aberrant in cancer. Analyses of metabolic activity combined with gene and protein expression provide new information about the heterogeneity of breast tumors and, importantly, the metabolic differences infer that the clusters may be susceptible to different metabolically targeted drugs.

15.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 75(3): 193-203, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25738209

RESUMO

Metabolomics involves the large scale analysis of metabolites and thus, provides information regarding cellular processes in a biological sample. Independently of the analytical technique used, a vast amount of data is always acquired when carrying out metabolomics studies; this results in complex datasets with large amounts of variables. This type of data requires multivariate statistical analysis for its proper biological interpretation. Prior to multivariate analysis, preprocessing of the data must be carried out to remove unwanted variation such as instrumental or experimental artifacts. This review aims to outline the steps in the preprocessing of NMR metabolomics data and describe some of the methods to perform these. Since using different preprocessing methods may produce different results, it is important that an appropriate pipeline exists for the selection of the optimal combination of methods in the preprocessing workflow.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metaboloma , Algoritmos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/normas , Metabolômica , Análise Multivariada , Padrões de Referência
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