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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(4): 1207-1216, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800128

RESUMO

Background: It is often assumed that selection (including participation and dropout) does not represent an important source of bias in genetic studies. However, there is little evidence to date on the effect of genetic factors on participation. Methods: Using data on mothers (N = 7486) and children (N = 7508) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we: (i) examined the association of polygenic risk scores for a range of sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics and health conditions related to continued participation; (ii) investigated whether associations of polygenic scores with body mass index (BMI; derived from self-reported weight and height) and self-reported smoking differed in the largest sample with genetic data and a subsample who participated in a recent follow-up; and (iii) determined the proportion of variation in participation explained by common genetic variants, using genome-wide data. Results: We found evidence that polygenic scores for higher education, agreeableness and openness were associated with higher participation; and polygenic scores for smoking initiation, higher BMI, neuroticism, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression were associated with lower participation. Associations between the polygenic score for education and self-reported smoking differed between the largest sample with genetic data [odds ratio (OR) for ever smoking per standard deviation (SD) increase in polygenic score: 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 0.89} and subsample (OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.03). In genome-wide analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism based heritability explained 18-32% of variability in participation. Conclusions: Genetic association studies, including Mendelian randomization, can be biased by selection, including loss to follow-up. Genetic risk for dropout should be considered in all analyses of studies with selective participation.

3.
Addict Biol ; 23(1): 485-492, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28231610

RESUMO

We use polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) to predict smoking, and addiction to nicotine, alcohol or drugs in individuals not diagnosed with psychotic disorders. Using PRSs for 144 609 subjects, including 10 036 individuals admitted for in-patient addiction treatment and 35 754 smokers, we find that diagnoses of various substance use disorders and smoking associate strongly with PRSs for SCZ (P = 5.3 × 10-50 -1.4 × 10-6 ) and BPD (P = 1.7 × 10-9 -1.9 × 10-3 ), showing shared genetic etiology between psychosis and addiction. Using standardized scores for SCZ and BPD scaled to a unit increase doubling the risk of the corresponding disorder, the odds ratios for alcohol and substance use disorders range from 1.19 to 1.31 for the SCZ-PRS, and from 1.07 to 1.29 for the BPD-PRS. Furthermore, we show that as regular smoking becomes more stigmatized and less prevalent, these biological risk factors gain importance as determinants of the behavior.

4.
NPJ Genom Med ; 2: 24, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263835

RESUMO

A meta-analysis of publicly available summary statistics on multiple sclerosis combined with three Nordic multiple sclerosis cohorts (21,079 cases, 371,198 controls) revealed seven sequence variants associating with multiple sclerosis, not reported previously. Using polygenic risk scores based on public summary statistics of variants outside the major histocompatibility complex region we quantified genetic overlap between common autoimmune diseases in Icelanders and identified disease clusters characterized by autoantibody presence/absence. As multiple sclerosis-polygenic risk scores captures the risk of primary biliary cirrhosis and vice versa (P = 1.6 × 10-7, 4.3 × 10-9) we used primary biliary cirrhosis as a proxy-phenotype for multiple sclerosis, the idea being that variants conferring risk of primary biliary cirrhosis have a prior probability of conferring risk of multiple sclerosis. We tested 255 variants forming the primary biliary cirrhosis-polygenic risk score and found seven multiple sclerosis-associating variants not correlated with any previously established multiple sclerosis variants. Most of the variants discovered are close to or within immune-related genes. One is a low-frequency missense variant in TYK2, another is a missense variant in MTHFR that reduces the function of the encoded enzyme affecting methionine metabolism, reported to be dysregulated in multiple sclerosis brain.

5.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15833, 2017 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28607503

RESUMO

The persistence of common, heritable psychiatric disorders that reduce reproductive fitness is an evolutionary paradox. Here, we investigate the selection pressures on sequence variants that predispose to schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder, major depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using genomic data from 150,656 Icelanders, excluding those diagnosed with these psychiatric diseases. Polygenic risk of autism and ADHD is associated with number of children. Higher polygenic risk of autism is associated with fewer children and older age at first child whereas higher polygenic risk of ADHD is associated with having more children. We find no evidence for a selective advantage of a high polygenic risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Rare copy-number variants conferring moderate to high risk of psychiatric illness are associated with having fewer children and are under stronger negative selection pressure than common sequence variants.

6.
Psychosom Med ; 79(6): 638-645, 2017 Jul/Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28282363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reduced mental health (MH) is prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although longitudinal studies are limited, there is evidence that depression is associated with worse disease outcomes. We evaluated reciprocal relationships between MH, RA severity, and genetic risks for depression for 2 years in a well-characterized cohort of RA patients. METHODS: We evaluated 520 early RA patients previously enrolled to two clinical trials. MH was measured using the short form-36 MH domain and mental component summary scores (MCS). MCS/MH associations over 2 years with disease activity (disease activity score on a 28-joint count), disability (health assessment questionnaire), pain visual analog scale scores, and a weighted genetic risk score for depression were tested using linear mixed-effects and regression models. RESULTS: Poorer MH was associated with worse RA outcomes. Lower MCS scores (indicating worse MH) were seen in patients with a greater genetic risk for depression (weighted genetic risk score: coefficient = -1.21, p = .013). Lower baseline MCS was associated with lower 2-year improvements in disease activity score on a 28-joint count (coefficient = -0.02, p < .001), pain (coefficient = -0.33, p < .001), and health assessment questionnaire (coefficient = -0.01, p = .006). Baseline MCS was associated with changes in the swollen joint count (coefficient = -0.09, p < .001) and patient global assessment (coefficient = -0.28, p < .001) but not the tender joint count (p = .983) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = .973). Only baseline pain visual analog scale (coefficient = -0.07, p = .002) was associated with 2-year changes in MCS. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced baseline MH was associated with lower improvements in disease activity, disability, and pain for 2 years, supporting current national guidelines recommending screening for depression in RA. Pain had a bidirectional relationship with MH. Depression genetic risk had a significant association with MH.


Assuntos
Artralgia , Artrite Reumatoide , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Saúde Mental , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Artralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Artralgia/epidemiologia , Artralgia/etiologia , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173015, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28264010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and the autoimmune disorders are comorbid-the two classes of disorders overlap in the same individuals at a higher frequency than chance. The immune system may influence the pathological processes underlying depression; understanding the origins of this comorbidity may contribute to dissecting the mechanisms underlying these disorders. METHOD: We used population cohort data from the 1958 British birth cohort study (the National Child Development Study) to investigate the ages at onset of depression and 23 autoimmune disorders. We used self-report data to ascertain life-time history of depression, autoimmune disorders and their ages at onset. We modelled the effect of depression onset on subsequent autoimmune disorder onset, and vice versa, and incorporated polygenic risk scores for depression and autoimmune disorder risk. RESULTS: In our analytic sample of 8174 individuals, 315 reported ever being diagnosed with an autoimmune disorder (3.9%), 1499 reported ever experiencing depression (18.3%). There was significant comorbidity between depression and the autoimmune disorders (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.27-2.15). Autoimmune disorder onset associated with increased subsequent hazard of depression onset (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.11-1.74, P = 0.0037), independently of depression genetic risk. Finally, depression increased subsequent hazard of autoimmune disorder onset (HR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.09-1.80, P = 0.0095), independently of autoimmune disorder genetic risk. DISCUSSION: Our results point to a bidirectional relationship between depression and the autoimmune disorders. This suggests that shared risk factors may contribute to this relationship, including both common environmental exposures that increase baseline inflammation levels, and shared genetic factors.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
8.
Biol Psychiatry ; 81(6): 470-477, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27765268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have successfully summarized genome-wide effects of genetic variants in schizophrenia with significant predictive power. In a clinical sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, we estimated the ability of PRSs to discriminate case-control status and to predict the development of schizophrenia as opposed to other psychoses. METHODS: The sample (445 case and 265 control subjects) was genotyped on the Illumina HumanCore Exome BeadChip with an additional 828 control subjects of African ancestry genotyped on the Illumina Multi-Ethnic Genotyping Array. To calculate PRSs, we used the results from the latest Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia meta-analysis. We examined the association of PRSs with case-control status and with schizophrenia versus other psychoses in European and African ancestry FEP patients and in a second sample of 248 case subjects with chronic psychosis. RESULTS: PRS had good discriminative ability of case-control status in FEP European ancestry individuals (9.4% of the variance explained, p < 10-6), but lower in individuals of African ancestry (R2 = 1.1%, p = .004). Furthermore, PRS distinguished European ancestry case subjects who went on to acquire a schizophrenia diagnosis from those who developed other psychotic disorders (R2 = 9.2%, p = .002). CONCLUSIONS: PRS was a powerful predictor of case-control status in a European sample of patients with FEP, even though a large proportion did not have an established diagnosis of schizophrenia at the time of assessment. PRS was significantly different between those case subjects who developed schizophrenia from those who did not, although the discriminative accuracy may not yet be sufficient for clinical utility in FEP.


Assuntos
Herança Multifatorial , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0167388, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27936112

RESUMO

Drug addiction is a costly and recurring healthcare problem, necessitating a need to understand risk factors and mechanisms of addiction, and to identify new biomarkers. To date, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for heroin addiction have been limited; moreover they have been restricted to examining samples of European and African-American origin due to difficulty of recruiting samples from other populations. This is the first study to test a Han Chinese population; we performed a GWAS on a homogeneous sample of 370 Han Chinese subjects diagnosed with heroin dependence using the DSM-IV criteria and 134 ethnically matched controls. Analysis using the diagnostic criteria of heroin dependence yielded suggestive evidence for association between variants in the genes CCDC42 (coiled coil domain 42; p = 2.8x10-7) and BRSK2 (BR serine/threonine 2; p = 4.110-6). In addition, we found evidence for risk variants within the ARHGEF10 (Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10) gene on chromosome 8 and variants in a region on chromosome 20q13, which is gene-poor but has a concentration of mRNAs and predicted miRNAs. Gene-based association analysis identified genome-wide significant association between variants in CCDC42 and heroin addiction. Additionally, when we investigated shared risk variants between heroin addiction and risk of other addiction-related and psychiatric phenotypes using polygenic risk scores, we found a suggestive relationship with variants predicting tobacco addiction, and a significant relationship with variants predicting schizophrenia. Our genome wide association study of heroin dependence provides data in a novel sample, with functionally plausible results and evidence of genetic data of value to the field.


Assuntos
Dependência de Heroína/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Dependência de Heroína/epidemiologia , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/genética
10.
Brief Funct Genomics ; 15(4): 298-304, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26443613

RESUMO

The decreasing cost of performing genome-wide association studies has made genomics widely accessible. However, there is a paucity of guidance for best practice in conducting such analyses. For the results of a study to be valid and replicable, multiple biases must be addressed in the course of data preparation and analysis. In addition, standardizing methods across small, independent studies would increase comparability and the potential for effective meta-analysis. This article provides a discussion of important aspects of quality control, imputation and analysis of genome-wide data from a low-coverage microarray, as well as a straight-forward guide to performing a genome-wide association study. A detailed protocol is provided online, with example scripts available at https://github.com/JoniColeman/gwas_scripts.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Exoma , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Controle de Qualidade , Algoritmos , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software
11.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 168B(2): 81-8, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25656077

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies are inconsistent on the relationship between schizophrenia (SCZ) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Several studies have shown that SCZ has a protective effect on RA, with RA occurring less frequently in SCZ cases than would be expected by chance, whilst other studies have failed to replicate this. We sought to test the hypothesis that this effect is due to a protective effect of SCZ risk alleles on RA onset. We first reviewed the literature on the comorbidity of RA and SCZ and performed a meta-analysis. We then used polygenic risk scoring in an RA case control study in order to investigate the contribution of SCZ risk alleles to RA risk. Meta-analysis across studies over the past half-century showed that prevalence of RA in SCZ cases was significantly reduced (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.34-0.67, p<0.0001). The relationship between SCZ genetic risk and RA status was weak. Polygenic risk of SCZ explained a small (0.1%) and non-significant (p=0.085) proportion of variance in RA case control status. This relationship was nominally positive, with RA cases carrying more SCZ risk alleles than controls. The current findings do not support the assertion that the relationship between RA and SCZ is explained by genetic factors, which appear to have little or no effect. The protective effect of SCZ on RA may be due to environmental factors, such as an anti-inflammatory effect of anti-psychotic medication or merely due to confounding limitations in study designs.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/complicações
12.
Bioinformatics ; 31(9): 1466-8, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25550326

RESUMO

SUMMARY: A polygenic risk score (PRS) is a sum of trait-associated alleles across many genetic loci, typically weighted by effect sizes estimated from a genome-wide association study. The application of PRS has grown in recent years as their utility for detecting shared genetic aetiology among traits has become appreciated; PRS can also be used to establish the presence of a genetic signal in underpowered studies, to infer the genetic architecture of a trait, for screening in clinical trials, and can act as a biomarker for a phenotype. Here we present the first dedicated PRS software, PRSice ('precise'), for calculating, applying, evaluating and plotting the results of PRS. PRSice can calculate PRS at a large number of thresholds ("high resolution") to provide the best-fit PRS, as well as provide results calculated at broad P-value thresholds, can thin Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) according to linkage disequilibrium and P-value or use all SNPs, handles genotyped and imputed data, can calculate and incorporate ancestry-informative variables, and can apply PRS across multiple traits in a single run. We exemplify the use of PRSice via application to data on schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and smoking, illustrate the importance of identifying the best-fit PRS and estimate a P-value significance threshold for high-resolution PRS studies. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: PRSice is written in R, including wrappers for bash data management scripts and PLINK-1.9 to minimize computational time. PRSice runs as a command-line program with a variety of user-options, and is freely available for download from http://PRSice.info CONTACT: jack.euesden@kcl.ac.uk or paul.oreilly@kcl.ac.uk SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Herança Multifatorial , Software , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fumar/genética
13.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 165B(5): 428-37, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24964207

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have recognized a genetic diathesis for suicidal behavior, which is independent of other psychiatric disorders. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on suicide attempt (SA) and ideation have failed to identify specific genetic variants. Here, we conduct further GWAS and for the first time, use polygenic score analysis in cohorts of patients with mood disorders, to test for common genetic variants for mood disorders and suicide phenotypes. Genome-wide studies for SA were conducted in the RADIANT and GSK-Munich recurrent depression samples and London Bipolar Affective Disorder Case-Control Study (BACCs) then meta-analysis was performed. A GWAS on suicidal ideation during antidepressant treatment had previously been conducted in the Genome Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study. We derived polygenic scores from each sample and tested their ability to predict SA in the mood disorder cohorts or ideation status in the GENDEP study. Polygenic scores for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were used to investigate pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and suicide phenotypes. No significant evidence for association was detected at any SNP in GWAS or meta-analysis. Polygenic scores for major depressive disorder significantly predicted suicidal ideation in the GENDEP pharmacogenetics study and also predicted SA in a combined validation dataset. Polygenic scores for SA showed no predictive ability for suicidal ideation. Polygenic score analysis suggests pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and suicidal ideation whereas the tendency to act on such thoughts may have a partially independent genetic diathesis.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Depressão/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto Jovem
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