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J Refract Surg ; 37(9): 582-589, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506240


PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of oral codeine plus acetaminophen versus oxycodone plus acetaminophen for severe pain control following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). METHODS: This single-center trial randomized 200 patients to receive codeine 30 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg (codeine group) or oxycodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg (oxycodone group)every 4 hours as needed for severe pain for 4 days following PRK. Patients recorded postoperative pain, tablet consumption, and tetracaine use. Patients were monitored at postoperative 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months for visual acuity and follow-up. Study outcomes were mean postoperative pain, treatment and tetracaine use, and visual acuity. RESULTS: Analysis of 197 patients who completed the trial (97 codeine group and 100 oxycodone group) showed mean pain scores were lower in the codeine group throughout the intervention period. Mean pain scores were higher in the oxycodone group than the codeine group on postoperative days 2 and 4 (P = .017 and P = .034, respectively). The oxycodone group consumed more tablets than the codeine group, with a difference on postoperative day 2 (P = .019), and used a greater number of tetracaine drops (P = .015). Repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant improvement in visual acuity in both groups with no difference in visual outcomes (P = .81). CONCLUSIONS: Codeine/acetaminophen is as effective and safe as oxycodone/acetaminophen for pain control following PRK, with no clinical difference in overall pain control and long-term visual outcomes. This implies that treating postoperative pain after PRK with a Schedule III opioid (codeine) is effective and potentially decreases the risk of misuse by a higher regulated Schedule II opioid (oxycodone), lowering the potential for abuse and dependence. [J Refract Surg. 2021;37(9):582-589.].

Oxicodona , Ceratectomia Fotorrefrativa , Codeína , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos
Mil Med ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191032


INTRODUCTION: Corneal laser refractive surgery (CRS) has emerged over the past three decades as a surgical method for correcting or improving vision. In the military, CRS helps warfighters achieve weapon grade vision, which offers a tactical advantage in the deployed environment. As refractive surgery has become more prevalent in both the military and civilian sector, more ophthalmologists need to learn about treatment options as well as management of complications in order to meet increasing patient demand. Currently, little is known about the most effective curriculum for teaching refractive surgery in training programs, and a standardized curriculum does not exist. Since unification of training programs is a Defense Health Agency priority, this study aimed to collect expert consensus on a standardized curriculum for CRS training in the military. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To achieve this goal, the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) was used wherein a panel of experts, currently practicing refractive surgeons involved in military refractive surgery training programs, arrived at consensus on a standardized CRS curriculum. The framework for developing this curriculum is based on Kern's Six-Step Approach to Curriculum Development. The International Council of Ophthalmology refractive surgery curriculum, National Curriculum for Ophthalmology Residency Training, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies and surgical minimums, and American Academy of Ophthalmology Refractive Surgery Preferred Practice Guidelines were used as the starting materials from which panelists' consensus was drawn. This consensus-building method allowed for equal representation of experts' ideas and fostered collaboration to aid in the creation of a robust and standardized curriculum for refractive surgery training programs in the military. RESULTS: The panelist experts from this NGT were able to reach consensus on the components of a standardized military refractive surgery curriculum to include generalized and targeted needs assessment, goals and objectives, educational strategies, and curriculum implementation. CONCLUSION: A standardized CRS curriculum is warranted in military training programs. This NGT achieved expert consensus on the goals, objectives, educational methods, and implementation strategies for a standardized CRS curriculum in military ophthalmology residency.

Semin Ophthalmol ; 33(1): 29-35, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28876968


Corneal cross-linking was approved by United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of progressive keratoconus in April 2016. As this approach becomes more widely used for the treatment of keratoconus and post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia, the medical community is becoming more familiar with potential complications associated with this procedure. This article aims to review the reported complications of collagen cross-linking for the treatment of keratoconus and post-LASIK ectasia.

Colágeno/efeitos adversos , Substância Própria/efeitos dos fármacos , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/efeitos adversos , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia/efeitos adversos , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Substância Própria/patologia , Topografia da Córnea , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Dilatação Patológica/induzido quimicamente , Dilatação Patológica/patologia , Humanos , Ceratocone/patologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Acuidade Visual