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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(47): 16903-16906, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535459

RESUMO

The dissolution of anhydrous iron bromide in a mixture of pyridine and acetonitrile, in the presence of an organic amine, results in the formation of an [Fe34 ] metal oxide molecule, structurally characterised by alternate layers of tetrahedral and octahedral FeIII ions connected by oxide and hydroxide ions. The outer shell of the complex is capped by a combination of pyridine molecules and bromide ions. Magnetic data, measured at temperatures as low as 0.4 K and fields up to 35 T, reveal competing antiferromagnetic exchange interactions; DFT calculations showing that the magnitudes of the coupling constants are highly dependent on both the Fe-O-Fe angles and Fe-O distances. The simplicity of the synthetic methodology, and the structural similarity between [Fe34 ], bulk iron oxides, previous FeIII -oxo cages, and polyoxometalates (POMs), hints that much larger molecular FeIII oxides can be made.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 58(17): 11404-11409, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414600

RESUMO

Reaction between NiCl2·6H2O, 2-hydroxy-4-methyl-6-phenyl-pyridine-3-amidoxime (H2L), benzoic acid, and M(NO3)3·6H2O (M = Gd, Y) in MeCN under basic conditions yields the complexes [NiII4GdIII5(PhCOO)10(HL)4(HLzw)4(OH)2(NO3)2]Cl·13.6MeCN·H2O (1·13.6MeCN·H2O) and [NiII4YIII5(PhCOO)10(HL)4(HLzw)4(OH)2(NO3)1.5(H2O)0.5]0.5Cl(NO3)·3H2O (2·3H2O). Both clusters display similar structures, consisting of a bell-shaped {NiII4MIII5} unit, in which a linear "zigzag" {Ni4} subunit bisects the central {MIII5} "ring". Direct (dc) and alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements carried out in the 2-300 K temperature range for complexes 1 and 2 revealed ferromagnetic intermolecular interactions, while heat-capacity measurements for the Gd analogue suggest that complex 1 lowers its temperature from T = 9.6 K down to 2.3 K by adiabatically demagnetizing from Bi = 7 T to Bf = 0.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 48(11): 3566-3570, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789163

RESUMO

An octahedral {DyIII6} cage within a diamagnetic {ZnII4} rectangle is reported, with magnetic relaxation studies revealing single-molecule magnet behaviour for the complex under zero external dc field with Ueff = 43 K and τo = 1 × 10-5 s.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(48): 6153-6156, 2018 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808848

RESUMO

The reaction of [Cr3IIIO(OAc)6(H2O)3]NO3·AcOH with 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde, 2-amino-isobutyric acid and NiCl2·6H2O in MeOH, under basic and solvothermal conditions, led to the formation of the quasi-1D coordination polymer {[CrIII2NiII(L)4(MeOH)2]}n (where L = the dianion of the Schiff base between 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde and 2-amino-isobutyric acid), which behaves as a ferromagnetic chain, displaying slow relaxation of magnetization.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 47(34): 11834-11842, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623968

RESUMO

A family of heterometallic Anderson-type 'wheels' of general formula [MIII2MII5(hmp)12](ClO4)4 (where MIII = Cr or Al and MII = Ni or Zn giving [Cr2Ni5] (1), [Cr2Zn5] (2), [Al2Ni5] (3) and [Al2Zn5] (4); hmpH = 2-pyridinemethanol) have been synthesised solvothermally. The metallic skeleton common to all structures describes a centred hexagon with the MIII sites disordered around the outer wheel. The structural disorder has been characterised via single crystal X-ray crystallography, 1-3D 1H and 13C solution-state NMR spectroscopy of the diamagnetic analogue (4), and solid-state 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy of compounds (3) and (4). Alongside ESI mass spectrometry, these techniques show that structure is retained in solution, and that the disorder is present in both the solution and solid-state. Solid-state dc susceptibility and magnetisation measurements on (2) and (3) reveal the Cr-Cr and Ni-Ni exchange interactions to be JCr-Cr = -1 cm-1 and JNi-Ni,r = -5 cm-1, JNi-Ni,c = 10 cm-1. Fixing these values allows us to extract JCr-Ni,r = -1.2 cm-1, JCr-Ni,c = 2.6 cm-1 for (1), the exchange between adjacent Ni and Cr ions on the ring is antiferromagnetic and between Cr ions on the ring and the central Ni ion is ferromagnetic.

6.
Dalton Trans ; 47(4): 1106-1116, 2018 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29265143

RESUMO

ortho-Vanillin in the presence of nickel and lanthanide ions yields three types of heteronuclear NiII-GdIII complexes, ranging from dinuclear to tetranuclear defect dicubane complexes, as demonstrated by their structural determinations. These complexes are dependent on the solvents used during the reaction processes and on the retained lanthanide ions, as characterized by an increase in their Lewis acid character on moving from lighter to heavier lanthanide ions. Intramolecular ferromagnetic NiII-GdIII interactions are present in the heterodinuclear NiII-GdIII entities, whereas ferromagnetic NiII-NiII and NiII-GdIII interactions dominate above 2 K in the tetranuclear Ni-Gd compounds, devoid of any GdIII-GdIII interaction. The effect of a magnetic field on the magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes is maximum near the liquid-helium boiling temperature, mainly determined by the relative weakness of the magnetic interactions.

7.
Dalton Trans ; 46(31): 10255-10263, 2017 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737787

RESUMO

The syntheses, structures, magnetic and thermodynamic properties of three related triethanolamine-based GdIII complexes are described. The smallest, a dimer ([Gd2]), can be viewed as the subunit from which the two larger complexes, a linear tetramer ([Gd2]2) and a cyclic hexamer ([Gd2]3), are composed by further deprotonation of the triethanolamine ligand. In all cases, nearest neighbour magnetic ions are weakly correlated by antiferromagnetic isotropic exchange, whose strength does not change significantly from one complex to another; J ranging from -0.10 to -0.13 cm-1. Therefore, rather than the strength of the coupling, it is the spin topology that is the dominant factor in determining the differences between the physical properties - specifically, the nuclearity and the transition from open (dimer and tetramer) to cyclic (hexamer) boundary conditions. Indeed the hexanuclear wheel reaches the continuum limit of classical Heisenberg spin chains. In terms of the magnetocaloric properties, the smaller the nuclearity, the larger the magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(35): 4799-4802, 2017 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405656

RESUMO

The adiabatic temperature change of the star-shaped {CoGd} magnetocaloric ring is enhanced via topological control over the assembly process, by using a pre-formed {CoII(H6L)} building block that undergoes oxidation to CoIII, successfully separating the GdIII ions.

9.
Dalton Trans ; 46(11): 3449-3452, 2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28220920

RESUMO

The employment of 2-amino-isobutyric acid, Haib, and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, Hnaphth, in NiII/LnIII chemistry has led to the isolation and characterization of two new isostructural 3d-4f tetradecanuclear [NiLn] clusters (Ln = GdIII, DyIII), with the Dy analogue displaying temperature and frequency dependent out-of-phase signals, and the Gd analogue showing interesting magnetocaloric properties.

10.
Dalton Trans ; 45(46): 18591-18602, 2016 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27827484

RESUMO

A solvothermal reaction between Ln(NO3)3·6H2O (Ln: Gd, Tb and Dy), 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, 2-OH-naphth, and ethylenediamine, en, in MeOH in the presence of a base, NEt3, led to the formation of the 1D coordination polymers [Ln(L)(MeO)(MeOH)0.5]n·MeOH (Ln = Gd (1·MeOH), Tb(2), Dy (3·MeOH); H2L = 1,1'-((1E,1'E)-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(azanylylidene))bis(methanylylidene))bis(naphthalen-2-ol), the Schiff-base ligand derived from the condensation of 2-OH-naphth and en), while a similar reaction in an excess of NaN3 yielded 1D coordination polymers [Ln(L)(N3)0.75(MeO)0.25(MeOH)]n (Ln = Gd (4), Tb (5), Dy (6)). Finally, upon replacing ethylenediamine with o-phenylenediamine, o-phen, we managed to isolate the discrete dimers [Dy2(L')3(MeOH)]·2MeOH (7·2MeOH) and [Gd2(L')3(MeOH)]·2MeOH (8·2MeOH) (H2L' = 1,1'-((1E,1'E)-(1,2-phenylenebis(azanylylidene))bis(methanylylidene))bis (naphthalen-2-ol), the Schiff-base ligand from the condensation of 2-OH-naphth and o-phen). Polymers 1-3 describe one-dimensional chains, containing alternating seven- and eight-coordinate LnIII metal centers, polymers 4-6 contain eight-coordinate lanthanide ions, while in both 7 and 8 the two LnIII centers are eight- and seven-coordinate, adopting square antiprismatic and "piano-stool" geometry, respectively. The magnetocaloric properties of the three GdIII analogues were determined from magnetic measurements, yielding the magnetic entropy change -ΔSm = 21.8, 23.0 and 16.0 J kg-1 K-1 at T = 3.0 K on demagnetization of 7 T to 0, for 1, 4 and 8, respectively. The study of the magnetic properties also revealed that all three DyIII analogues (3, 6 and 7) display out-of-phase signals, therefore suggesting slow magnetic relaxation, while such behaviour was not established in the TbIII analogues.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 45(43): 17409-17419, 2016 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27731458

RESUMO

The use of pyridine-2-amidoxime (pyaoxH2) in Ni chemistry has provided access to a dodecanuclear complex and a hexadecanuclear Ni cluster, namely [Ni12(pyaox)6(pyaoxH)6(MeOH)2Cl2]Cl4·5MeOH (1·5MeOH) and [Ni16(pyaox)8(pyaoxH)8(MeOH)4](SO4)4·10H2O·26MeOH (2·10H2O·26MeOH). Complex 1·5MeOH was isolated by the reaction of NiCl2·6H2O, pyaoxH2 and NaOMe in a 1 : 1 : 2 molar ratio in MeOH in 60% yield. Treatment of NiSO4·6H2O with pyaoxH2 and NEt3 in a 1 : 1 : 2 molar ratio in MeOH afforded 2·10H2O·26MeOH in good yield (65%). The two compounds display a multi-decker configuration based on stacked Ni4 layers, {Ni4(pyaox)2(pyaoxH)2}2+x (x = 3, 1·5MeOH; x = 4, 2·10H2O·26MeOH); each deck consists of two square planar and two octahedral NiII centres. The number of decks observed in 1·5MeOH and 2·10H2O·26MeOH depends on the nature of the inorganic anion that is present in the reaction system, which provides elements of synthetic control towards new high nuclearity NiII species. 2·10H2O·26MeOH is the first structurally characterized complex of any metal displaying a quadruple-decker configuration, being also the highest nuclearity metal cluster bearing pyaoxH2 and the highest nuclearity NiII cluster with any type of 2-pyridyl oxime. Each cluster cation displays ferromagnetic exchange between the octahedral NiII ions resulting in a spin ground state of S = 6 for 1 and S = 8 for 2. Magnetothermal studies have been performed and discussed for both clusters.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 55(20): 10535-10546, 2016 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27685336

RESUMO

The family of compounds of general formula [LnIII4TMII8(OH)8(L)8(O2CR)8(MeOH)y](ClO4)4 {[Gd4Zn8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CiPr)8](ClO4)4 (1a); [Y4Zn8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CiPr)8](ClO4)4 (1b); [Gd4Cu8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CiPr)8](ClO4)4 (2a); [Y4Cu8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CiPr)8](ClO4)4 (2b); [Gd4Cu8(OH)8(hep)8(O2CiPr)8](ClO4)4 (3a); [Gd4Cu8(OH)8(Hpdm)8(O2CtBu)8](ClO4)4 (4a); [Gd4Cu8(OH)8(ea)8(O2CMe)8](ClO4)4 (5a); [Gd4Ni8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CEt)8(MeOH)6](ClO4)4 (6a); [Y4Ni8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CEt)8(MeOH)6](ClO4)4 (6b); [Gd4Co8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CEt)8(MeOH)6](ClO4)4 (7a); [Y4Co8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CEt)8(MeOH)6](ClO4)4 (7b)} can be formed very simply and in high yields from the reaction of Ln(NO3)3·6H2O and TM(ClO4)2·6H2O and the appropriate ligand blend in a mixture of CH2Cl2 and MeOH in the presence of a suitable base. Remarkably, almost all the constituent parts, namely the lanthanide (or rare earth) ions LnIII (here Ln = Gd or Y), the transition metal ions TMII (here TM = Zn, Cu, Ni, Co), the bridging ligand L (Hhmp = 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine; Hhep = 2-(hydroxyethyl)pyridine; H2pdm = pyridine-2,6-dimethanol; Hea = 2-ethanolamine), and the carboxylates can be exchanged while maintaining the structural integrity of the molecule. NMR spectroscopy of diamagnetic complex 1b reveals the complex to be fully intact in solution with all signals from the hydroxide, ligand L, and the carboxylates equivalent on the NMR time scale, suggesting the complex possesses greater symmetry in solution than in the solid state. High resolution nano-ESI mass spectrometry on dichloromethane solutions of 2a and 2b shows both complexes are present in two charge states with little fragmentation; with the most intense peak in each spectrum corresponding to [Ln4Cu8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CiPr)8](ClO4)22+. This family of compounds offers an excellent playground for probing how the magnetocaloric effect evolves by introducing either antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interactions, or magnetic anisotropy, by substituting the nonmagnetic ZnII (1a) with CuII (2a), NiII (6a) or CoII (7a), respectively. The largest magnetocaloric effect is found for the ferromagnetically coupled complex 6a, while the predominant antiferromagnetic interactions in 2a yield an inverse magnetocaloric effect; that is, the temperature increases on lowering the applied field, under the proper experimental conditions. In spite of increasing the magnetic density by adding ions that bring in antiferromagnetic interactions (2a) or magnetic anisotropy (7a), the magnetocaloric effect is overall smaller in 2a and 7a than in 1a, where only four GdIII spins per molecule contribute to the magnetocaloric properties.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(10): 3360-3, 2016 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26834032

RESUMO

In contrast to the mainstream research on molecular refrigerants that seeks magnetically isotropic molecules, we show that the magnetic anisotropy of dysprosium acetate tetrahydrate, [{Dy(OAc)3 (H2 O)2}2]⋅4 H2O (1), can be efficiently used for cooling below liquid-helium temperature. This is attained by rotating aligned single-crystal samples in a constant applied magnetic field. The envisioned advantages are fast cooling cycles and potentially compact refrigerators.

14.
Chem Sci ; 7(8): 4891-4895, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155137

RESUMO

We report the synthesis and structure of a molecular {Gd7} cage of the formula (iPr2NH2)6[Gd7(µ3-OH)3(CO3)6(O2C t Bu)12] which has crystallographic C3h symmetry. Low temperature specific heat and adiabatic demagnetization experiments (the latter achieving temperatures below 100 mK), lead to the observation of the effects of both intramolecular dipolar interactions and geometric spin frustration. The dipolar interaction leads to a massive rearrangement of energy levels such that specific heat and entropy below 2 K are strongly modified while magnetic susceptibility and magnetization above 2 K are not affected. The consequences of these phenomena for low temperature magnetocaloric applications are discussed.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(8): 1693-6, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26666673

RESUMO

A family of interwoven molecular inorganic knots, shaped like the 'Star of David', was prepared by the employment of naphthalene-2,3-diol in 3d/4f-metal cluster chemistry; the isoskeletal dodecanuclear compounds exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization and magnetocaloric properties, depending on the metal ion.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(2): 679-84, 2016 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26611354

RESUMO

Two nanosized Mn49 and Mn25Na4 clusters based on analogues of the high-spin (S=22) [Mn(III)6Mn(II)4(µ4-O)4](18+) supertetrahedral core are reported. Mn49 and Mn25Na4 complexes consist of eight and four decametallic supertetrahedral subunits, respectively, display high virtual symmetry (O(h)), and are unique examples of clusters based on a large number of tightly linked high nuclearity magnetic units. The complexes also have large spin ground-state values (Mn49: S=61/2; Mn25Na4: S=51/2) with the Mn49  cluster displaying single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior and being the second largest reported homometallic SMM.

17.
Chemphyschem ; 17(1): 55-60, 2016 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26530901

RESUMO

Keplerates are molecules that contain metal polyhedra that describe both Platonic and Archimedean solids; new copper keplerates are reported, with physical studies indicating that even where very high molecular symmetry is found, the low-temperature physics does not necessarily reflect this symmetry.

18.
Chemistry ; 21(47): 16955-67, 2015 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26420030

RESUMO

The reaction of a Schiff base ligand (LH3) with lanthanide salts, pivalic acid and triethylamine in 1:1:1:3 and 4:5:8:20 stoichiometric ratios results in the formation of decanuclear Ln10 (Ln = Dy (1), Tb (2), and Gd (3)) and pentanuclear Ln5 complexes (Ln = Gd (4), Tb (5), and Dy (6)), respectively. The formation of Ln10 and Ln5 complexes are fully governed by the stoichiometry of the reagents used. Detailed magnetic studies on these complexes (1-6) have been carried out. Complex 1 shows a SMM behavior with an effective energy barrier for the reversal of the magnetization (Ueff) = 16.12(8) K and relaxation time (τo) = 3.3×10(-5) s under 4000 Oe direct current (dc) field. Complex 6 shows the frequency dependent maxima in the out-of-phase signal under zero dc field, without achieving maxima above 2 K. Complexes 3 and 4 show a large magnetocaloric effect with the following characteristic values: -ΔSm = 26.6 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 2.2 K for 3 and -ΔSm = 27.1 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 2.4 K for 4, both for an applied field change of 7 T.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(75): 14207-10, 2015 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26256944

RESUMO

Layered gadolinium hydroxides have revealed to be excellent candidates for cryogenic magnetic refrigeration. These materials behave as pure 2D magnetic systems with a Heisenberg-Ising critical crossover, induced by dipolar interactions. This 2D character and the possibility offered by these materials to be delaminated open the possibility of rapid heat dissipation upon substrate deposition.

20.
Dalton Trans ; 44(22): 10315-20, 2015 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25967745

RESUMO

The reaction of the pro-ligand H4L, which combines the complementary phenolic oxime and diethanolamine moieties within the same organic framework, with Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and Ln(NO3)3·6H2O in a basic methanolic solution generates a family of isostructural heterometallic coordination compounds of general formula [Ln6Zn2(CO3)5(OH)(H2L)4(H3L)2(H4L)]NO3·xMeOH [Ln = Gd, x = 30 (), Ln = Dy, x = 32 (), Ln = Sm, x = 31 (), Ln = Eu, x = 29 (), Ln = Tb, x = 30 ()]. The octametallic skeleton of the cage describes a heavily distorted [Gd] octahedron capped on two faces by Zn(II) ions. The metal core is stabilised by a series of µ3- and µ4-CO3(2-) ions, originating from the serendipitous fixation of atmospheric CO2. The magnetic properties of all family members were examined via SQUID magnetometry, with the χMT product and VTVB data of the Gd analogue () being independently fitted by numerical diagonalisation to afford the same best-fit parameter JGd-Gd = -0.004 cm(-1). The MCE of complex was elucidated from specific heat data, with the magnetic entropy change reaching a value of 22.6 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 1.7 K, close to the maximum entropy value per mole expected from six Gd(III) spins (SGd = 7/2), 23.7 J kg(-1) K(-1).

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