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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2345: 135-146, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550588

RESUMO

Evidence in clinical research is accumulating and scientific publications have increased exponentially in the last decade across all disciplines. Available information should be critically assessed. Here, we focus on umbrella reviews, an approach that systematically collects and evaluates information from multiple systematic reviews and meta-analyses. To facilitate the design and the conduct of such a study, we provide a step-by-step guide on how to perform an umbrella review. We also present ways to report the summary findings, we describe various proposed grading criteria, and we discuss potential limitations.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684367

RESUMO

The Mediterranean diet is commonly proposed as a major modifiable protective factor that may delay cognitive impairment in the elderly. The aim of the study was to investigate the cross-sectional association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive abilities in a younger Greek population. A total of 1201 healthy adults aged 21-77 years (mean: 47.8) from the Epirus Health Study cohort were included in the analysis. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured using the 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and cognition was measured using the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency test and the Logical Memory test. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Overall, no association was found between the MEDAS score and cognitive tests, which could be explained by the young mean age and high level of education of the participants. Future studies should target young and middle-aged individuals to gain further understanding of the association between Mediterranean diet and cognition in this age group.

3.
Respirology ; 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605114

RESUMO

Tocilizumab has been repurposed against the 'cytokine storm' in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of tocilizumab in the management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL and medRxiv for studies of tocilizumab in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Primary objective was the effectiveness of tocilizumab on mortality. Secondary objectives included the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), composite endpoints of mortality or IMV and intensive care unit (ICU) admission or IMV, length of hospitalization and differences in mortality in subgroups (ICU and non-ICU patients and patients receiving or not receiving concomitant corticosteroids). We included 52 studies (nine randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and 43 observational) with a total of 27,004 patients. In both RCTs and observational studies, the use of tocilizumab was associated with a reduction in mortality; 11% in RCTs (risk ratio [RR] 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.96) and 31% in observational studies (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.83). The need for IMV was reduced by 19% in RCTs (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.93), while no significant reduction was observed in observational studies. Both RCTs and observational studies showed a benefit from tocilizumab on the composite endpoint of mortality or IMV. Tocilizumab improved mortality both in ICU and non-ICU patients. Reduction in mortality was evident in observational studies regardless of the use of systemic corticosteroids, while that was not the case in the RCTs. Tocilizumab was associated with lower mortality and other clinically relevant outcomes in hospitalized patients with moderate-to-critical COVID-19.

4.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1106, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference are strongly correlated and do not reflect body composition. A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Hip Index (HI) define waist and hip size among individuals with the same weight and height and would thus reflect body density. We examined differences in body composition between body-shape phenotypes defined with ABSI and HI and used this information to propose explanations for associations between body-shape phenotypes and colon cancer risk. METHODS: We used data from the UK Biobank Resource for 15,520 men, 16,548 women with dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements; 3997 men, 4402 women with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements; 200,289 men, 230,326 women followed-up for colon cancer. We defined body-shape phenotypes as: large-ABSI-small-HI ("apple"), small-ABSI-large-HI ("pear"), small-ABSI-small-HI ("slim"), large-ABSI-large-HI ("wide"). We evaluated differences in body composition in linear models and associations with colon cancer risk in Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders and explored heterogeneity by BMI. RESULTS: Among individuals with the same height and weight, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was lowest for "pear" and highest for "apple", while abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) was lowest for "slim" and highest for "wide" phenotype. In the gynoid region, differences between "apple" and "pear" phenotypes were accounted for mainly by fat mass in women but by lean mass in men. In men, lean mass was inversely associated with waist size, while the pattern of gynoid fat resembled ASAT in women. Lean and fat mass were higher for higher BMI, but not hand grip strength. Compared to normal weight "pear", the risk of colon cancer in men (1029 cases) was higher for "apple" phenotype for normal weight (hazard ratio HR = 1.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-2.69) and comparably for overweight and obese, higher for "wide" phenotype for overweight (HR = 1.60; 1.14-2.24) and comparably for obese, but higher for "slim" phenotype only for obese (HR = 1.98; 1.35-2.88). Associations with colon cancer risk in women (889 cases) were weaker. CONCLUSIONS: ABSI-by-HI body-shape phenotypes provide information for body composition. Colon cancer risk in men appears related to ASAT quantity for "slim" and "wide" but to factors determining VAT accumulation for "apple" phenotype.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445018

RESUMO

We describe the profile of dietary supplement use and its correlates in the Epirus Health Study cohort, which consists of 1237 adults (60.5% women) residing in urban north-west Greece. The association between dietary supplement use and demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, personal medical history and clinical measurements was assessed using logistic regression models, separately for women and men. The overall prevalence of dietary supplement use was 31.4%, and it was higher in women (37.3%) compared to men (22.4%; p-value = 4.2-08). Based on multivariable logistic regression models, dietary supplement use in women was associated with age (positively until middle-age and slightly negatively afterwards), the presence of a chronic health condition (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.18-2.46), lost/removed teeth (OR = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.35-0.78) and diastolic blood pressure (OR per 5 mmHg increase =0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96); body mass index and worse general health status were borderline inversely associated. In men, dietary supplement use was positively associated with being employed (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.21-5.29). A considerable proportion of our sample used dietary supplements, and the associated factors differed between women and men.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Feminino , Grécia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
6.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 157, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The validity of observational studies and their meta-analyses is contested. Here, we aimed to appraise thousands of meta-analyses of observational studies using a pre-specified set of quantitative criteria that assess the significance, amount, consistency, and bias of the evidence. We also aimed to compare results from meta-analyses of observational studies against meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and Mendelian randomization (MR) studies. METHODS: We retrieved from PubMed (last update, November 19, 2020) umbrella reviews including meta-analyses of observational studies assessing putative risk or protective factors, regardless of the nature of the exposure and health outcome. We extracted information on 7 quantitative criteria that reflect the level of statistical support, the amount of data, the consistency across different studies, and hints pointing to potential bias. These criteria were level of statistical significance (pre-categorized according to 10-6, 0.001, and 0.05 p-value thresholds), sample size, statistical significance for the largest study, 95% prediction intervals, between-study heterogeneity, and the results of tests for small study effects and for excess significance. RESULTS: 3744 associations (in 57 umbrella reviews) assessed by a median number of 7 (interquartile range 4 to 11) observational studies were eligible. Most associations were statistically significant at P < 0.05 (61.1%, 2289/3744). Only 2.6% of associations had P < 10-6, ≥1000 cases (or ≥20,000 participants for continuous factors), P < 0.05 in the largest study, 95% prediction interval excluding the null, and no large between-study heterogeneity, small study effects, or excess significance. Across the 57 topics, large heterogeneity was observed in the proportion of associations fulfilling various quantitative criteria. The quantitative criteria were mostly independent from one another. Across 62 associations assessed in both RCTs and in observational studies, 37.1% had effect estimates in opposite directions and 43.5% had effect estimates differing beyond chance in the two designs. Across 94 comparisons assessed in both MR and observational studies, such discrepancies occurred in 30.8% and 54.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging that no gold-standard exists to judge whether an observational association is genuine, statistically significant results are common in observational studies, but they are rarely convincing or corroborated by randomized evidence.


Assuntos
Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção
7.
Cancer Med ; 10(16): 5614-5628, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196490

RESUMO

Abdominal size is associated positively with the risk of some cancers but the influence of body mass index (BMI) and gluteofemoral size is unclear because waist and hip circumference are strongly correlated with BMI. We examined associations of 33 cancers with A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and hip index (HI), which are independent of BMI by design, and compared these with waist and hip circumference, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in UK Biobank. During a mean follow-up of 7 years, 14,682 incident cancers were ascertained in 200,289 men and 12,965 cancers in 230,326 women. In men, ABSI was associated positively with cancers of the head and neck (hazard ratio HR = 1.14; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.26 per one standard deviation increment), esophagus (adenocarcinoma, HR = 1.27; 1.12-1.44), gastric cardia (HR = 1.31; 1.07-1.61), colon (HR = 1.18; 1.10-1.26), rectum (HR = 1.13; 1.04-1.22), lung (adenocarcinoma, HR = 1.16; 1.03-1.30; squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], HR = 1.33; 1.17-1.52), and bladder (HR = 1.15; 1.04-1.27), while HI was associated inversely with cancers of the esophagus (adenocarcinoma, HR = 0.89; 0.79-1.00), gastric cardia (HR = 0.79; 0.65-0.96), colon (HR = 0.92; 0.86-0.98), liver (HR = 0.86; 0.75-0.98), and multiple myeloma (HR = 0.86; 0.75-1.00). In women, ABSI was associated positively with cancers of the head and neck (HR = 1.27; 1.10-1.48), esophagus (SCC, HR = 1.37; 1.07-1.76), colon (HR = 1.08; 1.01-1.16), lung (adenocarcinoma, HR = 1.17; 1.06-1.29; SCC, HR = 1.40; 1.20-1.63; small cell, HR = 1.39; 1.14-1.69), kidney (clear-cell, HR = 1.25; 1.03-1.50), and post-menopausal endometrium (HR = 1.11; 1.02-1.20), while HI was associated inversely with skin SCC (HR = 0.91; 0.83-0.99), post-menopausal kidney cancer (HR = 0.77; 0.67-0.88), and post-menopausal melanoma (HR = 0.90; 0.83-0.98). Unusually, ABSI was associated inversely with melanoma in men (HR = 0.89; 0.82-0.96) and pre-menopausal women (HR = 0.77; 0.65-0.91). Waist and hip circumference reflected associations with BMI, when examined individually, and provided biased risk estimates, when combined with BMI. In conclusion, preferential positive associations of ABSI or inverse of HI with several major cancers indicate an important role of factors determining body shape in cancer development.

8.
Elife ; 102021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059199

RESUMO

Background: Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with damage to various organs, but its multi-organ effects have not been characterised across the usual range of alcohol drinking in a large general population sample. Methods: We assessed global effect sizes of alcohol consumption on quantitative magnetic resonance imaging phenotypic measures of the brain, heart, aorta, and liver of UK Biobank participants who reported drinking alcohol. Results: We found a monotonic association of higher alcohol consumption with lower normalised brain volume across the range of alcohol intakes (-1.7 × 10-3 ± 0.76 × 10-3 per doubling of alcohol consumption, p=3.0 × 10-14). Alcohol consumption was also associated directly with measures of left ventricular mass index and left ventricular and atrial volume indices. Liver fat increased by a mean of 0.15% per doubling of alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Our results imply that there is not a 'safe threshold' below which there are no toxic effects of alcohol. Current public health guidelines concerning alcohol consumption may need to be revisited. Funding: See acknowledgements.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Induzidos por Álcool/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Induzidos por Álcool/epidemiologia , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/epidemiologia , Feminino , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
J Nutr ; 151(9): 2574-2582, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have a complex relation. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between alcohol consumption, fasting plasma proteins, and CVD risk. METHODS: We performed cross-sectional association analyses of alcohol consumption with 71 CVD-related plasma proteins, and also performed prospective association analyses of alcohol consumption and protein concentrations with 3 CVD risk factors (obesity, hypertension, and diabetes) in 6745 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants (mean age 49 y; 53% women). RESULTS: A unit increase in log10 transformed alcohol consumption (g/d) was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.26; P = 0.007), and decreased risks of obesity (HR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.91; P = 4.6 × 10-4) and diabetes (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.80; P = 5.1 × 10-6) in a median of 13-y (interquartile = 7, 14) of follow-up. We identified 43 alcohol-associated proteins in a discovery sample (n = 4348, false discovery rate <0.05) and 20 of them were significant (P <0.05/43) in an independent validation sample (n = 2397). Eighteen of the 20 proteins were inversely associated with alcohol consumption. Four of the 20 proteins demonstrated 3-way associations, as expected, with alcohol consumption and CVD risk factors. For example, a greater concentration of APOA1 was associated with higher alcohol consumption (P = 1.2 × 10-65), and it was also associated with a lower risk of diabetes (P = 8.5 × 10-6). However, several others showed unexpected 3-way associations. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 20 alcohol-associated proteins in 6745 FHS samples. These alcohol-associated proteins demonstrated complex relations with the 3 CVD risk factors. Future studies with integration of more proteomic markers and larger sample size are warranted to unravel the complex relation between alcohol consumption and CVD risk.

10.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172467

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The individual prognostic factors for COVID-19 are unclear. For this reason, we aimed to present a state-of-the-art systematic review and meta-analysis on the prognostic factors for adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We systematically reviewed PubMed from January 1, 2020 to July 26, 2020 to identify non-overlapping studies examining the association of any prognostic factor with any adverse outcome in patients with COVID-19. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and between-study heterogeneity was quantified using I2 metric. Presence of small-study effects was assessed by applying the Egger's regression test. RESULTS: We identified 428 eligible articles, which were used in a total of 263 meta-analyses examining the association of 91 unique prognostic factors with 11 outcomes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, obstructive sleep apnea, pharyngalgia, history of venous thromboembolism, sex, coronary heart disease, cancer, chronic liver disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, any immunosuppressive medication, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatological disease and smoking were associated with at least one outcome and had >1000 events, p-value <0.005, I2 <50%, 95% prediction interval excluding the null value, and absence of small-study effects in the respective meta-analysis. The risk of bias assessment using the Quality In Prognosis Studies tool indicated high risk of bias in 302 of 428 articles for study participation, 389 articles for adjustment for other prognostic factors, and 396 articles for statistical analysis and reporting. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could be used for prognostic model building and guide patients' selection for randomised clinical trials.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1125, 2021 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the level of knowledge and trust in the policy decisions taken regarding the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic among Epirus Health Study (EHS) participants. METHODS: The EHS is an ongoing and deeply-phenotyped prospective cohort study that has recruited 667 participants in northwest Greece until August 31st, 2020. Level of knowledge on coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) transmission and COVID-19 severity was labeled as poor, moderate or good. Variables assessing knowledge and beliefs towards the pandemic were summarized overall and by sex, age group (25-39, 40-49, 50-59, ≥60 years) and period of report (before the lifting of lockdown measures in Greece: March 30th to May 3rd, and two post-lockdown time periods: May 4th to June 31st, July 1st to August 31st). A hypothesis generating exposure-wide association analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations between 153 agnostically-selected explanatory variables and participants' knowledge. Correction for multiple comparisons was applied using a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold of 5%. RESULTS: A total of 563 participants (49 years mean age; 60% women) had available information on the standard EHS questionnaire, the clinical and biochemical measurements, and the COVID-19-related questionnaire. Percentages of poor, moderate and good knowledge status regarding COVID-19 were 4.5, 10.0 and 85.6%, respectively. The majority of participants showed absolute or moderate trust in the Greek health authorities for the management of the epidemic (90.1%), as well as in the Greek Government (84.7%) and the official national sources of information (87.4%). Trust in the authorities was weaker in younger participants and those who joined the study after the lifting of lockdown measures (p-value≤0.001). None of the factors examined was associated with participants' level of knowledge after correction for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: High level of knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic and trust in the Greek authorities was observed, possibly due to the plethora of good quality publicly available information and the timely management of the pandemic at its early stages in Greece. Information campaigns for the COVID-19 pandemic should be encouraged even after the lifting of lockdown measures to increase public awareness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos de Coortes , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10688, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021172

RESUMO

Genetic studies have examined body-shape measures adjusted for body mass index (BMI), while allometric indices are additionally adjusted for height. We performed the first genome-wide association study of A Body Shape Index (ABSI), Hip Index (HI) and the new Waist-to-Hip Index and compared these with traditional indices, using data from the UK Biobank Resource for 219,872 women and 186,825 men with white British ancestry and Bayesian linear mixed-models (BOLT-LMM). One to two thirds of the loci identified for allometric body-shape indices were novel. Most prominent was rs72959041 variant in RSPO3 gene, expressed in visceral adipose tissue and regulating adrenal cell renewal. Highly ranked were genes related to morphogenesis and organogenesis, previously additionally linked to cancer development and progression. Genetic associations were fewer in men compared to women. Prominent region-specific associations showed variants in loci VEGFA and HMGA1 for ABSI and KLF14 for HI in women, and C5orf67 and HOXC4/5 for ABSI and RSPO3, VEGFA and SLC30A10 for HI in men. Although more variants were associated with waist and hip circumference adjusted for BMI compared to ABSI and HI, associations with height had previously been reported for many of the additional variants, illustrating the importance of adjusting correctly for height.

13.
Nat Genet ; 53(5): 630-637, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958779

RESUMO

The kidney is an organ of key relevance to blood pressure (BP) regulation, hypertension and antihypertensive treatment. However, genetically mediated renal mechanisms underlying susceptibility to hypertension remain poorly understood. We integrated genotype, gene expression, alternative splicing and DNA methylation profiles of up to 430 human kidneys to characterize the effects of BP index variants from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on renal transcriptome and epigenome. We uncovered kidney targets for 479 (58.3%) BP-GWAS variants and paired 49 BP-GWAS kidney genes with 210 licensed drugs. Our colocalization and Mendelian randomization analyses identified 179 unique kidney genes with evidence of putatively causal effects on BP. Through Mendelian randomization, we also uncovered effects of BP on renal outcomes commonly affecting patients with hypertension. Collectively, our studies identified genetic variants, kidney genes, molecular mechanisms and biological pathways of key relevance to the genetic regulation of BP and inherited susceptibility to hypertension.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Hipertensão/genética , Rim/patologia , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2579, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972514

RESUMO

Serum concentration of hepatic enzymes are linked to liver dysfunction, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We perform genetic analysis on serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) using data on 437,438 UK Biobank participants. Replication in 315,572 individuals from European descent from the Million Veteran Program, Rotterdam Study and Lifeline study confirms 517 liver enzyme SNPs. Genetic risk score analysis using the identified SNPs is strongly associated with serum activity of liver enzymes in two independent European descent studies (The Airwave Health Monitoring study and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966). Gene-set enrichment analysis using the identified SNPs highlights involvement in liver development and function, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and vascular formation. Mendelian randomization analysis shows association of liver enzyme variants with coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. Genetic risk score for elevated serum activity of liver enzymes is associated with higher fat percentage of body, trunk, and liver and body mass index. Our study highlights the role of molecular pathways regulated by the liver in metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Fígado/enzimologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , gama-Glutamiltransferase/genética , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/enzimologia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Doenças Metabólicas/enzimologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
15.
Chest ; 160(3): 983-993, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an interstitial lung disease of unknown origin. A limited number of small studies show an effect of tobacco smoking on risk of IPF, but second-hand smoking has not been examined. RESEARCH QUESTION: Are smoking-related exposures associated with risk of IPF and does interaction between them exist? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We designed a prospective cohort study using UK Biobank data, including 437,453 nonrelated men and women of White ethnic background (40-69 years of age at baseline). We assessed the effect of tobacco smoking-related exposures on risk for IPF using Cox regression adjusted for age, sex, Townsend deprivation index, and home area population density. We also examined potential additive and multiplicative interaction between these exposures. Multiple imputation with chained equations was used to address missing data. RESULTS: We identified 802 incident IPF cases. We showed an association between smoking status (hazard ratio [HR], 2.12; 95% CI, 1.81-2.47), and maternal smoking (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62) with risk of IPF. In ever smokers, a dose-response relationship was observed between pack-years of smoking and risk of IPF (HR per 1-pack-year increase, 1.013; 95% CI, 1.009-1.016). Furthermore, an additive and multiplicative interaction was observed between maternal smoking and smoking status, with a relative excess risk due to interaction of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.45-1.54) and a ratio of HRs of 1.50 (95% CI, 1.05-2.14). INTERPRETATION: Active and maternal tobacco smoking have an independent detrimental effect on risk of IPF and work synergistically. Also, intensity of smoking presents a dose-response association with IPF, strengthening the hypothesis for a potentially causal association.

16.
Pharmacogenomics ; 22(7): 435-445, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887993

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of this study is to explore how SNPs may affect the response to anti-TNF-α therapy in the major autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases and Spondyloarthritis. Methodology: We conducted a systematic overview on the field, by assessing all studies that examined the association between polymorphisms and response to anti-TNF-α therapy in participants of European descent. Results: In total, six independent SNPs located in FCGR2A, FCGR3A, TNF-α and TNFRSF1B genes were significantly associated with response to TNF-α blockers, found mainly in disease-subgroup analyses. Conclusion: No common pharmacogenetic variant was identified for all autoimmune diseases under study, suggesting the requirement of more studies in the field in order to capture such predictive variants that will aid treatment selection.

17.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556963

RESUMO

AIMS: Observational studies suggest elevated blood pressure (BP) as the leading risk factor for incident atrial fibrillation (AF), but whether this relationship is causal remains unknown. In this study, we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to investigate the potential causal association of BP levels with the risk of developing AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genetic variants associated with the BP traits were retrieved from the International Consortium of Blood Pressure-Genome Wide Association Studies (N = 299 024). From 901 reported variants, 894 were assessed in a dedicated Genome-Wide Association Study of AF genetics, including >1 000 000 subjects of European ancestry. We used two-sample MR analyses to examine the potential causal association of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) as well as of pulse pressure (PP) with AF. MR analysis identified a potentially causal association between AF and SBP [odds ratio (OR): 1.018 per 1 mmHg increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.012-1.024, P < 0.001], DBP (OR: 1.026, 95% CI: 1.016-1.035, P < 0.001), and PP (OR: 1.014, 95% CI: 1.001-1.028, P = 0.033). These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses, including the MR-Egger method and the MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier test (MR-PRESSO). The causal relationship of BP and AF did not change when single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with possible confounders (i.e. coronary artery disease and obesity) of the causal relationship were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: The association between increased BP levels and the risk of AF is likely causal and applies for different BP indices. Independently from other risk factors, optimal BP control might represent an important therapeutic target for AF prevention in the general population.

18.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 27(2): 162-168, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are widely associated with smoking in epidemiological studies, whereas there are conflicting results for the association between CD and UC for both coffee and alcohol consumption. Herein, we aimed to investigate whether cigarette smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption are causally associated with either CD or UC. METHODS: We utilized 540 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms for 3 potentially addictive substances-nicotine, alcohol, and caffeine-to assess the association of smoking, coffee, and alcohol consumption with CD and UC (12,194 CD cases, 12,366 UC cases, and 25,042 controls of European ancestry), using Mendelian randomization analysis. Mendelian randomization estimates were used to evaluate the effect of the exposure factors on CD and UC risk. Sensitivity analysis was employed to test for any directional pleiotropy. RESULTS: We found evidence for a positive causal association between the age of smoking initiation and UC risk and between alcohol consumption and CD risk, which disappeared after sensitivity analysis for both associations (P > 0.05). No evidence for a causal association between cigarettes per day, smoking initiation, smoking cessation, and coffee consumption variables and UC or CD was found. CONCLUSIONS: We found no clear evidence that either genetically predicted smoking, coffee consumption, or alcohol consumption are causally associated with the risk for CD or UC, although our findings indicate a potential positive association between the age of smoking and UC and between alcohol consumption and CD.

19.
Hypertension ; 77(2): 383-392, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356394

RESUMO

Serum urate has been implicated in hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but it is not known whether it is exerting a causal effect. To investigate this, we performed Mendelian randomization analysis using data from UK Biobank, Million Veterans Program and genome-wide association study consortia, and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The main Mendelian randomization analyses showed that every 1-SD increase in genetically predicted serum urate was associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (odds ratio, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.10-1.30]; P=4×10-5), peripheral artery disease (1.12 [95% CI, 1.03-1.21]; P=9×10-3), and stroke (1.11 [95% CI, 1.05-1.18]; P=2×10-4). In Mendelian randomization mediation analyses, elevated blood pressure was estimated to mediate approximately one-third of the effect of urate on cardiovascular disease risk. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed a favorable effect of urate-lowering treatment on systolic blood pressure (mean difference, -2.55 mm Hg [95% CI, -4.06 to -1.05]; P=1×10-3) and major adverse cardiovascular events in those with previous cardiovascular disease (odds ratio, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.22-0.73]; P=3×10-3) but no significant effect on major adverse cardiovascular events in all individuals (odds ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.44-1.03]; P=0.07). In summary, these Mendelian randomization and clinical trial data support an effect of higher serum urate on increasing blood pressure, which may mediate a consequent effect on cardiovascular disease risk. High-quality trials are necessary to provide definitive evidence on the specific clinical contexts where urate lowering may be of cardiovascular benefit.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 360, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although neutrophils have been linked to the progression of cancer, uncertainty exists around their association with cancer outcomes, depending on the site, outcome and treatments considered. We aimed to evaluate the strength and validity of evidence on the association between either the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or tumour-associated neutrophils (TAN) and cancer prognosis. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to 29 May 2020 for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies on neutrophil counts (here NLR or TAN) and specific cancer outcomes related to disease progression or survival. The available evidence was graded as strong, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak or uncertain through the application of pre-set GRADE criteria. RESULTS: A total of 204 meta-analyses from 86 studies investigating the association between either NLR or TAN and cancer outcomes met the criteria for inclusion. All but one meta-analyses found a hazard ratio (HR) which increased risk (HR > 1). We did not find sufficient meta-analyses to evaluate TAN and cancer outcomes (N = 9). When assessed for magnitude of effect, significance and bias related to heterogeneity and small study effects, 18 (9%) associations between NLR and outcomes in composite cancer endpoints (combined analysis), cancers treated with immunotherapy and some site specific cancers (urinary, nasopharyngeal, gastric, breast, endometrial, soft tissue sarcoma and hepatocellular cancers) were supported by strong evidence. CONCLUSION: In total, 60 (29%) meta-analyses presented strong or highly suggestive evidence. Although the NLR and TAN hold clinical promise in their association with poor cancer prognosis, further research is required to provide robust evidence, assess causality and test clinical utility. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017069131 .


Assuntos
Linfócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/sangue , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
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