Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 148
Filtrar
1.
Nat Med ; 26(10): 1654-1662, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839619

RESUMO

Differences in cardiac and aortic structure and function are associated with cardiovascular diseases and a wide range of other types of disease. Here we analyzed cardiovascular magnetic resonance images from a population-based study, the UK Biobank, using an automated machine-learning-based analysis pipeline. We report a comprehensive range of structural and functional phenotypes for the heart and aorta across 26,893 participants, and explore how these phenotypes vary according to sex, age and major cardiovascular risk factors. We extended this analysis with a phenome-wide association study, in which we tested for correlations of a wide range of non-imaging phenotypes of the participants with imaging phenotypes. We further explored the associations of imaging phenotypes with early-life factors, mental health and cognitive function using both observational analysis and Mendelian randomization. Our study illustrates how population-based cardiac and aortic imaging phenotypes can be used to better define cardiovascular disease risks as well as heart-brain health interactions, highlighting new opportunities for studying disease mechanisms and developing image-based biomarkers.

2.
Hypertension ; 76(3): 683-691, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623924

RESUMO

We report on an analysis to explore the association between estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (surrogate for sodium intake) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Data were obtained from 398 628 UK Biobank prospective cohort study participants (40-69 years) recruited between 2006 and 2010, with no history of CVD, renal disease, diabetes mellitus or cancer, and cardiovascular events and mortality recorded during follow-up. Hazard ratios between 24-hour sodium excretion were estimated from spot urinary sodium concentrations across incident CVD and its components and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. In restricted cubic splines analyses, there was little evidence for an association between estimated 24-hour sodium excretion and CVD, coronary heart disease, or stroke; hazard ratios for CVD (95% CIs) for the 15th and 85th percentiles (2.5 and 4.2 g/day, respectively) compared with the 50th percentile of estimated sodium excretion (3.2 g/day) were 1.05 (1.01-1.10) and 0.96 (0.92-1.00), respectively. An inverse association was observed with heart failure, but that was no longer apparent in sensitivity analysis. A J-shaped association was observed between estimated sodium excretion and mortality. Our findings do not support a J-shaped association of estimated sodium excretion with CVD, although such an association was apparent for all-cause and cause-specific mortality across a wide range of diseases. Reasons for these differences are unclear; methodological limitations, including the use of estimating equations based on spot urinary data, need to be considered in interpreting our findings.

3.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are widely associated with smoking in epidemiological studies, whereas there are conflicting results for the association between CD and UC for both coffee and alcohol consumption. Herein, we aimed to investigate whether cigarette smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption are causally associated with either CD or UC. METHODS: We utilized 540 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms for 3 potentially addictive substances-nicotine, alcohol, and caffeine-to assess the association of smoking, coffee, and alcohol consumption with CD and UC (12,194 CD cases, 12,366 UC cases, and 25,042 controls of European ancestry), using Mendelian randomization analysis. Mendelian randomization estimates were used to evaluate the effect of the exposure factors on CD and UC risk. Sensitivity analysis was employed to test for any directional pleiotropy. RESULTS: We found evidence for a positive causal association between the age of smoking initiation and UC risk and between alcohol consumption and CD risk, which disappeared after sensitivity analysis for both associations (P > 0.05). No evidence for a causal association between cigarettes per day, smoking initiation, smoking cessation, and coffee consumption variables and UC or CD was found. CONCLUSIONS: We found no clear evidence that either genetically predicted smoking, coffee consumption, or alcohol consumption are causally associated with the risk for CD or UC, although our findings indicate a potential positive association between the age of smoking and UC and between alcohol consumption and CD.

4.
Neurology ; 95(4): e353-e361, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We employed Mendelian randomization to explore whether the effects of blood pressure (BP) and BP-lowering through different antihypertensive drug classes on stroke risk vary by stroke etiology. METHODS: We selected genetic variants associated with systolic and diastolic BP and BP-lowering variants in genes encoding antihypertensive drug targets from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 757,601 individuals. Applying 2-sample Mendelian randomization, we examined associations with any stroke (67,162 cases; 454,450 controls), ischemic stroke and its subtypes (large artery, cardioembolic, small vessel stroke), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, deep and lobar), and the related small vessel disease phenotype of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). RESULTS: Genetic predisposition to higher systolic and diastolic BP was associated with higher risk of any stroke, ischemic stroke, and ICH. We found associations between genetically determined BP and all ischemic stroke subtypes with a higher risk of large artery and small vessel stroke compared to cardioembolic stroke, as well as associations with deep, but not lobar ICH. Genetic proxies for calcium channel blockers, but not ß-blockers, were associated with lower risk of any stroke and ischemic stroke. Proxies for calcium channel blockers showed particularly strong associations with small vessel stroke and the related radiologic phenotype of WMH. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports a causal role of hypertension in all major stroke subtypes except lobar ICH. We find differences in the effects of BP and BP-lowering through antihypertensive drug classes between stroke subtypes and identify calcium channel blockade as a promising strategy for preventing manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
5.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(11): 1201-1209, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on preventing Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging to interpret due to varying study designs with heterogeneous endpoints and credibility. We completed a systematic review and meta-analysis of current evidence with prospective designs to propose evidence-based suggestions on AD prevention. METHODS: Electronic databases and relevant websites were searched from inception to 1 March 2019. Both observational prospective studies (OPSs) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included. The multivariable-adjusted effect estimates were pooled by random-effects models, with credibility assessment according to its risk of bias, inconsistency and imprecision. Levels of evidence and classes of suggestions were summarised. RESULTS: A total of 44 676 reports were identified, and 243 OPSs and 153 RCTs were eligible for analysis after exclusion based on pre-decided criteria, from which 104 modifiable factors and 11 interventions were included in the meta-analyses. Twenty-one suggestions are proposed based on the consolidated evidence, with Class I suggestions targeting 19 factors: 10 with Level A strong evidence (education, cognitive activity, high body mass index in latelife, hyperhomocysteinaemia, depression, stress, diabetes, head trauma, hypertension in midlife and orthostatic hypotension) and 9 with Level B weaker evidence (obesity in midlife, weight loss in late life, physical exercise, smoking, sleep, cerebrovascular disease, frailty, atrial fibrillation and vitamin C). In contrast, two interventions are not recommended: oestrogen replacement therapy (Level A2) and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (Level B). INTERPRETATION: Evidence-based suggestions are proposed, offering clinicians and stakeholders current guidance for the prevention of AD.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364365

RESUMO

Organic solar cells based on nonfullerene acceptors have recently witnessed a significant rise in their power conversion efficiency values. However, they still suffer from severe instability issues, especially in an inverted device architecture based on the zinc oxide bottom electron transport layers. In this work, we insert a pyrene-bodipy donor-acceptor dye as a thin interlayer at the photoactive layer/zinc oxide interface to suppress the degradation reaction of the nonfullerene acceptor caused by the photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide. In particular, the pyrene-bodipy-based interlayer inhibits the direct contact between the nonfullerene acceptor and zinc oxide hence preventing the decomposition of the former by zinc oxide under illumination with UV light. As a result, the device photostability was significantly improved. The π-π interaction between the nonfullerene acceptor and the bodipy part of the interlayer facilitates charge transfer from the nonfullerene acceptor toward pyrene, which is followed by intramolecular charge transfer to bodipy part and then to zinc oxide. The bodipy-pyrene modified zinc oxide also increased the degree of crystallization of the photoactive blend and the face-on stacking of the polymer donor molecules within the blend hence contributing to both enhanced charge transport and increased absorption of the incident light. Furthermore, it decreased the surface work function as well as surface energy of the zinc oxide film all impacting in improved power conversion efficiency values of the fabricated cells with champion devices reaching values up to 9.86 and 11.80% for the fullerene and nonfullerene-based devices, respectively.

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372009

RESUMO

Educational attainment is widely used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES is a risk factor for hypertension and high blood pressure (BP). To identify novel BP loci, we performed multi-ancestry meta-analyses accounting for gene-educational attainment interactions using two variables, "Some College" (yes/no) and "Graduated College" (yes/no). Interactions were evaluated using both a 1 degree of freedom (DF) interaction term and a 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Analyses were performed for systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. We pursued genome-wide interrogation in Stage 1 studies (N = 117 438) and follow-up on promising variants in Stage 2 studies (N = 293 787) in five ancestry groups. Through combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 84 known and 18 novel BP loci at genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8). Two novel loci were identified based on the 1DF test of interaction with educational attainment, while the remaining 16 loci were identified through the 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Ten novel loci were identified in individuals of African ancestry. Several novel loci show strong biological plausibility since they involve physiologic systems implicated in BP regulation. They include genes involved in the central nervous system-adrenal signaling axis (ZDHHC17, CADPS, PIK3C2G), vascular structure and function (GNB3, CDON), and renal function (HAS2 and HAS2-AS1, SLIT3). Collectively, these findings suggest a role of educational attainment or SES in further dissection of the genetic architecture of BP.

8.
Mult Scler ; 26(4): 397-404, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249718

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease that is associated with permanent disability and low quality of life. Development of MS is attributed to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies revealed more than 200 variants that are associated with risk of MS. An umbrella review showed that smoking, history of infectious mononucleosis, and anti-Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (anti-EBNA) immunoglobulin G (IgG) seropositivity are credible risk factors of MS. In the present narrative review, we updated our published umbrella review, showing that body mass index in childhood and adolescence and anti-viral capsid antigen (anti-VCA) IgG seropositivity are additional credible risk factors of MS. In addition, we discuss the findings from Mendelian randomization studies, which present evidence for a potential causal role of serum vitamin D and adulthood body mass index on risk of MS. Finally, we discuss the potential limitations of meta-analyses, umbrella reviews, and Mendelian randomization studies in the search for risk factors of MS.

9.
Circulation ; 141(16): 1307-1317, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. While BP is regulated by the function of kidney, vasculature, and sympathetic nervous system, recent experimental data suggest that immune cells may play a role in hypertension. METHODS: We studied the relationship between major white blood cell types and blood pressure in the UK Biobank population and used Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using the ≈750 000 UK-Biobank/International Consortium of Blood Pressure-Genome-Wide Association Studies to examine which leukocyte populations may be causally linked to BP. RESULTS: A positive association between quintiles of lymphocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil counts, and increased systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure was observed (eg, adjusted systolic BP mean±SE for 1st versus 5th quintile respectively: 140.13±0.08 versus 141.62±0.07 mm Hg for lymphocyte, 139.51±0.08 versus 141.84±0.07 mm Hg for monocyte, and 137.96±0.08 versus 142.71±0.07 mm Hg for neutrophil counts; all P<10-50). Using 121 single nucleotide polymorphisms in MR, implemented through the inverse-variance weighted approach, we identified a potential causal relationship of lymphocyte count with systolic BP and diastolic BP (causal estimates: 0.69 [95% CI, 0.19-1.20] and 0.56 [95% CI, 0.23-0.90] of mm Hg per 1 SD genetically elevated lymphocyte count, respectively), which was directionally concordant to the observational findings. These inverse-variance weighted estimates were consistent with other robust MR methods. The exclusion of rs3184504 SNP in the SH2B3 locus attenuated the magnitude of the signal in some of the MR analyses. MR in the reverse direction found evidence of positive effects of BP indices on counts of monocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils but not lymphocytes or basophils. Subsequent MR testing of lymphocyte count in the context of genetic correlation with renal function or resting and postexercise heart rate demonstrated a positive association of lymphocyte count with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Observational and genetic analyses demonstrate a concordant, positive and potentially causal relationship of lymphocyte count with systolic BP and diastolic BP.

10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(3): 223-239, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180061

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. We designed an umbrella review to systematically assess the epidemiological credibility of the associations of non-genetic factors with risk of AF. We searched PubMed and EMBASE from inception to December 31, 2018 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies for the association of non-genetic factors with risk of AF. For each meta-analysis, we used the random-effects model, and we estimated the 95% confidence and prediction intervals. We also assessed between-study heterogeneity, small-study effects and excess significance bias. We identified 34 eligible papers that examined 51 associations of 42 unique non-genetic factors with risk of AF. Eighteen associations remained statistically significant at P value < 1 × 10-6. Thirty-one associations presented large or very large between-study heterogeneity. Eight associations presented evidence for small-study effects and 13 associations had evidence for excess significance bias. Ten associations, i.e. corrected QT interval, alcohol consumption (highest vs. lowest category, per 1 drink/day increase), body mass index (> 30 units vs. < 30 units, per 5 units increase), waist circumference, body weight, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and smoking (ever vs. never, per 10 cigarettes/day increase) were supported by convincing or highly suggestive evidence in meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, markers of adiposity, alcohol consumption, smoking, and corrected QT interval constitute credible risk factors of AF. Our proposed grading may guide the design of future studies, including Mendelian randomization studies, to assess whether these associations are causal.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Exposição Ambiental , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Obesidade/complicações , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
11.
JAMA ; 323(7): 636-645, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068818

RESUMO

Importance: The incremental value of polygenic risk scores in addition to well-established risk prediction models for coronary artery disease (CAD) is uncertain. Objective: To examine whether a polygenic risk score for CAD improves risk prediction beyond pooled cohort equations. Design, Setting, and Participants: Observational study of UK Biobank participants enrolled from 2006 to 2010. A case-control sample of 15 947 prevalent CAD cases and equal number of age and sex frequency-matched controls was used to optimize the predictive performance of a polygenic risk score for CAD based on summary statistics from published genome-wide association studies. A separate cohort of 352 660 individuals (with follow-up to 2017) was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the polygenic risk score, pooled cohort equations, and both combined for incident CAD. Exposures: Polygenic risk score for CAD, pooled cohort equations, and both combined. Main Outcomes and Measures: CAD (myocardial infarction and its related sequelae). Discrimination, calibration, and reclassification using a risk threshold of 7.5% were assessed. Results: In the cohort of 352 660 participants (mean age, 55.9 years; 205 297 women [58.2%]) used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the examined models, there were 6272 incident CAD events over a median of 8 years of follow-up. CAD discrimination for polygenic risk score, pooled cohort equations, and both combined resulted in C statistics of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.60 to 0.62), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.77), and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.79), respectively. The change in C statistic between the latter 2 models was 0.02 (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.03). Calibration of the models showed overestimation of risk by pooled cohort equations, which was corrected after recalibration. Using a risk threshold of 7.5%, addition of the polygenic risk score to pooled cohort equations resulted in a net reclassification improvement of 4.4% (95% CI, 3.5% to 5.3%) for cases and -0.4% (95% CI, -0.5% to -0.4%) for noncases (overall net reclassification improvement, 4.0% [95% CI, 3.1% to 4.9%]). Conclusions and Relevance: The addition of a polygenic risk score for CAD to pooled cohort equations was associated with a statistically significant, yet modest, improvement in the predictive accuracy for incident CAD and improved risk stratification for only a small proportion of individuals. The use of genetic information over the pooled cohort equations model warrants further investigation before clinical implementation.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Risco
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5121, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719535

RESUMO

Both short and long sleep are associated with an adverse lipid profile, likely through different biological pathways. To elucidate the biology of sleep-associated adverse lipid profile, we conduct multi-ancestry genome-wide sleep-SNP interaction analyses on three lipid traits (HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides). In the total study sample (discovery + replication) of 126,926 individuals from 5 different ancestry groups, when considering either long or short total sleep time interactions in joint analyses, we identify 49 previously unreported lipid loci, and 10 additional previously unreported lipid loci in a restricted sample of European-ancestry cohorts. In addition, we identify new gene-sleep interactions for known lipid loci such as LPL and PCSK9. The previously unreported lipid loci have a modest explained variance in lipid levels: most notable, gene-short-sleep interactions explain 4.25% of the variance in triglyceride level. Collectively, these findings contribute to our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in sleep-associated adverse lipid profiles.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Lipídeos/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sono/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Genet ; 10: 1005, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681433

RESUMO

Approximately 10% of breast cancer (BC) cases are hereditary BC (HBC), with HBC most commonly encountered in the context of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome. Although thousands of loss-of-function (LoF) alleles in over 20 genes have been associated with HBC susceptibility, the genetic etiology of approximately 50% of cases remains unexplained, even when polygenic risk models are considered. We focused on one of the least-studied European populations and applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) to 52 individuals from 17 Greek HBOC families, in which at least one patient was negative for known HBC risk variants. Initial screening revealed pathogenic variants in known cancer genes, including BARD1:p.Trp91* detected in a cancer-free individual, and MEN1:p.Glu260Lys detected in a BC patient. Gene- and variant-based approaches were applied to exome data to identify candidate risk variants outside of known risk genes. Findings were verified in a collection of Canadian HBOC patients of European ancestry (FBRCAX), in an independent group of Canadian BC patients (CHUM-BC) and controls (CARTaGENE), as well as in individuals from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the UK Biobank (UKB). Rare LoF variants were uncovered in MDM1 and NBEAL1 in Greek and Canadian HBOC patients. We also report prioritized missense variants SETBP1:c.4129G > C and C7orf34:c.248C > T. These variants comprise promising candidates whose role in cancer pathogenicity needs to be explored further.

14.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 2(4): e00074, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592155

RESUMO

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is multifactorial involving lifestyle, environmental and genetic risk factors. This study aims to investigate the impact of genetic interactions with alcohol and diet quality on glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) independent of obesity, in a British population. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 14 089 white British participants from Airwave Health Monitoring Study and a subsample of 3733 participants with dietary data. A T2D genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed, and its interactions with diet on HbA1c were assessed. Results: GRS was associated with a higher HbA1c% (ß = 0.03, P < 0.0001) and a higher risk of prediabetes (OR = 1.09, P < 0.0001) and T2D (OR = 1.14, P = 0.006). The genetic effect on HbA1c% was significantly higher in obese participants (ß = 1.88, P interaction = 0.03). A high intake of wholegrain attenuated the effect on HbA1c% in high-risk individuals P interaction = 0.04. Conclusion: The genetic effect on HbA1c was almost doubled in obese individuals, compared with those with a healthy weight, and independent of weight, there was a modest offset on HbA1c in high-genetic-risk individuals consuming a diet high in wholegrain. This supports the importance of a healthy diet high in wholegrains and along with maintaining a healthy weight in controlling HbA1c among high-genetic-risk groups.

15.
BMJ ; 367: l5358, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To map and assess prognostic models for outcome prediction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: PubMed until November 2018 and hand searched references from eligible articles. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Studies developing, validating, or updating a prediction model in COPD patients and focusing on any potential clinical outcome. RESULTS: The systematic search yielded 228 eligible articles, describing the development of 408 prognostic models, the external validation of 38 models, and the validation of 20 prognostic models derived for diseases other than COPD. The 408 prognostic models were developed in three clinical settings: outpatients (n=239; 59%), patients admitted to hospital (n=155; 38%), and patients attending the emergency department (n=14; 3%). Among the 408 prognostic models, the most prevalent endpoints were mortality (n=209; 51%), risk for acute exacerbation of COPD (n=42; 10%), and risk for readmission after the index hospital admission (n=36; 9%). Overall, the most commonly used predictors were age (n=166; 41%), forced expiratory volume in one second (n=85; 21%), sex (n=74; 18%), body mass index (n=66; 16%), and smoking (n=65; 16%). Of the 408 prognostic models, 100 (25%) were internally validated and 91 (23%) examined the calibration of the developed model. For 286 (70%) models a model presentation was not available, and only 56 (14%) models were presented through the full equation. Model discrimination using the C statistic was available for 311 (76%) models. 38 models were externally validated, but in only 12 of these was the validation performed by a fully independent team. Only seven prognostic models with an overall low risk of bias according to PROBAST were identified. These models were ADO, B-AE-D, B-AE-D-C, extended ADO, updated ADO, updated BODE, and a model developed by Bertens et al. A meta-analysis of C statistics was performed for 12 prognostic models, and the summary estimates ranged from 0.611 to 0.769. CONCLUSIONS: This study constitutes a detailed mapping and assessment of the prognostic models for outcome prediction in COPD patients. The findings indicate several methodological pitfalls in their development and a low rate of external validation. Future research should focus on the improvement of existing models through update and external validation, as well as the assessment of the safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of the application of these prognostic models in clinical practice through impact studies. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017069247.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Prognóstico
16.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577342

RESUMO

Importance: Antidepressant use is increasing worldwide. Yet, contrasting evidence on the safety of antidepressants is available from meta-analyses, and the credibility of these findings has not been quantified. Objective: To grade the evidence from published meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed the association between antidepressant use or exposure and adverse health outcomes. Data Sources: PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO were searched from database inception to April 5, 2019. Evidence Review: Only meta-analyses of observational studies with a cohort or case-control study design were eligible. Two independent reviewers recorded the data and assessed the methodological quality of the included meta-analyses. Evidence of association was ranked according to established criteria as follows: convincing, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak, or not significant. Results: Forty-five meta-analyses (17.9%) from 4471 studies identified and 252 full-text articles scrutinized were selected that described 120 associations, including data from 1012 individual effect size estimates. Seventy-four (61.7%) of the 120 associations were nominally statistically significant at P ≤ .05 using random-effects models. Fifty-two associations (43.4%) had large heterogeneity (I2 > 50%), whereas small-study effects were found for 17 associations (14.2%) and excess significance bias was found for 9 associations (7.5%). Convincing evidence emerged from both main and sensitivity analyses for the association between antidepressant use and risk of suicide attempt or completion among children and adolescents, autism spectrum disorders with antidepressant exposure before and during pregnancy, preterm birth, and low Apgar scores. None of these associations remained supported by convincing evidence after sensitivity analysis, which adjusted for confounding by indication. Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that most putative adverse health outcomes associated with antidepressant use may not be supported by convincing evidence, and confounding by indication may alter the few associations with convincing evidence. Antidepressant use appears to be safe for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, but more studies matching for underlying disease are needed to clarify the degree of confounding by indication and other biases. No absolute contraindication to antidepressants emerged from this umbrella review.

17.
Eur Heart J ; 40(42): 3459-3470, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504461

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation is an important driver of hypertension. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, which could provide a mechanism for pro-hypertensive immune activation, but evidence of a causal relationship in humans is scarce. We aimed to investigate the nature of the association between periodontitis and hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis in the ∼750 000 UK-Biobank/International Consortium of Blood Pressure-Genome-Wide Association Studies participants using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SIGLEC5, DEFA1A3, MTND1P5, and LOC107984137 loci GWAS-linked to periodontitis, to ascertain their effect on blood pressure (BP) estimates. This demonstrated a significant relationship between periodontitis-linked SNPs and BP phenotypes. We then performed a randomized intervention trial on the effects of treatment of periodontitis on BP. One hundred and one hypertensive patients with moderate/severe periodontitis were randomized to intensive periodontal treatment (IPT; sub- and supragingival scaling/chlorhexidine; n = 50) or control periodontal treatment (CPT; supragingival scaling; n = 51) with mean ambulatory 24-h (ABPM) systolic BP (SBP) as primary outcome. Intensive periodontal treatment improved periodontal status at 2 months, compared to CPT. This was accompanied by a substantial reduction in mean SBP in IPT compared to the CPT (mean difference of -11.1 mmHg; 95% CI 6.5-15.8; P < 0.001). Systolic BP reduction was correlated to periodontal status improvement. Diastolic BP and endothelial function (flow-mediated dilatation) were also improved by IPT. These cardiovascular changes were accompanied by reductions in circulating IFN-γ and IL-6 as well as activated (CD38+) and immunosenescent (CD57+CD28null) CD8+T cells, previously implicated in hypertension. CONCLUSION: A causal relationship between periodontitis and BP was observed providing proof of concept for development of clinical trial in a large cohort of hypertensive patients. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02131922.

18.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e025287, 2019 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study trends of infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate in Greece during the period 2004-2016 and explore the role of sociodemographic factors in the years of crisis. DESIGN: Nationwide individual data for live births and infant (0-11 months) deaths provided by the Hellenic Statistical Authority were examined using Poisson, joinpoint regression and interrupted time series (ITS) analyses. SETTING: Greece. PARTICIPANTS: All infant deaths (n=4862) over the 13-year period, of which 87.2% were born to Greek mothers, and respective live births. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Evolution of IMR (0-364 days), early (<7 days) neonatal mortality rate (ENMR), late (7-27 days) neonatal mortality rate (LNMR) and post neonatal (28-364 days) mortality rate (PNMR) trends, by maternal nationality, place of residence and Human Development Index (HDI). RESULTS: By Poisson regression, overall, during the study period, among infants of Greek mothers, IMR and PNMR declined significantly (-0.9%; 95% CI -1.7% to -0.1% and -1.6%; -3.0% to -0.2% annually, respectively), although differentially by place of residence (IMRurban: -2.1%; -2.9% to -1.3%, IMRrural: +10.6%; 7.6% to 13.6%). By contrast, among infants of non-Greek mothers, the low starting IMR/ENMR/LNMR/PNMR increased significantly (max ENMR:+12.5%; 8.6% to 16.5%) leading to a non-significant time-trend pattern overall in Greece. The inverse associations of HDI with IMR, ENMR and PNMR were restricted to Greek mothers' infants. Joinpoint regression analyses among Greek mothers' infants indicated non-significant increasing trends of IMR and ENMR following the crisis (+9.3%, 2012-2016, p=0.07 and +10.2%, 2011-2016, p=0.06, respectively). By contrast, the high (+17.1%; 8.1% to 26.9%, p=0.002) IMR increases among non-Greek infants were restricted to 2004-2011 and equalised to those of Greek mothers' infants thereafter. ITS analyses in preset years (2008, 2010, 2012) identified significantly increasing trends in IMR, LNMR and PNMR after 2012, and in ENMR after 2010, among Greek mothers' infants. CONCLUSIONS: HDI and rural residence were significantly associated with IMR. The strongly decreasing IMR trends among Greek-mothers' infants were stagnated after a lag time of ~4 years of crisis approximating the previously sharply increasing trends among non-Greeks.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3653, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409800

RESUMO

Urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The exact biological link between these traits is yet to be elucidated. Here, we identify 50 loci for sodium and 13 for potassium excretion in a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) on urinary sodium and potassium excretion using data from 446,237 individuals of European descent from the UK Biobank study. We extensively interrogate the results using multiple analyses such as Mendelian randomization, functional assessment, co localization, genetic risk score, and pathway analyses. We identify a shared genetic component between urinary sodium and potassium expression and cardiovascular traits. Ingenuity pathway analysis shows that urinary sodium and potassium excretion loci are over-represented in behavioural response to stimuli. Our study highlights pathways that are shared between urinary sodium and potassium excretion and cardiovascular traits.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(9): 950-961, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358974

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol consumption is a heritable complex trait. Here we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of alcohol consumption (g d-1) from the UK Biobank, the Alcohol Genome-Wide Consortium and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Plus consortia, collecting data from 480,842 people of European descent to decipher the genetic architecture of alcohol intake. We identified 46 new common loci and investigated their potential functional importance using magnetic resonance imaging data and gene expression studies. We identify genetic pathways associated with alcohol consumption and suggest genetic mechanisms that are shared with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alcoolismo/genética , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genes/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA