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1.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577342

RESUMO

Importance: Antidepressant use is increasing worldwide. Yet, contrasting evidence on the safety of antidepressants is available from meta-analyses, and the credibility of these findings has not been quantified. Objective: To grade the evidence from published meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed the association between antidepressant use or exposure and adverse health outcomes. Data Sources: PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO were searched from database inception to April 5, 2019. Evidence Review: Only meta-analyses of observational studies with a cohort or case-control study design were eligible. Two independent reviewers recorded the data and assessed the methodological quality of the included meta-analyses. Evidence of association was ranked according to established criteria as follows: convincing, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak, or not significant. Results: Forty-five meta-analyses (17.9%) from 4471 studies identified and 252 full-text articles scrutinized were selected that described 120 associations, including data from 1012 individual effect size estimates. Seventy-four (61.7%) of the 120 associations were nominally statistically significant at P ≤ .05 using random-effects models. Fifty-two associations (43.4%) had large heterogeneity (I2 > 50%), whereas small-study effects were found for 17 associations (14.2%) and excess significance bias was found for 9 associations (7.5%). Convincing evidence emerged from both main and sensitivity analyses for the association between antidepressant use and risk of suicide attempt or completion among children and adolescents, autism spectrum disorders with antidepressant exposure before and during pregnancy, preterm birth, and low Apgar scores. None of these associations remained supported by convincing evidence after sensitivity analysis, which adjusted for confounding by indication. Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that most putative adverse health outcomes associated with antidepressant use may not be supported by convincing evidence, and confounding by indication may alter the few associations with convincing evidence. Antidepressant use appears to be safe for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, but more studies matching for underlying disease are needed to clarify the degree of confounding by indication and other biases. No absolute contraindication to antidepressants emerged from this umbrella review.

2.
BMJ ; 367: l5358, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To map and assess prognostic models for outcome prediction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: PubMed until November 2018 and hand searched references from eligible articles. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Studies developing, validating, or updating a prediction model in COPD patients and focusing on any potential clinical outcome. RESULTS: The systematic search yielded 228 eligible articles, describing the development of 408 prognostic models, the external validation of 38 models, and the validation of 20 prognostic models derived for diseases other than COPD. The 408 prognostic models were developed in three clinical settings: outpatients (n=239; 59%), patients admitted to hospital (n=155; 38%), and patients attending the emergency department (n=14; 3%). Among the 408 prognostic models, the most prevalent endpoints were mortality (n=209; 51%), risk for acute exacerbation of COPD (n=42; 10%), and risk for readmission after the index hospital admission (n=36; 9%). Overall, the most commonly used predictors were age (n=166; 41%), forced expiratory volume in one second (n=85; 21%), sex (n=74; 18%), body mass index (n=66; 16%), and smoking (n=65; 16%). Of the 408 prognostic models, 100 (25%) were internally validated and 91 (23%) examined the calibration of the developed model. For 286 (70%) models a model presentation was not available, and only 56 (14%) models were presented through the full equation. Model discrimination using the C statistic was available for 311 (76%) models. 38 models were externally validated, but in only 12 of these was the validation performed by a fully independent team. Only seven prognostic models with an overall low risk of bias according to PROBAST were identified. These models were ADO, B-AE-D, B-AE-D-C, extended ADO, updated ADO, updated BODE, and a model developed by Bertens et al. A meta-analysis of C statistics was performed for 12 prognostic models, and the summary estimates ranged from 0.611 to 0.769. CONCLUSIONS: This study constitutes a detailed mapping and assessment of the prognostic models for outcome prediction in COPD patients. The findings indicate several methodological pitfalls in their development and a low rate of external validation. Future research should focus on the improvement of existing models through update and external validation, as well as the assessment of the safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of the application of these prognostic models in clinical practice through impact studies. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017069247.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504461

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation is an important driver of hypertension. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, which could provide a mechanism for pro-hypertensive immune activation, but evidence of a causal relationship in humans is scarce. We aimed to investigate the nature of the association between periodontitis and hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis in the ∼750 000 UK-Biobank/International Consortium of Blood Pressure-Genome-Wide Association Studies participants using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SIGLEC5, DEFA1A3, MTND1P5, and LOC107984137 loci GWAS-linked to periodontitis, to ascertain their effect on blood pressure (BP) estimates. This demonstrated a significant relationship between periodontitis-linked SNPs and BP phenotypes. We then performed a randomized intervention trial on the effects of treatment of periodontitis on BP. One hundred and one hypertensive patients with moderate/severe periodontitis were randomized to intensive periodontal treatment (IPT; sub- and supragingival scaling/chlorhexidine; n = 50) or control periodontal treatment (CPT; supragingival scaling; n = 51) with mean ambulatory 24-h (ABPM) systolic BP (SBP) as primary outcome. Intensive periodontal treatment improved periodontal status at 2 months, compared to CPT. This was accompanied by a substantial reduction in mean SBP in IPT compared to the CPT (mean difference of -11.1 mmHg; 95% CI 6.5-15.8; P < 0.001). Systolic BP reduction was correlated to periodontal status improvement. Diastolic BP and endothelial function (flow-mediated dilatation) were also improved by IPT. These cardiovascular changes were accompanied by reductions in circulating IFN-γ and IL-6 as well as activated (CD38+) and immunosenescent (CD57+CD28null) CD8+T cells, previously implicated in hypertension. CONCLUSION: A causal relationship between periodontitis and BP was observed providing proof of concept for development of clinical trial in a large cohort of hypertensive patients. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02131922.

4.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e025287, 2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study trends of infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate in Greece during the period 2004-2016 and explore the role of sociodemographic factors in the years of crisis. DESIGN: Nationwide individual data for live births and infant (0-11 months) deaths provided by the Hellenic Statistical Authority were examined using Poisson, joinpoint regression and interrupted time series (ITS) analyses. SETTING: Greece. PARTICIPANTS: All infant deaths (n=4862) over the 13-year period, of which 87.2% were born to Greek mothers, and respective live births. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Evolution of IMR (0-364 days), early (<7 days) neonatal mortality rate (ENMR), late (7-27 days) neonatal mortality rate (LNMR) and post neonatal (28-364 days) mortality rate (PNMR) trends, by maternal nationality, place of residence and Human Development Index (HDI). RESULTS: By Poisson regression, overall, during the study period, among infants of Greek mothers, IMR and PNMR declined significantly (-0.9%; 95% CI -1.7% to -0.1% and -1.6%; -3.0% to -0.2% annually, respectively), although differentially by place of residence (IMRurban: -2.1%; -2.9% to -1.3%, IMRrural: +10.6%; 7.6% to 13.6%). By contrast, among infants of non-Greek mothers, the low starting IMR/ENMR/LNMR/PNMR increased significantly (max ENMR:+12.5%; 8.6% to 16.5%) leading to a non-significant time-trend pattern overall in Greece. The inverse associations of HDI with IMR, ENMR and PNMR were restricted to Greek mothers' infants. Joinpoint regression analyses among Greek mothers' infants indicated non-significant increasing trends of IMR and ENMR following the crisis (+9.3%, 2012-2016, p=0.07 and +10.2%, 2011-2016, p=0.06, respectively). By contrast, the high (+17.1%; 8.1% to 26.9%, p=0.002) IMR increases among non-Greek infants were restricted to 2004-2011 and equalised to those of Greek mothers' infants thereafter. ITS analyses in preset years (2008, 2010, 2012) identified significantly increasing trends in IMR, LNMR and PNMR after 2012, and in ENMR after 2010, among Greek mothers' infants. CONCLUSIONS: HDI and rural residence were significantly associated with IMR. The strongly decreasing IMR trends among Greek-mothers' infants were stagnated after a lag time of ~4 years of crisis approximating the previously sharply increasing trends among non-Greeks.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3653, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409800

RESUMO

Urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The exact biological link between these traits is yet to be elucidated. Here, we identify 50 loci for sodium and 13 for potassium excretion in a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) on urinary sodium and potassium excretion using data from 446,237 individuals of European descent from the UK Biobank study. We extensively interrogate the results using multiple analyses such as Mendelian randomization, functional assessment, co localization, genetic risk score, and pathway analyses. We identify a shared genetic component between urinary sodium and potassium expression and cardiovascular traits. Ingenuity pathway analysis shows that urinary sodium and potassium excretion loci are over-represented in behavioural response to stimuli. Our study highlights pathways that are shared between urinary sodium and potassium excretion and cardiovascular traits.

6.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(9): 950-961, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358974

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol consumption is a heritable complex trait. Here we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of alcohol consumption (g d-1) from the UK Biobank, the Alcohol Genome-Wide Consortium and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Plus consortia, collecting data from 480,842 people of European descent to decipher the genetic architecture of alcohol intake. We identified 46 new common loci and investigated their potential functional importance using magnetic resonance imaging data and gene expression studies. We identify genetic pathways associated with alcohol consumption and suggest genetic mechanisms that are shared with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.

7.
Circulation ; 140(4): 270-279, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug effects can be investigated through natural variation in the genes for their protein targets. The present study aimed to use this approach to explore the potential side effects and repurposing potential of antihypertensive drugs, which are among the most commonly used medications worldwide. METHODS: Genetic proxies for the effect of antihypertensive drug classes were identified as variants in the genes for the corresponding targets that associated with systolic blood pressure at genome-wide significance. Mendelian randomization estimates for drug effects on coronary heart disease and stroke risk were compared with randomized, controlled trial results. A phenome-wide association study in the UK Biobank was performed to identify potential side effects and repurposing opportunities, with findings investigated in the Vanderbilt University biobank (BioVU) and in observational analysis of the UK Biobank. RESULTS: Suitable genetic proxies for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ß-blockers, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) were identified. Mendelian randomization estimates for their effect on coronary heart disease and stroke risk, respectively, were comparable to results from randomized, controlled trials against placebo. A phenome-wide association study in the UK Biobank identified an association of the CCB standardized genetic risk score with increased risk of diverticulosis (odds ratio, 1.02 per standard deviation increase; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), with a consistent estimate found in BioVU (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02). Cox regression analysis of drug use in the UK Biobank suggested that this association was specific to nondihydropyridine CCBs (hazard ratio 1.49 considering thiazide diuretic agents as a comparator; 95% CI, 1.04-2.14) but not dihydropyridine CCBs (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.83-1.32). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants can be used to explore the efficacy and side effects of antihypertensive medications. The identified potential effect of nondihydropyridine CCBs on diverticulosis risk could have clinical implications and warrants further investigation.

8.
Trends Mol Med ; 25(8): 662-672, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221572

RESUMO

Despite the identification of several dozens of common genetic variants associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), most of the genetic risk remains uncharacterised. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of regulatory elements, such as miRNAs. Dysregulated miRNAs are implicated in AD and PD, with potential value in dissecting the shared pathophysiology between the two disorders. miRNAs relevant to both neurodegenerative diseases are related to axonal guidance, apoptosis, and inflammation, therefore, AD and PD likely arise from similar underlying biological pathway defects. Furthermore, pathways regulated by APP, L1CAM, and genes of the caspase family may represent promising therapeutic miRNA targets in AD and PD since they are targeted by dysregulated miRNAs in both disorders.

9.
PLoS Med ; 16(6): e1002833, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron is integral to many physiological processes, and variations in its levels, even within the normal range, can have implications for health. The objective of this study was to explore the broad clinical effects of varying iron status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data obtained from 48,972 European individuals (55% female) across 19 cohorts in the Genetics of Iron Status Consortium were used to identify 3 genetic variants (rs1800562 and rs1799945 in the hemochromatosis gene [HFE] and rs855791 in the transmembrane protease serine 6 gene [TMPRSS6]) that associate with increased serum iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation and decreased transferrin levels, thus serving as instruments for systemic iron status. Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) of these instruments was performed on 424,439 European individuals (54% female) in the UK Biobank who were aged 40-69 years when recruited from 2006 to 2010, with their genetic data linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) from April, 1995 to March, 2016. Two-sample summary data mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was performed to investigate the effect of varying iron status on outcomes across the human phenome. MR-PheWAS analysis for the 3 iron status genetic instruments was performed separately and then pooled by meta-analysis. Correction was made for testing of multiple correlated phenotypes using a 5% false discovery rate (FDR) threshold. Heterogeneity between MR estimates for different instruments was used to indicate possible bias due to effects of the genetic variants through pathways unrelated to iron status. There were 904 distinct phenotypes included in the MR-PheWAS analyses. After correcting for multiple testing, the 3 genetic instruments for systemic iron status demonstrated consistent evidence of a causal effect of higher iron status on decreasing risk of traits related to anemia (iron deficiency anemia: odds ratio [OR] scaled to a standard deviation [SD] increase in genetically determined serum iron levels 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.81, P = 4 × 10-8) and hypercholesterolemia (hypercholesterolemia: OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.93, P = 2 × 10-5) and increasing risk of traits related to infection of the skin and related structures (cellulitis and abscess of the leg: OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10-1.42, P = 6 × 10-4). The main limitations of this study relate to possible bias from pleiotropic effects of the considered genetic variants and misclassification of diagnoses in the HES data. Furthermore, this work only investigated participants with European ancestry, and the findings may not be applicable to other ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings offer novel, to our knowledge, insight into previously unreported effects of iron status, highlighting a potential protective effect of higher iron status on hypercholesterolemia and a detrimental role on risk of skin and skin structure infections. Given the modifiable and variable nature of iron status, these findings warrant further investigation.

10.
Eur Heart J ; 40(34): 2883-2896, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102408

RESUMO

AIMS: To characterize serum metabolic signatures associated with atherosclerosis in the coronary or carotid arteries and subsequently their association with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We used untargeted one-dimensional (1D) serum metabolic profiling by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) among 3867 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), with replication among 3569 participants from the Rotterdam and LOLIPOP studies. Atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate associations between NMR features and atherosclerosis accounting for multiplicity of comparisons. We then examined associations between metabolites associated with atherosclerosis and incident CVD available in MESA and Rotterdam and explored molecular networks through bioinformatics analyses. Overall, 30 1H NMR measured metabolites were associated with CAC and/or IMT, P = 1.3 × 10-14 to 1.0 × 10-6 (discovery) and P = 5.6 × 10-10 to 1.1 × 10-2 (replication). These associations were substantially attenuated after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Metabolites associated with atherosclerosis revealed disturbances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, branched chain, and aromatic amino acid metabolism, as well as oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways. Analyses of incident CVD events showed inverse associations with creatine, creatinine, and phenylalanine, and direct associations with mannose, acetaminophen-glucuronide, and lactate as well as apolipoprotein B (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Metabolites associated with atherosclerosis were largely consistent between the two vascular beds (coronary and carotid arteries) and predominantly tag pathways that overlap with the known cardiovascular risk factors. We present an integrated systems network that highlights a series of inter-connected pathways underlying atherosclerosis.

11.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e027666, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency and investigate its association with mortality in children with acute or critical conditions. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, OVID, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library searched until 21 December 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies of children hospitalised with acute or critical conditions who had blood 25(OH)D levels measured. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We obtained pooled prevalence estimates of 25(OH)D deficiency and ORs for mortality. We calculated 95% CI and prediction intervals and investigated heterogeneity and evidence of small-study effects. RESULTS: Fifty-two studies were included. Of 7434 children, 3473 (47.0%) were 25(OH)D deficient (<50 nmol/L). The pooled prevalence estimate of 25(OH)D deficiency was 54.6% (95% CI 48.5% to 60.6%, I2=95.3%, p<0.0001). Prevalence was similar after excluding smaller studies (51.5%). In children with sepsis (18 studies, 889 total individuals) prevalence was 64.0% (95% CI 52.0% to 74.4%, I2=89.3%, p<0.0001) and 48.7% (95% CI 38.2% to 59.3%; I2=94.3%, p<0.0001) in those with respiratory tract infections (RTI) (25 studies, 2699 total individuals). Overall, meta-analysis of mortality (18 cohort studies, 2463 total individuals) showed increased risk of death in 25(OH)D deficient children (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.64, p=0.002, I2=25.7%, p=0.153). Four (22.0%) of the 18 studies statistically adjusted for confounders. There were insufficient studies to meta-analyse sepsis and RTI-related mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that 25(OH)D deficiency in acute and critically ill children is high and associated with increased mortality. Small-study effects, reverse causation and other biases may have confounded results. Larger, carefully designed studies in homogeneous populations with confounder adjustment are needed to clarify the association between 25(OH)D levels with mortality and other outcomes. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42016050638.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215372, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common pregnancy complication, with complex disease mechanisms, and several risk factors may contribute to its onset. We performed an umbrella review to summarize the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies on risk factors associated with GDM, evaluate whether there are indications of biases in this literature and identify which of the previously reported associations are supported by convincing evidence. METHODS: We searched PubMed and ISI Web of Science from inception to December 2018 to identify meta-analyses examining associations between putative risk factors for GDM. For each meta-analysis we estimated the summary effect size, the 95% confidence interval, the 95% prediction interval, the between-study heterogeneity, evidence of small-study effects, and evidence of excess-significance bias. RESULTS: Thirty eligible meta-analyses were identified, providing data on 61 associations. Fifty (82%) associations had nominally statistically significant findings (P<0.05), while only 15 (25%) were significant at P<10-6 under the random-effects model. Only four risk factors presented convincing evidence:, low vs. normal BMI (cohort studies), BMI ~30-35 kg/m2 vs. normal BMI, BMI >35 kg/m2 vs. normal BMI, and hypothyroidism. CONCLUSIONS: The compilation of results from synthesis of observational studies suggests that increased BMI and hypothyroidism show the strongest consistent evidence for an association with GDM. Diet and lifestyle modifications in pregnancy should be tested in large randomized trials. Our findings suggest that women with known thyroid disease may be offered screening for GDM earlier in pregnancy.

14.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(7): 1284-1296, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888730

RESUMO

Hip geometry is an important predictor of fracture. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS studies in adults to identify genetic variants that are associated with proximal femur geometry phenotypes. We analyzed four phenotypes: (i) femoral neck length; (ii) neck-shaft angle; (iii) femoral neck width, and (iv) femoral neck section modulus, estimated from DXA scans using algorithms of hip structure analysis. In the Discovery stage, 10 cohort studies were included in the fixed-effect meta-analysis, with up to 18,719 men and women ages 16 to 93 years. Association analyses were performed with ∼2.5 million polymorphisms under an additive model adjusted for age, body mass index, and height. Replication analyses of meta-GWAS significant loci (at adjusted genomewide significance [GWS], threshold p ≤ 2.6 × 10-8 ) were performed in seven additional cohorts in silico. We looked up SNPs associated in our analysis, for association with height, bone mineral density (BMD), and fracture. In meta-analysis (combined Discovery and Replication stages), GWS associations were found at 5p15 (IRX1 and ADAMTS16); 5q35 near FGFR4; at 12p11 (in CCDC91); 11q13 (near LRP5 and PPP6R3 (rs7102273)). Several hip geometry signals overlapped with BMD, including LRP5 (chr. 11). Chr. 11 SNP rs7102273 was associated with any-type fracture (p = 7.5 × 10-5 ). We used bone transcriptome data and discovered several significant eQTLs, including rs7102273 and PPP6R3 expression (p = 0.0007), and rs6556301 (intergenic, chr.5 near FGFR4) and PDLIM7 expression (p = 0.005). In conclusion, we found associations between several genes and hip geometry measures that explained 12% to 22% of heritability at different sites. The results provide a defined set of genes related to biological pathways relevant to BMD and etiology of bone fragility. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

15.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 636-648, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926973

RESUMO

The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study in 133,805 individuals with follow-up in an additional 253,467 individuals. Combined meta-analyses identified 13 new loci associated with lipids, some of which were detected only because association differed by smoking status. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of including diverse populations, particularly in studies of interactions with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences by ancestry may contribute to novel findings.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nodular melanoma (NM) is more likely to be fatal compared to other melanoma subtypes, an effect attributed to its greater Breslow thickness. METHODS: Clinicopathological features of NM and superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) diagnosed in 17 centers in Europe (n = 15), USA and Australia between 2006 and 2015, were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis, with emphasis in thin (T1 ≤ 1.0 mm) melanomas. Cox analysis assessed melanoma-specific survival (MSS). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: In all, 20,132 melanomas (NM: 5,062, SSM: 15,070) were included. Compared to T1 SSM, T1 NM was less likely to have regression (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.29-0.72) or nevus remnants histologically (OR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.85), and more likely to have mitoses (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.33-2.93) and regional metastasis (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.02-3.05). T1 NM had a higher mitotic rate than T1 SSM (adjusted geometric mean 2.2 [95% CI:1.9-2.4] vs 1.6 [95% CI:1.5-1.7] per mm2, p < 0.001). Cox multivariate analysis showed a higher risk for melanoma-specific death for NM compared to SSM for T1 (HR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.56) and T2 melanomas (HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.01-1.68), while after accounting for center heterogeneity, there was statistical significance only for T1 (HR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.28-3.78). The NM subtype did not confer increased risk within each stratum (among localized tumors or cases with regional metastasis). CONCLUSIONS: T1 NM (compared to T1 SSM) was associated with a constellation of aggressive characteristics that may confer a worse prognosis. Our results indicate NM is a high-risk melanoma subtype that should be considered for inclusion in future prognostic classifications of melanoma.

17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617275

RESUMO

Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.

18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1033-1054, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698716

RESUMO

A person's lipid profile is influenced by genetic variants and alcohol consumption, but the contribution of interactions between these exposures has not been studied. We therefore incorporated gene-alcohol interactions into a multiancestry genome-wide association study of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. We included 45 studies in stage 1 (genome-wide discovery) and 66 studies in stage 2 (focused follow-up), for a total of 394,584 individuals from 5 ancestry groups. Analyses covered the period July 2014-November 2017. Genetic main effects and interaction effects were jointly assessed by means of a 2-degrees-of-freedom (df) test, and a 1-df test was used to assess the interaction effects alone. Variants at 495 loci were at least suggestively associated (P < 1 × 10-6) with lipid levels in stage 1 and were evaluated in stage 2, followed by combined analyses of stage 1 and stage 2. In the combined analysis of stages 1 and 2, a total of 147 independent loci were associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10-8 using 2-df tests, of which 18 were novel. No genome-wide-significant associations were found testing the interaction effect alone. The novel loci included several genes (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB), and apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 (APOBEC1) complementation factor (A1CF)) that have a putative role in lipid metabolism on the basis of existing evidence from cellular and experimental models.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 376, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670697

RESUMO

Many genetic loci affect circulating lipid levels, but it remains unknown whether lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, modify these genetic effects. To identify lipid loci interacting with physical activity, we performed genome-wide analyses of circulating HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in up to 120,979 individuals of European, African, Asian, Hispanic, and Brazilian ancestry, with follow-up of suggestive associations in an additional 131,012 individuals. We find four loci, in/near CLASP1, LHX1, SNTA1, and CNTNAP2, that are associated with circulating lipid levels through interaction with physical activity; higher levels of physical activity enhance the HDL cholesterol-increasing effects of the CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 loci and attenuate the LDL cholesterol-increasing effect of the CNTNAP2 locus. The CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 regions harbor genes linked to muscle function and lipid metabolism. Our results elucidate the role of physical activity interactions in the genetic contribution to blood lipid levels.


Assuntos
Exercício , Loci Gênicos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Brasil , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 258-266, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598549

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common aging-related disease diagnosed primarily using bone mineral density (BMD). We assessed genetic determinants of BMD as estimated by heel quantitative ultrasound in 426,824 individuals, identifying 518 genome-wide significant loci (301 novel), explaining 20% of its variance. We identified 13 bone fracture loci, all associated with estimated BMD (eBMD), in ~1.2 million individuals. We then identified target genes enriched for genes known to influence bone density and strength (maximum odds ratio (OR) = 58, P = 1 × 10-75) from cell-specific features, including chromatin conformation and accessible chromatin sites. We next performed rapid-throughput skeletal phenotyping of 126 knockout mice with disruptions in predicted target genes and found an increased abnormal skeletal phenotype frequency compared to 526 unselected lines (P < 0.0001). In-depth analysis of one gene, DAAM2, showed a disproportionate decrease in bone strength relative to mineralization. This genetic atlas provides evidence linking associated SNPs to causal genes, offers new insight into osteoporosis pathophysiology, and highlights opportunities for drug development.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
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