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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657123

RESUMO

Large singlet exciton diffusion lengths are a hallmark of high performance in organic based devices such as photovoltaics, chemical sensors, and photodetectors. In this study, exciton dynamics of a two-dimensional covalent organic framework, COF-5, is investigated using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques. Following photoexcitation, the COF-5 exciton decays via three pathways: 1) excimer formation (4 ± 2 ps), 2) excimer relaxation (160 ± 40 ps), and 3) excimer decay (>3 ns). Excita-tion fluence-dependent transient absorption studies suggest that COF-5 has a relatively large diffusion coefficient (0.08 cm2/s). Furthermore, exciton-exciton annihilation processes are characterized as a function of COF-5 crystallite domain size in four different samples, which reveal domain-size dependent exciton diffusion kinetics. These results reveal that exciton diffusion in COF-5 is constrained by its crystalline domain size. These insights indicate the outstanding promise of delocalized excitonic processes available in 2D COFs, which motivate their continued design and implementation into optoelectronic devices.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(14): 6548-6553, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186875

RESUMO

Inherently porous materials that are chemically and structurally robust are challenging to construct. Conventionally, dynamic chemistry is thought to be needed for the formation of uniform porous organic frameworks, but dynamic bonds can limit the stability of these materials. For this reason, all-carbon-linked frameworks are expected to exhibit higher stability performance than more traditional porous frameworks. However, the limited reversibility of carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions has restricted the exploration of these materials. In particular, the challenges associated with producing uniform thin films of all-carbon-linked frameworks has inhibited the study of these materials in applications where well-defined films are required. Here, we synthesize continuous and homogeneous films of two different all-carbon-linked three-dimensional porous aromatic frameworks with nanometer-precision thickness (PAF-1 and BCMP-2). This was accomplished by kinetically promoting surface reactivity while suppressing homogeneous nucleation. Through connection of the PAF film to a gold substrate via a self-assembled monolayer and use of flow conditions to continually introduce monomers, smooth and continuous PAF films can be grown with controlled thickness. This strategy allows traditional transition metal mediated carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions to form porous, organic thin films. We expect that the chemical principles uncovered in this study will enable the synthesis of a variety of chemically and structurally diverse carbon-carbon-linked frameworks as high-quality films, which are inaccessible by conventional methods.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(2): 783-791, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894972

RESUMO

Here we report that a covalent organic framework (COF), which contains 2,5-di(imine)-substituted 1,4-dihydroxybenzene (diiminol) moieties, undergoes color changes in the presence of solvents or solvent vapor that are rapid, passive, reversible, and easily detectable by the naked eye. A new visible absorption band appears in the presence of polar solvents, especially water, suggesting reversible conversion to another species. This reversibility is attributed to the ability of the diiminol to rapidly tautomerize to an iminol/cis-ketoenamine and its inability to doubly tautomerize to a diketoenamine. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest similar energies for the two tautomers in the presence of water, but the diiminol is much more stable in its absence. Time-dependent DFT calculations confirm that the iminol/cis-ketoenamine absorbs at longer wavelength than the diiminol and indicate that this absorption has significant charge-transfer character. A colorimetric humidity sensing device constructed from an oriented thin film of the COF responded quickly to water vapor and was stable for months. These results suggest that tautomerization-induced electronic structure changes can be exploited in COF platforms to give rapid, reversible sensing in systems that exhibit long-term stability.

4.
Adv Mater ; 32(2): e1905776, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763734

RESUMO

Imine-linked 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) form more rapidly than previously reported under Brønsted acid-catalyzed conditions, showing signs of crystallinity within a few minutes, and maximum crystallinity within hours. These observations contrast with the multiday reaction times typically employed under these conditions. In addition, vacuum activation, which is often used to isolate COF materials significantly erodes the crystallinity and surface area of the several isolated materials, as measured by N2 sorption and X-ray diffraction. This loss of material quality during isolation for many networks has historically obscured otherwise effective polymerization conditions. The influence of the activation procedure is characterized in detail for three COFs, with the commonly used 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene-terephthaldehyde network (TAPB-PDA COF), the most prone to pore collapse. When the networks are activated carefully, rapid COF formation is general for all five of the imine-linked 2D COFs studied, with all exhibiting excellent crystallinity and surface areas, including the highest surface areas reported to date for three materials. Furthermore, to simplify the workup of COF materials, a simple nitrogen flow method provides high-quality materials without the need for specialized equipment. These insights have important implications for studying and understanding how 2D COFs form.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(3): 1367-1374, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867961

RESUMO

Homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) polymerization is a poorly understood process in which topologically planar monomers react to form planar macromolecules, often termed 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs). While these COFs have traditionally been limited to weakly crystalline aggregated powders, they were recently grown as micron-sized single crystals by temporally resolving the growth and nucleation processes. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the nucleation and growth rates of 2D COFs via kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations using COF-5 as an example, which show that nucleation and growth have second-order and first-order dependences on monomer concentration, respectively. The computational results were confirmed experimentally by systematic measurements of COF nucleation and growth rates performed via in situ X-ray scattering, which validated the respective monomer concentration dependencies of the nucleation and elongation processes. A major consequence is that there exists a threshold monomer concentration below which growth dominates over nucleation. Our computational and experimental findings rationalize recent empirical observations that, in the formation of 2D COF single crystals, growth dominates over nucleation when monomers are added slowly, so as to limit their concentrations. This mechanistic understanding of the nucleation and growth processes will inform the rational control of polymerization in two dimensions and ultimately enable access to high-quality samples of designed two-dimensional polymers.

6.
ACS Cent Sci ; 5(11): 1892-1899, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807691

RESUMO

Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) are composed of structurally precise, permanently porous, layered polymer sheets. 2D COFs have traditionally been synthesized as polycrystalline aggregates with small crystalline domains. Only recently have a small number of 2D COFs been obtained as single crystals, which were prepared by a seeded growth approach via the slow introduction of monomers, which favored particle growth over nucleation. However, these procedures are slow and operationally difficult, making it desirable to develop polymerization methods that do not require the continuous addition of reactants over days or weeks. Here, we achieve the rapid growth of boronate ester-linked COFs by chemically suppressing nucleation via addition of an excess of a monofunctional competitor, 4-tert-butylcatechol (TCAT), into the polymerization. In situ X-ray scattering measurements show that TCAT suppresses colloid nucleation, which enables seeded growth polymerizations in the presence of high monomer concentrations. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations reveal that TCAT limits oligomers to sizes below the critical nucleus size and that in-plane expansion is restricted compared to out-of-plane oriented attachment of oligomers. The simulations are consistent with transmission electron micrographs, which show that the particles grow predominantly in the stacking direction. This mechanistic insight into the role of the modulators in 2D polymerizations enables the size and aspect ratio of COF colloids to be controlled under operationally simple conditions. This chemically controlled growth strategy will accelerate the discovery and exploration of COF materials and their emergent properties.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872540

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are highly modular porous crystalline polymers that are of interest for applications such as charge-storage devices, nanofiltration membranes, and optoelectronic devices. COFs are typically synthesized as microcrystalline powders, which limits their performance in these applications, and their limited solubility precludes large-scale processing into more useful morphologies and devices. We report a general, scalable method to exfoliate two-dimensional imine-linked COF powders by temporarily protonating their linkages. The resulting suspensions were cast into continuous crystalline COF films up to 10 cm in diameter, with thicknesses ranging from 50 nm to 20 µm depending on the suspension composition, concentration, and casting protocol. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the film fabrication process proceeds through a partial depolymerization/repolymerization mechanism, providing mechanically robust films that can be easily separated from their substrates.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(50): 19728-19735, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743009

RESUMO

The synthesis of periodic two-dimensional (2D) polymers and characterization of their optoelectronic behaviors are challenges at the forefront of polymer chemistry and materials science. Recently, we showed that layered 2D polymers known as 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) can be synthesized as single crystals by preparing COF particles as colloidal suspensions. Here we expand this approach from the condensation of boronic acids and catechols to the dehydrative trimerization of polyboronic acids. The resulting boroxine-linked colloids are the next class of 2D COFs to be obtained as single-crystalline particles, as demonstrated here for four 2D COFs and one 3D COF. Colloidal stabilization enables detailed structural analysis by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Solution fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the COF crystallites are highly emissive compared to their respective monomer solutions. Excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the origin of this enhanced emission can be attributed to through-space communication of chromophores between COF sheets. These observations will motivate the development of colloidal COF systems as a platform to organize functional aromatic systems into precise and predictable assemblies with emergent properties.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(41): 14708-14714, 2019 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407425

RESUMO

Nanotubes assembled from macrocyclic precursors offer a unique combination of low dimensionality, structural rigidity, and distinct interior and exterior microenvironments. Usually the weak stacking energies of macrocycles limit the length and mechanical strength of the resultant nanotubes. Imine-linked macrocycles were recently found to assemble into high-aspect ratio (>103 ), lyotropic nanotubes in the presence of excess acid. Yet these harsh conditions are incompatible with many functional groups and processing methods, and lower acid loadings instead catalyze macrocycle degradation. Here we report pyridine-2,6-diimine-linked macrocycles that assemble into high-aspect ratio nanotubes in the presence of less than 1 equiv of CF3 CO2 H per macrocycle. Analysis by gel permeation chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a cooperative self-assembly mechanism. The low acid concentrations needed to induce assembly enabled nanofibers to be obtained by touch-spinning, which exhibit higher Young's moduli (1.33 GPa) than many synthetic polymers and biological filaments. These findings represent a breakthrough in the design of inverse chromonic liquid crystals, as assembly under such mild conditions will enable the design of structurally diverse and mechanically robust nanotubes from synthetically accessible macrocycles.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(16): 6473-6478, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964670

RESUMO

Carbene polymerization provides polyolefins that cannot be readily prepared from olefin monomers; however, controlled and living carbene polymerization has been a long-standing challenge. Here we report a new class of initiators, (π-allyl)palladium carboxylate dimers, which polymerize ethyl diazoacetate, a carbene precursor in a controlled and quasi-living manner, with nearly quantitative yields, degrees of polymerization >100, molecular weight dispersities 1.2-1.4, and well-defined, diversifiable chain ends. This method also provides block copolycarbenes that undergo microphase segregation. Experimental and theoretical mechanistic analysis supports a new dinuclear mechanism for this process.

11.
Chem Sci ; 10(13): 3796-3801, 2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996969

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) consist of monomers arranged in predictable structures with emergent properties. However, improved crystallinity, porosity, and solution processability remain major challenges. To this end, colloidal COF nanoparticles are useful for mechanistic studies of nucleation and growth and enable advanced spectroscopy and solution processing of thin films. Here we present a general approach to synthesize imine-linked 2D COF nanoparticles and control their size by favoring imine polymerization while preventing the nucleation of new particles. The method yields uniform, crystalline, and high-surface-area particles and is applicable to several imine-linked COFs. In situ X-ray scattering experiments reveal the nucleation of amorphous polymers, which crystallize via imine exchange processes during and after particle growth, consistent with previous mechanistic studies of imine-linked COF powders. The separation of particle formation and growth processes offers control of particle size and may enable further improvements in crystallinity in the future.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 504, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700706

RESUMO

Significant interest exists in lead trihalides that present the perovskite structure owing to their demonstrated potential in photovoltaic, lasing, and display applications. These materials are also notable for their unusual phase behavior often displaying easily accessible phase transitions. In this work, time-resolved X-ray diffraction, performed on perovskite cesium lead bromide nanocrystals, maps the lattice response to controlled excitation fluence. These nanocrystals undergo a reversible, photoinduced orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition which is discernible at fluences greater than 0.34 mJ cm-2 through the loss of orthorhombic features and shifting of high-symmetry peaks. This transition recovers on the timescale of 510 ± 100 ps. A reversible crystalline-to-amorphous transition, observable through loss of Bragg diffraction intensity, occurs at higher fluences (greater than 2.5 mJ cm-2). These results demonstrate that light-driven phase transitions occur in perovskite materials, which will impact optoelectronic applications and enable the manipulation of non-equilibrium phase characteristics of the broad perovskite material class.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(18): 2680-2683, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747178

RESUMO

ß-Ketoenamine-linked covalent organic frameworks (COFs) offer excellent structural versatility and outstanding aqueous stability, but their stability complicates obtaining samples with high crystallinity and surface areas. In contrast, imine-linked COFs are often isolated with superior materials quality. Here we synthesize several ß-ketoenamine-linked COFs, including two unreported structures, with unmatched crystallinity and high surface areas by preparing the corresponding imine-linked COF and exchanging its triformylbenzene monomers with triformylphloroglucinol.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(36): 8883-8888, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131427

RESUMO

One-dimensional nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes and actin filaments rely on strong and directional interactions to stabilize their high aspect ratio shapes. This requirement has precluded making isolated, long, thin organic nanotubes by stacking molecular macrocycles, as their noncovalent stacking interactions are generally too weak. Here we report high aspect ratio (>103), lyotropic nanotubes of stacked, macrocyclic, iminium salts, which are formed by protonation of the corresponding imine-linked macrocycles. Iminium ion formation establishes cohesive interactions that, in organic solvent (tetrahydrofuran), are two orders of magnitude stronger than the neutral macrocycles, as explained by physical arguments and demonstrated by molecular dynamics simulations. Nanotube formation stabilizes the iminium ions, which otherwise rapidly hydrolyze, and is reversed and restored upon addition of bases and acids. Acids generated by irradiating a photoacid generator or sonicating chlorinated solvents also induced nanotube assembly, allowing these nanostructures to be coupled to diverse stimuli, and, once assembled, they can be fixed permanently by cross-linking their pendant alkenes. As large macrocyclic chromonic liquid crystals, these iminium salts are easily accessible through a modular design and provide a means to rationally synthesize structures that mimic the morphology and rheology of carbon nanotubes and biological tubules.

15.
Science ; 361(6397): 52-57, 2018 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930093

RESUMO

Polymerization of monomers into periodic two-dimensional networks provides structurally precise, layered macromolecular sheets that exhibit desirable mechanical, optoelectronic, and molecular transport properties. Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) offer broad monomer scope but are generally isolated as powders comprising aggregated nanometer-scale crystallites. We found that 2D COF formation could be controlled using a two-step procedure in which monomers are added slowly to preformed nanoparticle seeds. The resulting 2D COFs are isolated as single-crystalline, micrometer-sized particles. Transient absorption spectroscopy of the dispersed COF nanoparticles revealed improvement in signal quality by two to three orders of magnitude relative to polycrystalline powder samples, and suggests exciton diffusion over longer length scales than those obtained through previous approaches. These findings should enable a broad exploration of synthetic 2D polymer structures and properties.

16.
Chemistry ; 24(16): 3989-3993, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388270

RESUMO

Macrocycles based on directional bonding and dynamic covalent bond exchange can be designed with specific pore shapes, sizes, and functionality. These systems retain many of the design criteria and desirable aspects of two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic frameworks (COFs) but are more easily processed. Here we access discrete hexagonal imine-linked macrocycles by condensing a truncated analogue of 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene (TAPB) with terephthaldehyde (PDA). The monomers first condense into polymers but eventually convert into hexagonal macrocycles in high yield. The high selectivity for hexagonal macrocycles is enforced by their aggregation and crystallization into layered structures with more sluggish imine exchange. Their formation and exchange processes provide new insight into how imine-linked 2D COF simultaneously polymerize and crystallize. Solutions of these assembled macrocycles were cast into oriented, crystalline films, expanding the potential routes to 2D materials.

17.
ACS Cent Sci ; 3(1): 58-65, 2017 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28149954

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are two- or three-dimensional (2D or 3D) polymer networks with designed topology and chemical functionality, permanent porosity, and high surface areas. These features are potentially useful for a broad range of applications, including catalysis, optoelectronics, and energy storage devices. But current COF syntheses offer poor control over the material's morphology and final form, generally providing insoluble and unprocessable microcrystalline powder aggregates. COF polymerizations are often performed under conditions in which the monomers are only partially soluble in the reaction solvent, and this heterogeneity has hindered understanding of their polymerization or crystallization processes. Here we report homogeneous polymerization conditions for boronate ester-linked, 2D COFs that inhibit crystallite precipitation, resulting in stable colloidal suspensions of 2D COF nanoparticles. The hexagonal, layered structures of the colloids are confirmed by small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering, and kinetic characterization provides insight into the growth process. The colloid size is modulated by solvent conditions, and the technique is demonstrated for four 2D boronate ester-linked COFs. The diameter of individual COF nanoparticles in solution is monitored and quantified during COF growth and stabilization at elevated temperature using in situ variable-temperature liquid cell transmission electron microscopy imaging, a new characterization technique that complements conventional bulk scattering techniques. Solution casting of the colloids yields a free-standing transparent COF film with retained crystallinity and porosity, as well as preferential crystallite orientation. Collectively this structural control provides new opportunities for understanding COF formation and designing morphologies for device applications.

18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(5): 1714-8, 2016 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26481099

RESUMO

A polysulfide material was synthesized by the direct reaction of sulfur and d-limonene, by-products of the petroleum and citrus industries, respectively. The resulting material was processed into functional coatings or molded into solid devices for the removal of palladium and mercury salts from water and soil. The binding of mercury(II) to the sulfur-limonene polysulfide resulted in a color change. These properties motivate application in next-generation environmental remediation and mercury sensing.


Assuntos
Cicloexenos/química , Metais/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes do Solo/isolamento & purificação , Sulfetos/química , Enxofre/química , Terpenos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia em Gel , Limoneno , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
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