Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 78
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324515
2.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215679, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136575

RESUMO

Timely diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is limited in Ethiopia. We evaluated the performance of a low technology, thin layer agar, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) culture color plate (TB-CX) test with concurrent drug susceptibility testing (DST) to isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), and pyrazinamide (PZA) directly from sputum specimens. Patients undergoing examination for TB and multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB were enrolled in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from March 2016 to February 2017. All subjects received a GeneXpert MTB/RIF PCR test. TB-CX test results were compared to reference Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture for M.tb detection and DST for susceptibility to INH and RIF. Kappa statistic was applied to test agreement between results for TB-CX test and the reference methods, a cut-off Kappa value of 0.75 was considered as high level of agreements. A total of 137 participants were analyzed: 88 (64%) were new TB cases, 49 (36%) were re-treatment cases. The TB-CX test detected M.tb and DST in an average of 13 days compared to 50 days for the conventional DST result. The sensitivity and specificity of the TB-CX test for detecting M.tb were 94% and 98%, respectively (concordance, 96%; kappa 0.91). The sensitivity of the TB-CX test to detect drug resistance to INH, RIF, and MDR-TB was 91%, 100%, and 90% respectively. The specificity of the TB-CX test for detecting INH, RIF, and MDR-TB was 94%, 40%, and 94% respectively. Overall agreement between TB-CX test and LJ DST for detection of MDR-TB was 93%. The TB-CX test showed strong agreement with the GeneXpert test for detecting M.tb (89%, kappa 0.76) but low agreement for the detection of RIF resistance (57%, kappa 0.28). The TB-CX test was found to be a good alternative method for screening of TB and selective drug resistant-TB in a timely and cost-efficient manner.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214131, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) viability by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) microscopy can predict TB culture results, treatment response and infectiousness. However, diverse methods have been published. We aimed to optimise FDA microscopy, minimising sputum processing, biohazard and complexity for use in resource-constrained settings. METHODS AND RESULTS: Optimization: Patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB before treatment and healthy control participants provided sputa. These were divided into equal aliquots that were tested directly or after NaOH centrifuge-decontamination. Each aliquot was cultured and used to prepare slides (n = 80). FDA microscopy used: 1 or 3 drops of sputum; with/out acid-alcohol wash; with/out phenol sterilization; with 0/30/60 seconds KMnO4 quenching. Control samples all had negative culture and microscopy results. FDA microscopy had higher sensitivity when performed directly (without centrifuge-decontamination) on 1 drop of sputum (P<0.001), because 3 drops obscured microscopy. Acid-alcohol wash and KMnO4 quenching made bacilli easier to identity (P = 0.005). Phenol sterilization did not impair microscopy (P>0.1). Validation: The 2 protocols that performed best in the optimization experiments were reassessed operationally by comparing duplicate slides (n = 412) stained with KMnO4 quenching for 30 versus 60 seconds. FDA microscopy results were similar (P = 0.4) and highly reproducible, with 97% of counts agreeing within +/-1 logarithm. Storage: Smear microscopy slides and aliquots of the sputum from which they were made were stored for 4 weeks. Twice-weekly, paired slides (n = 80) were stained with freshly prepared versus stored FDA and read quantitatively. Storing sputum, microscopy slides or FDA solution at 4°C or room temperature had no effect on FDA microscopy results (all P>0.2). Cost: Material costs for each slide tested by FDA microscopy using reagents purchased locally were USD $0.05 and required the same equipment, time and skills as auramine acid-fast microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend a simple, bio-secure protocol for FDA microscopy that provides sensitive and repeatable results without requiring centrifugation.

4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(5): 519-528, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active case-finding among contacts of patients with tuberculosis is a global health priority, but the effects of active versus passive case-finding are poorly characterised. We assessed the contribution of active versus passive case-finding to tuberculosis detection among contacts and compared sex and disease characteristics between contacts diagnosed through these strategies. METHODS: In shanty towns in Callao, Peru, we identified index patients with tuberculosis and followed up contacts aged 15 years or older for tuberculosis. All patients and contacts were offered free programmatic active case-finding entailing sputum smear microscopy and clinical assessment. Additionally, all contacts were offered intensified active case-finding with sputum smear and culture testing monthly for 6 months and then once every 4 years. Passive case-finding at local health facilities was ongoing throughout follow-up. FINDINGS: Between Oct 23, 2002, and May 26, 2006, we identified 2666 contacts, who were followed up until March 1, 2016. Median follow-up was 10·0 years (IQR 7·5-11·0). 232 (9%) of 2666 contacts were diagnosed with tuberculosis. The 2-year cumulative risk of tuberculosis was 4·6% (95% CI 3·5-5·5), and overall incidence was 0·98 cases (95% CI 0·86-1·10) per 100 person-years. 53 (23%) of 232 contacts with tuberculosis were diagnosed through active case-finding and 179 (77%) were identified through passive case-finding. During the first 6 months of the study, 23 (45%) of 51 contacts were diagnosed through active case-finding and 28 (55%) were identified through passive case-finding. Contacts diagnosed through active versus passive case-finding were more frequently female (36 [68%] of 53 vs 85 [47%] of 179; p=0·009), had a symptom duration of less than 15 days (nine [25%] of 36 vs ten [8%] of 127; p=0·03), and were more likely to be sputum smear-negative (33 [62%] of 53 vs 62 [35%] of 179; p=0·0003). INTERPRETATION: Although active case-finding made an important contribution to tuberculosis detection among contacts, passive case-finding detected most of the tuberculosis burden. Compared with passive case-finding, active case-finding was equitable, helped to diagnose tuberculosis earlier and usually before a positive result on sputum smear microscopy, and showed a high burden of undetected tuberculosis among women. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development Civil Society Challenge Fund, Joint Global Health Trials consortium, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Imperial College National Institutes of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Sir Halley Stewart Trust, WHO, TB REACH, and IFHAD: Innovation for Health and Development.

6.
Bull World Health Organ ; 96(8): 522-530, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104792

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of using volunteer screeners in active tuberculosis case-finding in South Kivu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, especially among groups at high risk of tuberculosis infection. Methods: To identify and screen high-risk groups in remote communities, we trained volunteer screeners, mainly those who had themselves received treatment for tuberculosis or had a family history of the disease. A non-profit organization was created and screeners received training on the disease and its transmission at 3-day workshops. Screeners recorded the number of people screened, reporting a prolonged cough and who attended a clinic for testing, as well as test results. Data were evaluated every quarter during the 3-year period of the intervention (2014-2016). Findings: Acceptability of the intervention was high. Volunteers screened 650 434 individuals in their communities, 73 418 of whom reported a prolonged cough; 50 368 subsequently attended a clinic for tuberculosis testing. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 1 in 151 people screened, costing 0.29 United States dollars (US$) per person screened and US$ 44 per person diagnosed. Although members of high-risk groups with poorer access to health care represented only 5.1% (33 002/650 434) of those screened, they contributed 19.7% (845/4300) of tuberculosis diagnoses (1 diagnosis per 39 screened). The intervention resulted in an additional 4300 sputum-smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis diagnoses, 42% (4 300/10 247) of the provincial total for that period. Conclusion: Patient-led active tuberculosis case-finding represents a valuable complement to traditional case-finding, and should be used to assist health systems in the elimination of tuberculosis.

8.
Trop Med Int Health ; 23(8): 850-859, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mobile phone interventions have been advocated for tuberculosis care, but little is known about access of target populations to mobile phones. We studied mobile phone access among patients with tuberculosis, focusing on vulnerable patients and patients who later had adverse treatment outcomes. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study in Callao, Peru, we recruited and interviewed 2584 patients with tuberculosis between 2007 and 2013 and followed them until 2016 for adverse treatment outcomes using national treatment registers. Subsequently, we recruited a further 622 patients between 2016 and 2017. Data were analysed using logistic regression and by calculating relative risks (RR). RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2013, the proportion of the general population of Peru without mobile phone access averaged 7.8% but for patients with tuberculosis was 18% (P < 0.001). Patients without access were more likely to hold a lower socioeconomic position, suffer from food insecurity and be older than 50 years (all P < 0.01). Compared to patients with mobile phone access, patients without access at recruitment were more likely to subsequently have incomplete treatment (20% vs. 13%, RR = 1.5; P = 0.001) or an adverse treatment outcome (29% vs. 23% RR = 1.3; P = 0.006). Between 2016 and 2017, the proportion of patients without access dropped to 8.9% overall, but remained the same (18%) as in 2012 among the poorest third. CONCLUSION: Access to mobile phones among patients with tuberculosis is insufficient, and rarest in patients who are poorer and later have adverse treatment outcomes. Thus, mobile phone interventions to improve tuberculosis care may be least accessed by the priority populations for whom they are intended. Such interventions should ensure access to mobile phones to enhance equity.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198695, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meningitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing with the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay versus traditional approaches for diagnosing tuberculosis meningitis (TBM). METHODS: Patients were adults (n = 37) presenting with suspected TBM to the Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima, Peru, during 12 months until 1st January 2015. Each participant had a single CSF specimen that was divided into aliquots that were concurrently tested for M. tuberculosis using GeneXpert, Ziehl-Neelsen smear and culture on solid and liquid media. Drug susceptibility testing used Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT 960) and the proportions method. RESULTS: 81% (30/37) of patients received a final clinical diagnosis of TBM, of whom 63% (19/30, 95% confidence intervals, CI: 44-80%) were HIV-positive. 22% (8/37, 95%CI: 9.8-38%), of patients had definite TBM. Because definite TBM was defined by positivity in any laboratory test, all laboratory tests had 100% specificity. Considering the 30 patients who had a clinical diagnosis of TBM: diagnostic sensitivity was 23% (7/30, 95%CI: 9.9-42%) for GeneXpert and was the same for all culture results combined; considerably greater than 7% (2/30, 95%CI: 0.82-22%) for microscopy; whereas all laboratory tests had poor negative predictive values (20-23%). Considering only the 8 patients with definite TBM: diagnostic sensitivity was 88% (7/8, 95%CI: 47-100%) for GeneXpert; 75% (6/8, 95%CI: 35-97%) for MGIT culture or LJ culture; 50% (4/8, 95%CI 16-84) for Ogawa culture and 25% (2/8, 95%CI: 3.2-65%) for microscopy. GeneXpert and microscopy provided same-day results, whereas culture took 20-56 days. GeneXpert provided same-day rifampicin-susceptibility results, whereas culture-based testing took 32-71 days. 38% (3/8, 95%CI: 8.5-76%) of patients with definite TBM with data had evidence of drug-resistant TB, but 73% (22/30) of all clinically diagnosed TBM (definite, probable, and possible TBM) had no drug-susceptibility results available. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with traditional culture-based methods of CSF testing, GeneXpert had similar yield and faster results for both the detection of M. tuberculosis and drug-susceptibility testing. Including use of the GeneXpert has the capacity to improve the diagnosis of TBM cases.

10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(6): 1614-1623, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692300

RESUMO

Early detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is a global priority. Prolonged symptom duration before TB diagnosis is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and risk of transmission. We aimed to determine socioeconomic and behavioral factors associated with diagnostic delays among patients with TB. Data were collected from 105 patients with TB using a semi-structured interview guide in Lima, Peru. Factors associated with diagnostic delay were analyzed using negative binomial regression. The median delay from when symptoms commenced and the first positive diagnostic sample in public health facilities was 57 days (interquartile range: 28-126). In multivariable analysis, greater diagnostic delay was independently associated with patient older age, female gender, lower personal income before diagnosis, living with fewer people, and having more visits to professional health facilities before diagnosis (all P < 0.05). Patients who first sought care at a private health facility had more visits overall to professional health facilities before diagnosis than those who first sought care from public or insured employee health facilities and had longer diagnostic delay in analysis adjusted for age and gender. Patients with TB were significantly more likely to first self-medicate than to visit professional health facilities before diagnosis (P = 0.003). Thus, diagnostic delay was prolonged, greatest among older, low-income women, and varied according to the type of care sought by individuals when their symptoms commenced. These findings suggest that TB case-finding initiatives should target vulnerable groups in informal and private health facilities, where many patients with TB first seek health care.

12.
Chest ; 153(6): 1358-1367, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough frequency, and its duration, is a biomarker that can be used in low-resource settings without the need of laboratory culture and has been associated with transmission and treatment response. Radiologic characteristics associated with increased cough frequency may be important in understanding transmission. The relationship between cough frequency and cavitary lung disease has not been studied. METHODS: We analyzed data in 41 adults who were HIV negative and had culture-confirmed, drug-susceptible pulmonary TB throughout treatment. Cough recordings were based on the Cayetano Cough Monitor, and sputum samples were evaluated using microscopic observation drug susceptibility broth culture; among culture-positive samples, bacillary burden was assessed by means of time to positivity. CT scans were analyzed by a US-board-certified radiologist and a computer-automated algorithm. The algorithm evaluated cavity volume and cavitary proximity to the airway. CT scans were obtained within 1 month of treatment initiation. We compared small cavities (≤ 7 mL) and large cavities (> 7 mL) and cavities located closer to (≤ 10 mm) and farther from (> 10 mm) the airway to cough frequency and cough cessation until treatment day 60. RESULTS: Cough frequency during treatment was twofold higher in participants with large cavity volumes (rate ratio [RR], 1.98; P = .01) and cavities located closer to the airway (RR, 2.44; P = .001). Comparably, cough ceased three times faster in participants with smaller cavities (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.89; P = .06) and those farther from the airway (adjusted HR, 3.61;, P = .02). Similar results were found for bacillary burden and culture conversion during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Cough frequency during treatment is greater and lasts longer in patients with larger cavities, especially those closer to the airway.

14.
PLoS Med ; 14(11): e1002418, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Illness-related costs for patients with tuberculosis (TB) ≥20% of pre-illness annual household income predict adverse treatment outcomes and have been termed "catastrophic." Social protection initiatives, including cash transfers, are endorsed to help prevent catastrophic costs. With this aim, cash transfers may either be provided to defray TB-related costs of households with a confirmed TB diagnosis (termed a "TB-specific" approach); or to increase income of households with high TB risk to strengthen their economic resilience (termed a "TB-sensitive" approach). The impact of cash transfers provided with each of these approaches might vary. We undertook an economic modelling study from the patient perspective to compare the potential of these 2 cash transfer approaches to prevent catastrophic costs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Model inputs for 7 low- and middle-income countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Ghana, Mexico, Tanzania, and Yemen) were retrieved by literature review and included countries' mean patient TB-related costs, mean household income, mean cash transfers, and estimated TB-specific and TB-sensitive target populations. Analyses were completed for drug-susceptible (DS) TB-related costs in all 7 out of 7 countries, and additionally for drug-resistant (DR) TB-related costs in 1 of the 7 countries with available data. All cost data were reported in 2013 international dollars ($). The target population for TB-specific cash transfers was poor households with a confirmed TB diagnosis, and for TB-sensitive cash transfers was poor households already targeted by countries' established poverty-reduction cash transfer programme. Cash transfers offered in countries, unrelated to TB, ranged from $217 to $1,091/year/household. Before cash transfers, DS TB-related costs were catastrophic in 6 out of 7 countries. If cash transfers were provided with a TB-specific approach, alone they would be insufficient to prevent DS TB catastrophic costs in 4 out of 6 countries, and when increased enough to prevent DS TB catastrophic costs would require a budget between $3.8 million (95% CI: $3.8 million-$3.8 million) and $75 million (95% CI: $50 million-$100 million) per country. If instead cash transfers were provided with a TB-sensitive approach, alone they would be insufficient to prevent DS TB-related catastrophic costs in any of the 6 countries, and when increased enough to prevent DS TB catastrophic costs would require a budget between $298 million (95% CI: $219 million-$378 million) and $165,367 million (95% CI: $134,085 million-$196,425 million) per country. DR TB-related costs were catastrophic before and after TB-specific or TB-sensitive cash transfers in 1 out of 1 countries. Sensitivity analyses showed our findings to be robust to imputation of missing TB-related cost components, and use of 10% or 30% instead of 20% as the threshold for measuring catastrophic costs. Key limitations were using national average data and not considering other health and social benefits of cash transfers. CONCLUSIONS: A TB-sensitive cash transfer approach to increase all poor households' income may have broad benefits by reducing poverty, but is unlikely to be as effective or affordable for preventing TB catastrophic costs as a TB-specific cash transfer approach to defray TB-related costs only in poor households with a confirmed TB diagnosis. Preventing DR TB-related catastrophic costs will require considerable additional investment whether a TB-sensitive or a TB-specific cash transfer approach is used.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Modelos Econômicos , Tuberculose/economia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Áreas de Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(4): 1271-1276, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031289

RESUMO

The differential diagnosis for lymphadenopathy is wide and clinical presentations overlap, making obtaining an accurate diagnosis challenging. We sought to characterize the clinical and radiological characteristics, histological findings, and diagnoses for a cohort of patients with lymphadenopathy of unknown etiology. 121 Peruvian adults with lymphadenopathy underwent lymph node biopsy for microbiological and histopathological evaluation. Mean patient age was 41 years (Interquartile Range 26-52), 56% were males, and 39% were HIV positive. Patients reported fever (31%), weight loss (23%), and headache (22%); HIV infection was associated with fever (P < 0.05) and gastrointestinal symptoms (P < 0.05). Abnormalities were reported in 40% of chest X-rays (N = 101). Physicians suspected TB in 92 patients (76%), lymphoma in 19 patients (16%), and other malignancy in seven patients (5.8%). Histological diagnoses (N = 117) included tuberculosis (34%), hyperplasia (27%), lymphoma (13%), and nonlymphoma malignancy (14%). Hyperplasia was more common (P < 0.001) and lymphoma less common (P = 0.005) among HIV-positive than HIV-negative patients. There was a trend toward reduced frequency of caseous necrosis in samples from HIV-positive than HIV-negative TB patients (67 versus 93%, P = 0.055). The spectrum of diagnoses was broad, and clinical and radiological features correlated poorly with diagnosis. On the basis of clinical features, physicians over-diagnosed TB, and under-diagnosed malignancy. Although this may not be inappropriate in resource-limited settings where TB is the most frequent easily treatable cause of lymphadenopathy, diagnostic delays can be detrimental to patients with malignancy. It is important that patients with lymphadenopathy undergo a full diagnostic work-up including sampling for histological evaluation to obtain an accurate diagnosis.


Assuntos
Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico , Linfadenopatia/patologia , Adulto , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru
17.
PLoS Med ; 14(10): e1002406, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040271

RESUMO

In a Perspective accompanying Sylvia and colleagues, Carlton Evans and colleagues discuss the challenge of squaring policies around tuberculosis diagnosis with the realities of clinical practice in small villages and low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/terapia , Humanos
18.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 17(11): 1190-1199, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contacts of tuberculosis index cases are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Screening, preventive therapy, and surveillance for tuberculosis are underused interventions in contacts, particularly adults. We developed a score to predict risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases. METHODS: In 2002-06, we recruited contacts aged 15 years or older of index cases with pulmonary tuberculosis who lived in desert shanty towns in Ventanilla, Peru. We followed up contacts for tuberculosis until February, 2016. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to identify index case, contact, and household risk factors for tuberculosis from which to derive a score and classify contacts as low, medium, or high risk. We validated the score in an urban community recruited in Callao, Peru, in 2014-15. FINDINGS: In the derivation cohort, we identified 2017 contacts of 715 index cases, and median follow-up was 10·7 years (IQR 9·5-11·8). 178 (9%) of 2017 contacts developed tuberculosis during 19 147 person-years of follow-up (incidence 0·93 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 0·80-1·08). Risk factors for tuberculosis were body-mass index, previous tuberculosis, age, sustained exposure to the index case, the index case being in a male patient, lower community household socioeconomic position, indoor air pollution, previous tuberculosis among household members, and living in a household with a low number of windows per room. The 10-year risks of tuberculosis in the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups were, respectively, 2·8% (95% CI 1·7-4·4), 6·2% (4·8-8·1), and 20·6% (17·3-24·4). The 535 (27%) contacts classified as high risk accounted for 60% of the tuberculosis identified during follow-up. The score predicted tuberculosis independently of tuberculin skin test and index-case drug sensitivity results. In the external validation cohort, 65 (3%) of 1910 contacts developed tuberculosis during 3771 person-years of follow-up (incidence 1·7 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 1·4-2·2). The 2·5-year risks of tuberculosis in the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups were, respectively, 1·4% (95% CI 0·7-2·8), 3·9% (2·5-5·9), and 8·6%· (5·9-12·6). INTERPRETATION: Our externally validated risk score could predict and stratify 10-year risk of developing tuberculosis in adult contacts, and could be used to prioritise tuberculosis control interventions for people most likely to benefit. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development Civil Society Challenge Fund, Joint Global Health Trials consortium, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Imperial College National Institutes of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Sir Halley Stewart Trust, WHO, TB REACH, and Innovation for Health and Development.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
19.
Lancet Glob Health ; 5(8): e760-e771, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28625793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The performance of laboratory tests to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis is dependent on the quality of the sputum sample tested. The relative merits of sputum collection methods to improve tuberculosis diagnosis are poorly characterised. We therefore aimed to investigate the effects of sputum collection methods on tuberculosis diagnosis. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether non-invasive sputum collection methods in people aged at least 12 years improve the diagnostic performance of laboratory testing for pulmonary tuberculosis. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, ProQuest, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Embase up to April 14, 2017, to identify relevant experimental, case-control, or cohort studies. We analysed data by pairwise meta-analyses with a random-effects model and by network meta-analysis. All diagnostic performance data were calculated at the sputum-sample level, except where authors only reported data at the individual patient-level. Heterogeneity was assessed, with potential causes identified by logistic meta-regression. FINDINGS: We identified 23 eligible studies published between 1959 and 2017, involving 8967 participants who provided 19 252 sputum samples. Brief, on-demand spot sputum collection was the main reference standard. Pooled sputum collection increased tuberculosis diagnosis by microscopy (odds ratio [OR] 1·6, 95% CI 1·3-1·9, p<0·0001) or culture (1·7, 1·2-2·4, p=0·01). Providing instructions to the patient before sputum collection, during observed collection, or together with physiotherapy assistance increased diagnostic performance by microscopy (OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·3-2·0, p<0·0001). Collecting early morning sputum did not significantly increase diagnostic performance of microscopy (OR 1·5, 95% CI 0·9-2·6, p=0·2) or culture (1·4, 0·9-2·4, p=0·2). Network meta-analysis confirmed these findings, and revealed that both pooled and instructed spot sputum collections were similarly effective techniques for increasing the diagnostic performance of microscopy. INTERPRETATION: Tuberculosis diagnoses were substantially increased by either pooled collection or by providing instruction on how to produce a sputum sample taken at any time of the day. Both interventions had a similar effect to that reported for the introduction of new, expensive laboratory tests, and therefore warrant further exploration in the drive to end the global tuberculosis epidemic. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Joint Global Health Trials consortium, Innovation For Health and Development, and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Humanos , Microscopia , Meta-Análise em Rede , Razão de Chances , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Bull World Health Organ ; 95(4): 270-280, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28479622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of socioeconomic support on tuberculosis preventive therapy initiation in household contacts of tuberculosis patients and on treatment success in patients. METHODS: A non-blinded, household-randomized, controlled study was performed between February 2014 and June 2015 in 32 shanty towns in Peru. It included patients being treated for tuberculosis and their household contacts. Households were randomly assigned to either the standard of care provided by Peru's national tuberculosis programme (control arm) or the same standard of care plus socioeconomic support (intervention arm). Socioeconomic support comprised conditional cash transfers up to 230 United States dollars per household, community meetings and household visits. Rates of tuberculosis preventive therapy initiation and treatment success (i.e. cure or treatment completion) were compared in intervention and control arms. FINDINGS: Overall, 282 of 312 (90%) households agreed to participate: 135 in the intervention arm and 147 in the control arm. There were 410 contacts younger than 20 years: 43% in the intervention arm initiated tuberculosis preventive therapy versus 25% in the control arm (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 2.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.1-4.1). An intention-to-treat analysis showed that treatment was successful in 64% (87/135) of patients in the intervention arm versus 53% (78/147) in the control arm (unadjusted OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6). These improvements were equitable, being independent of household poverty. CONCLUSION: A tuberculosis-specific, socioeconomic support intervention increased uptake of tuberculosis preventive therapy and tuberculosis treatment success and is being evaluated in the Community Randomized Evaluation of a Socioeconomic Intervention to Prevent TB (CRESIPT) project.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Família , Apoio Social , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Antibioticoprofilaxia/economia , Antituberculosos/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Assistência Médica/organização & administração , Peru , Pobreza , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA