Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 395
Filtrar
1.
Fam Cancer ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219493

RESUMO

Bloom syndrome (BS) is a genomic and chromosomal instability disorder with prodigious cancer predisposition caused by pathogenic variants in BLM. We report the clinical and genetic details of a boy who first presented with infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) at the age of 6 months and subsequently was diagnosed with BS at the age of 9 years. Molecular analysis identified the pathogenic germline BLM sequence variants (c.1642C>T and c.2207_2212delinsTAGATTC). This is the first report of IFS related to BS, for which we show that both BLM alleles are maintained in the tumor and demonstrate a TPM3-NTKR1 fusion transcript in the IFS. Our communication emphasizes the importance of long-term follow up after treatment for pediatric neoplastic conditions, as clues to important genetic entities might manifest later, and the identification of a heritable tumor predisposition often leads to changes in patient surveillance and management.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185983

RESUMO

Clear cell meningioma (CCM) is a rare variant of meningioma. In recent years, an association between cranial and spinal CCMs and germline loss of function mutations in the SMARCE1 gene (SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex subunit gene) has been discovered. We report a family with an incidental large spinal clear cell meningioma in a young adult following reflex screening for a germline loss of function pathogenic variant (PV) in the SMARCE1 gene. The index patient's mother and maternal grandfather were both also tested positive presymptomatically for SMARCE1. His mother developed intracranial and spinal meningiomas and his maternal grandfather developed a spinal CCM 4 years following a clear spinal MRI scan which required surgical excision. In this report we particularly emphasize the importance of genetic counseling and screening in siblings, parents and offspring of patients who are diagnosed with intracranial or spinal CCM in the context of SMARCE1 PVs. We recommend brain and spine Imaging screening of asymptomatic SMARCE1 PV carriers at least every 3 years, even if the baseline scan did not show any tumors.

3.
Fam Cancer ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165727

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) in BRCA1 substantially increase risk for developing breast (BC) and ovarian cancer (OvC). Yet, incomplete penetrance suggests that modifier factors affect phenotypic expression of mutant BRCA1 alleles. Analysis of identical BRCA1 PSV carriers of diverse ethnicities may provide further evidence for modifier factors. Female carriers of the 185delAG BRCA1 PSV identified through high-risk clinics in Israel, and Manchester England from 1998-2018 were eligible. Data were retrieved from patients records and confirmed (in Israel) by cross referencing with the Israeli National Cancer Registry. Overall, 2503 female carriers were included: 1715 (71.4%) Ashkenazi Jews (AJ), 201 (8.3%) Iraqi Jews and 383 (15.9%) of mixed ethnicity. In 102 (4.2%) cases ethnicity could not be ascertained. Of Israeli AJ carriers 649 (37.8%), 256 (14.9%) and 62 (3.6%) were diagnosed with BC, OvC or both cancers, respectively. For the Iraqi Jews these frequencies were 76 (37.8%), 43 (21.4%), and 8 (3.98%), respectively. Age at diagnosis of BC in AJ and Iraqi Jews was 46.7 ± 12.3 years and 52.8 ± 12.2 years, respectively (p = 0.001). For OvC age at diagnosis for AJ was 53.5 ± 10.7 years and for Iraqi Jews 50.1 ± 8.8 years (p = 0.0027). No differences in these parameters were noted between English Jews (n = 110) and non-Jews (n = 32). Age at diagnosis of BC and OvC differs between AJ and Iraqi Jews who carry an identical BRCA1 PSV. This finding supports the existence of modifier factors that may be ethnic specific.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152107

RESUMO

Risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) is highly effective for the prevention of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) in BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers (PVCs), but does not completely eliminate future risk of primary peritoneal cancer (PPC). The requirement to completely remove fallopian tubes at RRBSO and carefully exclude occult cancer/serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) lesions may not have been appreciated historically. We calculated rates of HGSOC and PPC in confirmed BRCA1/2 PVCs registered on the regional database in those who did (cases) and did not (controls) undergo RRBSO after genetic testing. Expected annual rates of ovarian/peritoneal cancer were 1% for BRCA1 ≥ 35 years and 0.5% for BRCA2 ≥ 45 years. Follow-up before 35/45 years was "risk free" and lead time excluded RRBSO <35 years and <45 years for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Women were followed from personal mutation report (controls) or RRBSO (cases) to death, ovarian/peritoneal cancer or last follow-up, whichever was sooner. In total, 891 cases (BRCA1 = 468, BRCA2 = 423) and 1302 controls had follow-up ≥35 years (BRCA1 = 736) and ≥45 years (BRCA2 = 566), respectively, over a total of 7261.1 risk eligible years (mean = 8.15 years). Twenty-one occult ovarian cancers were found at RRBSO (2.4%), 16 at stage 1. Post RRBSO, 56.97 ovarian/peritoneal cancers were expected but only 3 were observed (HR = 0.053; 95% CI = 0.013-0.14), with combined Kaplan-Meier analysis HR = 0.029 (95% CI = 0.009-0.100, P < .001). Risk reduction was greater in specialist (HR = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.001-0.13) compared to non-specialist centres (HR = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02-0.37) (P = .07). In controls, 23.35 ovarian/peritoneal cancers were expected with 32 observed (HR = 1.37; 95% CI = 0.95-1.91). RRBSO <35/<45 years reduces the risk of ovarian/peritoneal cancer by 95% in BRCA1/2 PVCs and may be greater in specialist centres.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.

6.
Gut ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Germline TP53 pathogenic (P) variants cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), an aggressive multitumor-predisposing condition. Due to the implementation of multigene panel testing, TP53 variants have been detected in individuals without LFS suspicion, for example, patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to decipher whether these findings are the result of detecting the background population prevalence or the aetiological basis of CRC. DESIGN: We analysed TP53 in 473 familial/early-onset CRC cases and evaluated the results together with five additional studies performed in patients with CRC (total n=6200). Control population and LFS data were obtained from Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD V.2.1.1) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) TP53 database, respectively. All variants were reclassified according to the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP), following the ClinGen TP53 Expert Panel specifications. RESULTS: P or likely pathogenic (LP) variants were identified in 0.05% of controls (n=27/59 095) and 0.26% of patients with CRC (n=16/6200) (p<0.0001) (OR=5.7, 95% CI 2.8 to 10.9), none of whom fulfilled the clinical criteria established for TP53 testing. This association was still detected when patients with CRC diagnosed at more advanced ages (>50 and>60 years) were excluded from the analysis to minimise the inclusion of variants caused by clonal haematopoiesis. Loss-of-function and missense variants were strongly associated with CRC as compared with controls (OR=25.44, 95% CI 6.10 to 149.03, for loss of function and splice-site alleles, and OR=3.58, 95% CI 1.46 to 7.98, for missense P or LP variants). CONCLUSION: TP53 P variants should not be unequivocally associated with LFS. Prospective follow-up of carriers of germline TP53 P variants in the absence of LFS phenotypes will define how surveillance and clinical management of these individuals should be performed.

7.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary causes of ovarian cancer include Lynch syndrome, which is due to inherited pathogenic variants affecting one of the four mismatch repair genes involved in DNA repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate tumour mismatch repair deficiency and prevalence of Lynch syndrome in high-risk women referred to the Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine with ovarian cancer over the past 20 years. METHODS: Women with ovarian cancer diagnosed before the age of 35 years and/or with a suggestive personal or family history of Lynch syndrome cancers underwent tumour testing with immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair deficiency and, where indicated, MLH1 promoter methylation testing followed by constitutional testing for Lynch syndrome. RESULTS: In total, 261 ovarian cancers were tested and 27 (10.3%; 95% CI 6.9% to 14.7%) showed mismatch repair deficiency by immunohistochemistry. Three of 7 with MLH1 loss showed MLH1 promoter hypermethylation, and 18 of the remaining 24 underwent constitutional testing for Lynch syndrome. A further 15 women with mismatch repair proficient tumours underwent constitutional testing because of a strong family history of Lynch syndrome cancers. Pathogenic variants were identified in 9/33 (27%) women who underwent constitutional testing, aged 33-59 years (median 48 years), including one whose tumour was mismatch repair proficient. Most Lynch syndrome tumours were of endometrioid histological subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Tumour mismatch repair deficiency identified by immunohistochemistry is a useful prescreen for constitutional testing in women with ovarian cancer with personal or family histories suggestive of Lynch syndrome.

8.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003263, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome (LS) predisposes to endometrial cancer (EC), colorectal cancer, and other cancers through inherited pathogenic variants affecting mismatch-repair (MMR) genes. Diagnosing LS in women with EC can reduce subsequent cancer mortality through colonoscopic surveillance and aspirin chemoprevention; it also enables cascade testing of relatives. A growing consensus supports LS screening in EC; however, the expected proportion of test positives, and optimal testing strategy is uncertain. Previous studies from insurance-based healthcare systems were limited by narrow selection criteria, failure to apply reference standard tests consistently, and poor conversion to definitive testing. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of LS and the diagnostic accuracy of LS testing strategies in an unselected EC population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study carried out at a large United Kingdom gynaecological cancer centre between October 2015 and January 2017. Women diagnosed with EC or atypical hyperplasia (AH) were offered LS testing. Tumours underwent MMR immunohistochemistry (IHC), microsatellite instability (MSI), and targeted MLH1-methylation testing. Women <50 years, with strong family histories and/or indicative tumour molecular features, underwent MMR germline sequencing. Somatic MMR sequencing was performed when indicative molecular features were unexplained by LS or MLH1-hypermethylation. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of LS in an unselected EC population and the diagnostic accuracy of clinical and tumour testing strategies for risk stratifying women with EC for MMR germline sequencing. In total, 500 women participated in the study; only 2 (<1%) declined. Germline sequencing was indicated and conducted for 136 and 135 women, respectively. A total of 16/500 women (3.2%, 95% CI 1.8% to 5.1%) had LS, and 11 more (2.2%) had MMR variants of uncertain significance. Restricting testing to age <50 years, indicative family history (revised Bethesda guidelines or Amsterdam II criteria) or endometrioid histology alone would have missed 9/16 (56%), 8/13 (62%) or 9/13 (69%), and 5/16 (31%) cases of LS, respectively. In total 132/500 tumours were MMR deficient by IHC of which 83/132 (63%) had MLH1-hypermethylation, and 16/49 (33%) of the remaining patients had LS (16/132 with MMR deficiency, 12%). MMR-IHC with targeted MLH1-methylation testing was more discriminatory for LS than MSI with targeted methylation testing, with 100% versus 56.3% (16/16 versus 9/16) sensitivity (p = 0.016) and equal 97.5% (468/484) specificity; 64% MSI-H and 73% MMR deficient tumours unexplained by LS or MLH1-hypermethylation had somatic MMR mutations. The main limitation of the study was failure to conduct MMR germline sequencing for the whole study population, which means that the sensitivity and specificity of tumour triage strategies for LS detection may be overestimated, although the risk of LS in women with no clinical or tumour predictors is expected to be extremely low. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that age, family history, and histology are imprecise clinical correlates of LS-EC. IHC outperformed MSI for tumour triage and reliably identified both germline and somatic MMR mutations. The 3.2% proportion of LS-EC is similar to colorectal cancer, supporting unselected screening of EC for LS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Reino Unido
9.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nephroblastomatosis is a recognised precursor for the development of Wilms tumour (WT), the most common childhood renal tumour. While the majority of WT is sporadic in origin, germline intragenic mutations of predisposition genes such as WT1, REST and TRIM28 have been described in apparently isolated (non-familial) WT.Despite constitutional CNVs being a well-studied cause of developmental disorders, their role in cancer predisposition is less well defined, so that the interpretation of cancer risks associated with specific CNVs can be complex. OBJECTIVE: To highlight the role of a constitutional deletion CNV (delCNV) encompassing the REST tumour suppressor gene in diffuse hyperplastic perilobar nephroblastomatosis (HPLN). METHODS/RESULTS: Array comparative genomic hybridisation in an infant presenting with apparently sporadic diffuse HPLN revealed a de novo germline CNV, arr[GRCh37] 4q12(57,385,330-57,947,405)x1. The REST tumour suppressor gene is located at GRCh37 chr4:57,774,042-57,802,010. CONCLUSION: This delCNV encompassing REST is associated with nephroblastomatosis. Deletion studies should be included in the molecular work-up of inherited predisposition to WT/nephroblastomatosis. Detection of delCNVs involving known cancer predisposition genes can yield insights into the relationship between underlying genomic architecture and associated tumour risk.

11.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 101, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A decrease in breast density due to tamoxifen preventive therapy might indicate greater benefit from the drug. It is not known whether mammographic density continues to decline after 1 year of therapy, or whether measures of breast density change are sufficiently stable for personalised recommendations. METHODS: Mammographic density was measured annually over up to 5 years in premenopausal women with no previous diagnosis of breast cancer but at increased risk of breast cancer attending a family-history clinic in Manchester, UK (baseline 2010-2013). Tamoxifen (20 mg/day) for prevention was prescribed for up to 5 years in one group; the other group did not receive tamoxifen and were matched by age. Fully automatic methods were used on mammograms over the 5-year follow-up: three area-based measures (NN-VAS, Stratus, Densitas) and one volumetric (Volpara). Additionally, percentage breast density at baseline and first follow-up mammograms was measured visually. The size of density declines at the first follow-up mammogram and thereafter was estimated using a linear mixed model adjusted for age and body mass index. The stability of density change at 1 year was assessed by evaluating mean squared error loss from predictions based on individual or mean density change at 1 year. RESULTS: Analysis used mammograms from 126 healthy premenopausal women before and as they received tamoxifen for prevention (median age 42 years) and 172 matched controls (median age 41 years), with median 3 years follow-up. There was a strong correlation between percentage density measures used on the same mammogram in both the tamoxifen and no tamoxifen groups (all correlation coeficients > 0.8). Tamoxifen reduced mean breast density in year 1 by approximately 17-25% of the inter-quartile range of four automated percentage density measures at baseline, and from year 2, it decreased further by approximately 2-7% per year. Predicting change at 2 years using individual change at 1 year was approximately 60-300% worse than using mean change at 1year. CONCLUSIONS: All measures showed a consistent and large average tamoxifen-induced change in density over the first year, and a continued decline thereafter. However, these measures of density change at 1 year were not stable on an individual basis.

12.
13.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(11): 1541-1547, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651552

RESUMO

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors improve survival in BRCA-mutant high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. As a result, germline and somatic BRCA1/2 testing has become standard practice in women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. We outline changes in testing and detection rates of germline BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants (PVs) in cases of non-mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed during three eras, spanning 12 years, within the North West of England, and compare the uptake of cascade testing in families identified by oncology-led mainstreaming versus regional genetics clinics. Eras included: Period 1 (20% risk threshold for testing): between January 2007 and May 2013; Period 2 (10% risk threshold for testing): between June 2013 and October 2017 and; Period 3 (mainstream testing): between November 2017 and November 2019. A total of 1081 women underwent germline BRCA1/2 testing between January 2007 and November 2019 and 222 (20.5%) were found to have a PV. The monthly testing rate increased by 3.3-fold and 2.5-fold between Periods 1-2 and Periods 2-3, respectively. A similar incidence of germline BRCA1/2 PVs were detected in Period 2 (17.2%) and Period 3 (18.5%). Uptake of cascade testing from first-degree relatives was significantly lower in those women undergoing mainstream testing compared with those tested in regional genetics clinics (31.6% versus 47.3%, P = 0.038). Mainstream testing allows timely detection of germline BRCA1/2 status to select patients for PARP inhibitors, but shortfalls in the uptake of cascade testing in first-degree relatives requires optimisation to broaden benefits within families.

16.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the project was to identify risk factors associated with visual progression and treatment indications in pediatric patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 associated optic pathway gliomas (NF1-OPG). METHODS: A multi-disciplinary expert group consisting of ophthalmologists, pediatric neuro-oncologists, neurofibromatosis specialists and neuro-radiologists involved in therapy trials assembled a cohort of children with NF1-OPG from six European countries with complete clinical, imaging and visual outcome datasets. Using methods developed during a consensus workshop, visual and imaging data were reviewed by the expert team and analyzed to identify associations between factors at diagnosis with visual and imaging outcomes. RESULTS: 83 patients (37 males, 46 females, mean age 5.1±2.6 years; 1-13.1 years) registered in the European treatment-trial SIOP LGG-2004 (recruited 2004-2012) were included. They were either observed or treated (at diagnosis/ after follow-up).In multivariable analysis, factors present at diagnosis associated with adverse visual outcomes included: multiple visual signs and symptoms (adjOR 8.33, 95%CI 1.9-36.45); abnormal visual behavior (adjOR 4.15, 95%CI 1.20-14.34); new onset of visual symptoms (adjOR 4.04, 95%CI 1.26-12.95) and optic atrophy (adjOR 3.73, 95%CI 1.13-12.53). Squint, posterior visual pathway tumor involvement, and bilateral pathway tumor involvement, showed borderline significance. Treatment appeared to reduce tumor size but improved vision in only 10/45 treated patients. Children with visual deterioration after primary observation are more likely to improve with treatment than children treated at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis identified the importance of symptomatology, optic atrophy and history of vision loss as predictive factors for poor visual outcomes in children with NF1-OPG.

18.
Eur J Cancer ; 136: 169-175, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between BRCA pathogenic variants and an increased endometrial cancer risk, specifically serous-like endometrial cancer, has been postulated but remains unproven, particularly for BRCA2 carriers. Mechanistic evidence is lacking, and any link may be related to tamoxifen exposure or testing bias. Hysterectomy during risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is, therefore, of uncertain benefit. Data from a large, prospective cohort will be informative. METHODS: Data on UK BRCA pathogenic variant carriers were interrogated for endometrial cancer diagnoses. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated in four distinct cohorts using national endometrial cancer rates; either from 1/1/1980 or age 20, prospectively from date of personal pathogenic variant report, date of family pathogenic variant report or date of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Somatic BRCA sequencing of 15 serous endometrial cancers was performed to detect pathogenic variants. RESULTS: Fourteen cases of endometrial cancer were identified in 2609 women (1350 BRCA1 and 1259 BRCA2), of which two were prospectively diagnosed. No significant increase in either overall or serous-like endometrial cancer risk was identified in any of the cohorts examined (SIR = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 0.74-3.33; no cases of serous endometrial cancer diagnosed). Results were unaffected by the BRCA gene affected, previous breast cancer or tamoxifen use. No BRCA pathogenic variants were detected in any of the serous endometrial cancers tested. CONCLUSIONS: Women with a BRCA pathogenic variant do not appear to have a significant increased risk of all-type or serous-like endometrial cancer compared with the general population. These data provide some reassurance that hysterectomy is unlikely to be of significant benefit if performed solely as a preventive measure.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 680, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is international interest in risk-stratification of breast screening programmes to allow women at higher risk to benefit from more frequent screening and chemoprevention. Risk-stratification also identifies women at low-risk who could be screened less frequently, as the harms of breast screening may outweigh benefits for this group. The present research aimed to elicit the views of national healthcare policy decision-makers regarding implementation of less frequent screening intervals for women at low-risk. METHODS: Seventeen professionals were purposively recruited to ensure relevant professional group representation directly or indirectly associated with the UK National Screening Committee and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) clinical guidelines. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes are reported: (1) producing the evidence defining low-risk, describing requirements preceding implementation; (2) the impact of risk stratification on women is complicated, focusing on gaining acceptability from women; and (3) practically implementing a low-risk pathway, where feasibility questions are highlighted. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, national healthcare policy decision-makers appear to believe that risk-stratified breast screening is acceptable, in principle. It will however be essential to address key obstacles prior to implementation in national programmes.

20.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708519

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To survey risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) practice and advice regarding hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with Lynch syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a survey in 31 contributing centers from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), which incorporates 18 countries worldwide. The survey covered local policies for risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO in Lynch syndrome, the timing when these measures are offered, the involvement of stakeholders and advice regarding HRT. RESULTS: Risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO are offered to path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers in 20/21 (95%) contributing centers, to path_MSH6 carriers in 19/21 (91%) and to path_PMS2 carriers in 14/21 (67%). Regarding the involvement of stakeholders, there is global agreement (~90%) that risk-reducing surgery should be offered to women, and that this discussion may involve gynecologists, genetic counselors and/or medical geneticists. Prescription of estrogen-only HRT is offered by 15/21 (71%) centers to women of variable age range (35-55 years). CONCLUSIONS: Most centers offer risk-reducing gynecological surgery to carriers of path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 variants but less so for path_PMS2 carriers. There is wide variation in how, when and to whom this is offered. The Manchester International Consensus Group developed recommendations to harmonize clinical practice across centers, but there is a clear need for more research.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA