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1.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mainstreaming of germline testing demands that all healthcare professionals have good communication skills, but few have genetic testing and counselling experience. We developed and evaluated educational workshops-Talking about Risk & UncertaintieS of Testing IN Genetics (TRUSTING). Contents included: presentations and exercises, an interview with a geneticist about BRCA testing, screening and prevention implications, filmed interactions between surgeons, a genetic counsellor and geneticists with a fictitious family (proband had a BRCA2 pathogenic variant with triple-negative breast cancer, her older sister-BRCA2 heterozygous, and cousin-negative for BRCA2 variant). METHODS: Twenty-one surgeons, 5 oncologists, 18 nurses and 9 genetic counsellors participated. Knowledge (18 item MCQ), communication skills (responses to 6 questions from proband and relatives) and self-confidence (discussing 9 genetic testing issues) were assessed pre- and post workshop. RESULTS: Knowledge scores improved significantly post workshop (mean change = 7.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.37-7.74; P < 0.001), as did communication (mean change = 5.38; 95% CI 4.37-6.38; P < 0.001) and self-confidence (P < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Healthcare professionals' knowledge and self-confidence when discussing the risks and uncertainties in genetics are often poor. TRUSTING workshops significantly enhanced attendees' navigation of communication difficulties encountered and will be rolled out more widely.

2.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749222

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women with breast cancer related genetic pathogenic variants (e.g. BRCA1, BRCA2) or with a strong family history carry lifetime risks of developing breast cancer of up to 80-90%. A significant proportion of these women proceed to bilateral risk reducing mastectomy (RRM). We aimed to document the surgical morbidity of RRM and establish whether a diagnosis of breast cancer at the time of surgery impacted on outcomes. METHODS: Clinical details of 445 women identified as having >25% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer who underwent RRM and breast reconstruction were interrogated for surgical outcomes such as planned, unplanned and emergency procedures, complication rates, length of stay and longevity of breast reconstruction. These outcome measures were recorded in women diagnosed with breast cancer perioperatively (cancer group, CG) and those without malignancy (benign group, BG). RESULTS: Median follow up was similar in both groups (BG, 70months; CG 73 months). Patients were older in the CG than BG (43y v 39y; p<0.001). Women in the CG required more planned procedures to complete reconstruction than those in the BG (4 v 2; p=0.002). Emergency procedures, unplanned surgical interventions (e.g. capsulectomy) and post reconstruction complication rates were similar between groups.One in five women overall required revisional surgery. Patients with autologous reconstructions had a revision rate of 1.24/1000 person years compared with 2.52 in the implant reconstruction group. CONCLUSION: Women contemplating RRM can be reassured that this a safe and effective procedure but will likely take multiple interventions. This knowledge should be integral to obtaining informed consent.

3.
Genet Med ; 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657381

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variant classifications may change over time, driven by emergence of fresh or contradictory evidence or evolution in weighing or combination of evidence items. For variant classifications above the actionability threshold, which is classification of likely pathogenic or pathogenic, clinical actions may be irreversible, such as risk-reducing surgery or prenatal interventions. Variant reclassification up or down across the actionability threshold can therefore have significant clinical consequences. Laboratory approaches to variant reinterpretation and reclassification vary widely. METHODS: Cancer Variant Interpretation Group UK is a multidisciplinary network of clinical scientists and genetic clinicians from across the 24 Molecular Diagnostic Laboratories and Clinical Genetics Services of the United Kingdom (NHS) and Republic of Ireland. We undertook surveys, polls, and national meetings of Cancer Variant Interpretation Group UK to evaluate opinions about clinical and laboratory management regarding variant reclassification. RESULTS: We generated a consensus framework on variant reclassification applicable to cancer susceptibility genes and other clinical areas, which provides explicit recommendations for clinical and laboratory management of variant reclassification scenarios on the basis of the nature of the new evidence, the magnitude of evidence shift, and the final classification score. CONCLUSION: In this framework, clinical and laboratory resources are targeted for maximal clinical effect and minimal patient harm, as appropriate to all resource-constrained health care settings.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681696

RESUMO

Women who test positive for an inherited pathogenic/likely pathogenic gene variant in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer-specifically breast (all) and epithelial ovarian cancer (only BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2). Women receive broad cancer risk figures that are not personalised (e.g., 44-63% lifetime risk of breast cancer for those with PALB2). Broad, non-personalised risk estimates may be problematic for women when they are considering how to manage their risk. Multifactorial-risk-prediction tools have the potential to deliver personalised risk estimates. These may be useful in the patient's decision-making process and impact uptake of risk-management options. This randomised control trial (registration number to follow), based in genetic centres in the UK and US, will randomise participants on a 1:1 basis to either receive conventional cancer risk estimates, as per routine clinical practice, or to receive a personalised risk estimate. This personalised risk estimate will be calculated using the CanRisk risk prediction tool, which combines the patient's genetic result, family history and polygenic risk score (PRS), along with hormonal and lifestyle factors. Women's decision-making around risk management will be monitored using questionnaires, completed at baseline (pre-appointment) and follow-up (one, three and twelve months after receiving their risk assessment). The primary outcome for this study is the type and timing of risk management options (surveillance, chemoprevention, surgery) taken up over the course of the study (i.e., 12 months). The type of risk-management options planned to be taken up in the future (i.e., beyond the end of the study) and the potential impact of personalised risk estimates on women's psychosocial health will be collected as secondary-outcome measures. This study will also assess the acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of using personalised risk estimates in clinical care.

5.
Cereb Cortex Commun ; 3(2): tgac021, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673329

RESUMO

Introduction: Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a single-gene disorder associated with cognitive impairments, particularly with deficits in working memory. Prior research indicates that brain structure is affected in NF1, but it is unclear how these changes relate to aspects of cognition. Methods: 29 adolescents aged 11-17 years were compared to age and sex-matched controls. NF1 subjects were assessed using detailed multimodal measurements of working memory at baseline followed by a 3T MR scan. A voxel-based morphometry approach was used to estimate the total and regional gray matter(GM) volumetric differences between the NF1 and control groups. The working memory metrics were subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA) approach. Results: The NF1 groups showed increased gray matter volumes in the thalamus, corpus striatum, dorsal midbrain and cerebellum bilaterally in the NF1 group as compared to controls. Principal component analysis on the working memory metrics in the NF1 group yielded three independent factors reflecting high memory load, low memory load and auditory working memory. Correlation analyses revealed that increased volume of posterior cingulate cortex, a key component of the default mode network (DMN) was significantly associated with poorer performance on low working memory load tasks. Conclusion: These results are consistent with prior work showing larger subcortical brain volumes in the NF1 cohort. The strong association between posterior cingulate cortex volume and performance on low memory load conditions supports hypotheses of deficient DMN structural development, which in turn may contribute to the cognitive impairments in NF1.

6.
Genet Med ; 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704044

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) (formerly single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNV]) influence genetic predisposition to endometrial cancer. We hypothesized that a polygenic risk score (PRS) comprising multiple SNVs may improve endometrial cancer risk prediction for targeted screening and prevention. METHODS: We developed PRSs from SNVs identified from a systematic review of published studies and suggestive SNVs from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium. These were tested in an independent study of 555 surgically-confirmed endometrial cancer cases and 1202 geographically-matched controls from Manchester, United Kingdom and validated in 1676 cases and 116,960 controls from the UK Biobank (UKBB). RESULTS: Age and body mass index predicted endometrial cancer in both data sets (Manchester: area under the receiver operator curve [AUC] = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.74-0.80; UKBB: AUC = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.73-0.75). The AUC for PRS19, PRS24, and PRS72 were 0.58, 0.55, and 0.57 in the Manchester study and 0.56, 0.54, and 0.54 in UKBB, respectively. For PRS19, women in the third tertile had a 2.1-fold increased risk of endometrial cancer compared with those in the first tertile of the Manchester study (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.61-2.68, Ptrend = 5.75E-9). Combining PRS19 with age and body mass index improved discriminatory power (Manchester study: AUC = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.76-0.82; UKBB: AUC =0.75, 95% CI = 0.73-0.76). CONCLUSION: An endometrial cancer risk prediction model incorporating a PRS derived from multiple SNVs may help stratify women for screening and prevention strategies.

7.
J Clin Pathol ; 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738887

RESUMO

AIMS: Clinical guidelines recommend testing both germline and tumour DNA for BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants (PVs) in non-mucinous high-grade epithelial ovarian cancer (NMEOC). In this study, we show that some tumour BRCA1/2 PVs are highly likely to be somatic based on certain clinical and variant characteristics, meaning it may not be necessary to test all NMEOC cases for germline BRCA1/2 PVs. METHODS: An observational study that included all tumour BRCA1/2 PVs detected in cases of NMEOC in the Northwest of England between July 2017 and February 2022. All tumour BRCA1/2 PVs were compared with PVs recorded in a prospectively gathered pan-cancer germline BRCA1/2 (gBRCA) testing database for the same geographical region (gBRCA1 PVs=910 and gBRCA2 PVs=922). Tumour BRCA1/2 PVs were categorised as common (≥1%), uncommon (<1%) or absent from the germline database. RESULTS: One hundred and thirteen tumour BRCA1/2 PVs were detected in 111 NMEOC cases. There were 69 germline and 44 somatic variants. The mean age at diagnosis for gBRCA and somatic BRCA1/2 (sBRCA) PVs was 56.9 and 68.5 years, respectively (Student's t-test p<0.0001). All sBRCA PVs were detected in non-familial cases. All tumour BRCA1/2 PVs with a variant allele frequency (VAF) <35% in non-familial cases were somatic variants. Eighty-one per cent of germline-tumour BRCA1/2 PVs were present (common=31, uncommon=25) in the gBRCA testing database, while 89% of somatic-tumour BRCA1/2 PVs were absent (n=39). CONCLUSIONS: We predict the likelihood of a tumour BRCA1/2 PV being somatic is 99.8% in non-familial cases of NMEOC diagnosed aged ≥75, where the VAF is ≤30% and there is no regional germline commonality.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723634

RESUMO

Schwannomatosis comprises a group of hereditary tumor predisposition syndromes characterized by, usually benign, multiple nerve sheath tumors, which frequently cause severe pain that does not typically respond to drug treatments. The most common schwannomatosis-associated gene is NF2, but SMARCB1 and LZTR1 are also associated. There are still many cases in which no pathogenic variants (PVs) have been identified, suggesting the existence of as yet unidentified genetic risk factors. In this study, we performed extended genetic screening of 75 unrelated schwannomatosis patients without identified germline PVs in NF2, LZTR1, or SMARCB1. Screening of the coding region of DGCR8, COQ6, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B was carried out, based on previous reports that point to these genes as potential candidate genes for schwannomatosis. Deletions or duplications in CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and adjacent chromosome 9 region were assessed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis. Sequencing analysis of a patient with multiple schwannomas and melanomas identified a novel duplication in the coding region of CDKN2A, disrupting both p14ARF and p16INK4a. Our results suggest that none of these genes are major contributors to schwannomatosis risk but the possibility remains that they may have a role in more complex mechanisms for tumor predisposition.

9.
J Med Genet ; 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about risks associated with germline SUFU pathogenic variants (PVs) known as a cancer predisposition syndrome. METHODS: To study tumour risks, we have analysed data of a large cohort of 45 unpublished patients with a germline SUFU PV completed with 127 previously published patients. To reduce the ascertainment bias due to index patient selection, the risk of tumours was evaluated in relatives with SUFU PV (89 patients) using the Nelson-Aalen estimator. RESULTS: Overall, 117/172 (68%) SUFU PV carriers developed at least one tumour: medulloblastoma (MB) (86 patients), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (25 patients), meningioma (20 patients) and gonadal tumours (11 patients). Thirty-three of them (28%) had multiple tumours. Median age at diagnosis of MB, gonadal tumour, first BCC and first meningioma were 1.5, 14, 40 and 44 years, respectively. Follow-up data were available for 160 patients (137 remained alive and 23 died). The cumulative incidence of tumours in relatives was 14.4% (95% CI 6.8 to 21.4), 18.2% (95% CI 9.7 to 25.9) and 44.1% (95% CI 29.7 to 55.5) at the age of 5, 20 and 50 years, respectively. The cumulative risk of an MB, gonadal tumour, BCC and meningioma at age 50 years was: 13.3% (95% CI 6 to 20.1), 4.6% (95% CI 0 to 9.7), 28.5% (95% CI 13.4 to 40.9) and 5.2% (95% CI 0 to 12), respectively. Sixty-four different PVs were reported across the entire SUFU gene and inherited in 73% of cases in which inheritance could be evaluated. CONCLUSION: Germline SUFU PV carriers have a life-long increased risk of tumours with a spectrum dominated by MB before the age of 5, gonadal tumours during adolescence and BCC and meningioma in adulthood, justifying fine-tuned surveillance programmes.

10.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 64, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in premenopausal women. Progesterone drives expansion of luminal progenitor cells, leading to the development of poor-prognostic breast cancers. However, it is not known if antagonising progesterone can prevent breast cancers in humans. We suggest that targeting progesterone signalling could be a means of reducing features which are known to promote breast cancer formation. METHODS: In healthy premenopausal women with and without a BRCA mutation we studied (i) estrogen and progesterone levels in saliva over an entire menstrual cycle (n = 20); (ii) cancer-free normal breast-tissue from a control population who had no family or personal history of breast cancer and equivalently from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (n = 28); triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) biopsies and healthy breast tissue taken from sites surrounding the TNBC in the same individuals (n = 14); and biopsies of ER+ve/PR+ve stage T1-T2 cancers and healthy breast tissue taken from sites surrounding the cancer in the same individuals (n = 31); and (iii) DNA methylation and DNA mutations in normal breast tissue (before and after treatment) from clinical trials that assessed the potential preventative effects of vitamins and antiprogestins (mifepristone and ulipristal acetate; n = 44). RESULTS: Daily levels of progesterone were higher throughout the menstrual cycle of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, raising the prospect of targeting progesterone signalling as a means of cancer risk reduction in this population. Furthermore, breast field cancerization DNA methylation signatures reflective of (i) the mitotic age of normal breast epithelium and (ii) the proportion of luminal progenitor cells were increased in breast cancers, indicating that luminal progenitor cells with elevated replicative age are more prone to malignant transformation. The progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone reduced both the mitotic age and the proportion of luminal progenitor cells in normal breast tissue of all control women and in 64% of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. These findings were validated by an alternate progesterone receptor antagonist, ulipristal acetate, which yielded similar results. Importantly, mifepristone reduced both the TP53 mutation frequency as well as the number of TP53 mutations in mitotic-age-responders. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the potential usage of antiprogestins for primary prevention of poor-prognostic breast cancers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial 1 Mifepristone treatment prior to insertion of a levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system for improved bleeding control - a randomized controlled trial, clinicaltrialsregister.eu, 2009-009014-40 ; registered on 20 July 2009. Clinical trial 2 The effect of a progesterone receptor modulator on breast tissue in women with BRCA1 and 2 mutations, clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01898312 ; registered on 07 May 2013. Clinical trial 3 A pilot prevention study of the effects of the anti- progestin Ulipristal Acetate (UA) on surrogate markers of breast cancer risk, clinicaltrialsregister.eu, 2015-001587-19 ; registered on 15 July 2015.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mifepristona , Mutação , Progesterona , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive factors have been shown to be differentially associated with risk of estrogen receptor (ER) positive and ER-negative breast cancer. However, their associations with intrinsic-like subtypes are less clear. METHODS: Analyses included up to 23,353 cases, and 71,072 controls pooled from 31 population-based case-control or cohort studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium across 16 countries on 4 continents. Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate the association between reproductive factors and risk of breast cancer by intrinsic-like subtypes (luminal A-like, luminal B-like, luminal B-HER2-like, HER2-enriched-like, and triple-negative) and by invasiveness. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Compared to nulliparous women, parous women had a lower risk of luminal A-like, luminal B-like, luminal B-HER2-like and HER2-enriched-like disease. This association was apparent only after approximately 10 years since last birth and became stronger with increasing time (odds ratio [OR] = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49 to 0.71; and OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.46; for multiparous women with luminal A-like tumors 20-<25 years after last birth and 45-<50 years after last birth, respectively). In contrast, parous women had a higher risk of triple-negative breast cancer right after their last birth (for multiparous women: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 2.02 to 4.83) that was attenuated with time but persisted for decades (OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.79 to 1.34, for multiparous women 25 to < 30 years after last birth). Older age at first birth (P-heterogeneity<.001 for triple-negative compared to luminal-A like) and breastfeeding (P-heterogeneity<.001 for triple-negative compared to luminal-A like) were associated with lower risk of triple-negative but not with other disease subtypes. Younger age at menarche was associated with higher risk of all subtypes; older age at menopause was associated with higher risk of luminal A-like but not triple-negative breast cancer. Associations for in situ tumors were similar to luminal A-like. CONCLUSION: This large and comprehensive study demonstrates a distinct reproductive risk factor profile for triple-negative breast cancer compared to other subtypes, with implications for the understanding of disease etiology and risk prediction.

12.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 142, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Providing women with personalized estimates of their risk of developing breast cancer, as part of routine breast cancer screening programmes, allows women at higher risk to be offered more frequent screening or drugs to reduce risk. For this to be feasible, the concept and practicalities have to be acceptable to the healthcare professionals who would put it in to practice. The present research investigated the acceptability to healthcare professionals who were responsible for the implementation of this new approach to screening in the ongoing BC-Predict study. METHODS: Four focus groups were conducted with 29 healthcare professionals from a variety of professional backgrounds working within three breast screening services in north-west England. An inductive-manifest thematic analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Overall, healthcare professionals viewed the implementation of personalised breast cancer risk estimation as a positive step, but discussion focused on concerns. Three major themes are presented. (1) Service constraints highlights the limited capacity within current breast services and concerns about the impact of additional workload. (2) Risk communication concerns the optimal way to convey risk to women within resource constraints. (3) Accentuating inequity discusses how risk stratification could decrease screening uptake for underserved groups. CONCLUSIONS: Staff who implemented risk stratification considered it a positive addition to routine screening. They considered it essential to consider improving capacity and demands on healthcare professional time. They highlighted the need for skilled communication of risks and new pathways of care to ensure that stratification could be implemented in financially and time constrained settings without impacting negatively on women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Medição de Risco
13.
Breast ; 64: 47-49, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569186

RESUMO

Risk-stratified breast cancer screening may improve the balance of screening benefits to harms. We assess a potential new harm: reduced screening attendance in women receiving below average-risk (false reassurance) or higher-risk results (screening avoidance). Following initial screening, 26,668 women in the PROCAS study received breast cancer risk estimates, with attendance recorded for two subsequent screening rounds. First-screen attendance was slightly reduced in below-average (85.6%) but not higher-risk women, compared to other women (86.4%). Second-screen attendance increased for women at higher-risk (89.2%) but not below-average, compared to other women (78.8%). Concerns about this potential harm of risk-stratified screening therefore appear unfounded.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos
14.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 51, 2022 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein truncating variants in ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2 are associated with increased breast cancer risk, but risks associated with missense variants in these genes are uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data on 59,639 breast cancer cases and 53,165 controls from studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium BRIDGES project. We sampled training (80%) and validation (20%) sets to analyze rare missense variants in ATM (1146 training variants), BRCA1 (644), BRCA2 (1425), CHEK2 (325), and PALB2 (472). We evaluated breast cancer risks according to five in silico prediction-of-deleteriousness algorithms, functional protein domain, and frequency, using logistic regression models and also mixture models in which a subset of variants was assumed to be risk-associated. RESULTS: The most predictive in silico algorithms were Helix (BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2) and CADD (ATM). Increased risks appeared restricted to functional protein domains for ATM (FAT and PIK domains) and BRCA1 (RING and BRCT domains). For ATM, BRCA1, and BRCA2, data were compatible with small subsets (approximately 7%, 2%, and 0.6%, respectively) of rare missense variants giving similar risk to those of protein truncating variants in the same gene. For CHEK2, data were more consistent with a large fraction (approximately 60%) of rare missense variants giving a lower risk (OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.47-2.08)) than CHEK2 protein truncating variants. There was little evidence for an association with risk for missense variants in PALB2. The best fitting models were well calibrated in the validation set. CONCLUSIONS: These results will inform risk prediction models and the selection of candidate variants for functional assays and could contribute to the clinical reporting of gene panel testing for breast cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 24(1): 27, 2022 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) phenotypes, including percent density (PMD), area of dense tissue (DA), and area of non-dense tissue (NDA), are associated with breast cancer risk. Twin studies suggest that MD phenotypes are highly heritable. However, only a small proportion of their variance is explained by identified genetic variants. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study, as well as a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS), of age- and BMI-adjusted DA, NDA, and PMD in up to 27,900 European-ancestry women from the MODE/BCAC consortia. RESULTS: We identified 28 genome-wide significant loci for MD phenotypes, including nine novel signals (5q11.2, 5q14.1, 5q31.1, 5q33.3, 5q35.1, 7p11.2, 8q24.13, 12p11.2, 16q12.2). Further, 45% of all known breast cancer SNPs were associated with at least one MD phenotype at p < 0.05. TWAS further identified two novel genes (SHOX2 and CRISPLD2) whose genetically predicted expression was significantly associated with MD phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provided novel insight into the genetic background of MD phenotypes, and further demonstrated their shared genetic basis with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama , Densidade da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma
16.
Hum Mutat ; 43(7): 919-927, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391499

RESUMO

Schwannomatosis is a rare tumor predisposition syndrome that causes multiple schwannomas. Germline loss-of-function (LoF) LZTR1 variants were only recently identified as disease-causing, so relatively few variants have been identified in patients. In addition, many LoF variants exist in Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) in people who do not have clinical symptoms of schwannomatosis. These factors, and the incomplete penetrance seen in this condition, hinder definitive interpretation of the clinical significance of novel LoF variants identified in schwannomatosis patients. We collated published LOF LZTR1 variants identified in schwannomatosis patients and classified them according to current American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology/Association of Clinical Genomic Science guidelines. Subsequently, pathogenic/likely pathogenic schwannomatosis-associated LoF variants were compared with LoF LZTR1 variants reported in gnomAD data. Using current classification guidelines, 64/71 LoF LZTR1 variants reported in schwannomatosis patients in the literature were classified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic, and their frequency in probands 64/359 (17.8%) was significantly higher than the frequency of potential LoF variants identified in the general population (0.36%; p < 0.0001). The majority of published classifications of schwannomatosis-associated LoF variants are robust. However, the high frequency of LoF LZTR1 variants in the general population suggests that LZTR1 variants confer a reduced risk of schwannomas compared to germline NF2 and SMARCB1 pathogenic variants, making classification of novel variants challenging.


Assuntos
Neurilemoma , Neurofibromatoses , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico , Neurilemoma/genética , Neurilemoma/patologia , Neurofibromatoses/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatoses/genética , Neurofibromatoses/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361920

RESUMO

A Guideline Group (GG) was convened from multiple specialties and patients to develop the first comprehensive schwannomatosis guideline. The GG undertook thorough literature review and wrote recommendations for treatment and surveillance. A modified Delphi process was used to gain approval for recommendations which were further altered for maximal consensus. Schwannomatosis is a tumour predisposition syndrome leading to development of multiple benign nerve-sheath non-intra-cutaneous schwannomas that infrequently affect the vestibulocochlear nerves. Two definitive genes (SMARCB1/LZTR1) have been identified on chromosome 22q centromeric to NF2 that cause schwannoma development by a 3-event, 4-hit mechanism leading to complete inactivation of each gene plus NF2. These genes together account for 70-85% of familial schwannomatosis and 30-40% of isolated cases in which there is considerable overlap with mosaic NF2. Craniospinal MRI is generally recommended from symptomatic diagnosis or from age 12-14 if molecularly confirmed in asymptomatic individuals whose relative has schwannomas. Whole-body MRI may also be deployed and can alternate with craniospinal MRI. Ultrasound scans are useful in limbs where typical pain is not associated with palpable lumps. Malignant-Peripheral-Nerve-Sheath-Tumour-MPNST should be suspected in anyone with rapidly growing tumours and/or functional loss especially with SMARCB1-related schwannomatosis. Pain (often intractable to medication) is the most frequent symptom. Surgical removal, the most effective treatment, must be balanced against potential loss of function of adjacent nerves. Assessment of patients' psychosocial needs should be assessed annually as well as review of pain/pain medication. Genetic diagnosis and counselling should be guided ideally by both blood and tumour molecular testing.

18.
Genet Med ; 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426792

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is great promise in breast cancer risk stratification to target screening and prevention. It is unclear whether adding gene panels to other risk tools improves breast cancer risk stratification and adds discriminatory benefit on a population basis. METHODS: In total, 10,025 of 57,902 women aged 46 to 73 years in the Predicting Risk of Cancer at Screening study provided DNA samples. A case-control study was used to evaluate breast cancer risk assessment using polygenic risk scores (PRSs), cancer gene panel (n = 33), mammographic density (density residual [DR]), and risk factors collected using a self-completed 2-page questionnaire (Tyrer-Cuzick [TC] model version 8). In total, 525 cases and 1410 controls underwent gene panel testing and PRS calculation (18, 143, and/or 313 single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]). RESULTS: Actionable pathogenic variants (PGVs) in BRCA1/2 were found in 1.7% of cases and 0.55% of controls, and overall PGVs were found in 6.1% of cases and 1.3% of controls. A combined assessment of TC8-DR-SNP313 and gene panel provided the best risk stratification with 26.1% of controls and 9.7% of cases identified at <1.4% 10-year risk and 9.01% of controls and 23.3% of cases at ≥8% 10-year risk. Because actionable PGVs were uncommon, discrimination was identical with/without gene panel (with/without: area under the curve = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.64-0.70). Only 7 of 17 PGVs in cases resulted in actionable risk category change. Extended case (n = 644)-control (n = 1779) series with TC8-DR-SNP143 identified 18.9% of controls and only 6.4% of stage 2+ cases at <1.4% 10-year risk and 20.7% of controls and 47.9% of stage 2+ cases at ≥5% 10-year risk. CONCLUSION: Further studies and economic analysis will determine whether adding panels to PRS is a cost-effective strategy for risk stratification.

19.
Hum Mutat ; 43(5): 643-654, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332608

RESUMO

Missense variants in the NF2 gene result in variable NF2 disease presentation. Clinical classification of missense variants often represents a challenge, due to lack of evidence for pathogenicity and function. This study provides a summary of NF2 missense variants, with variant classifications based on currently available evidence. NF2 missense variants were collated from pathology-associated databases and existing literature. Association for Clinical Genomic Sciences Best Practice Guidelines (2020) were followed in the application of evidence for variant interpretation and classification. The majority of NF2 missense variants remain classified as variants of uncertain significance. However, NF2 missense variants identified in gnomAD occurred at a consistent rate across the gene, while variants compiled from pathology-associated databases displayed differing rates of variation by exon of NF2. The highest rate of NF2 disease-associated variants was observed in exon 7, while lower rates were observed toward the C-terminus of the NF2 protein, merlin. Further phenotypic information associated with variants, alongside variant-specific functional analysis, is necessary for more definitive variant interpretation. Our data identified differences in frequency of NF2 missense variants by exon between gnomAD population data and NF2 disease-associated variants, suggesting a potential genotype-phenotype correlation; further work is necessary to substantiate this.


Assuntos
Genes da Neurofibromatose 2 , Neurofibromina 2 , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genômica , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neurofibromina 2/genética
20.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260807

RESUMO

National guidelines recommend testing all cases of non-mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (NMEOC) for germline (blood) and somatic (tumour) BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants (PVs). We performed paired germline and somatic BRCA1/2 testing in consecutive cases of NMEOC (n = 388) to validate guidelines. Thirty-four somatic BRCA1/2 (sBRCA) PVs (9.7%) were detected in 350 cases with germline BRCA1/2 (gBRCA) wild-type. All sBRCA PVs were detected in non-familial cases. By analysing our regional germline BRCA1/2 database there were 92/1114 (8.3%) gBRCA PVs detected in non-familial cases (only 3% ≥70 years old) and 245/641 (38.2%) in familial cases. Germline non-familial cases were dominated by BRCA2 in older women (8/271 ≥ 70 years old, all BRCA2). The ratio of sBRCA-to-gBRCA was ≤1.0 in women aged <70 years old, compared to 5.2 in women aged ≥70 years old (P = 0.005). The likelihood of missed germline BRCA1/2 PVs (copy-number variants missed on most somatic assays) by testing only tumour DNA was 0.4% in women aged ≥70 years old. We recommend reflex tumour BRCA1/2 testing in all NMEOC cases, and that gBRCA testing is not required for women aged ≥70 years old with no identifiable tumour BRCA1/2 PV and/or family history of breast, ovarian, prostate and/or pancreatic cancer.

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