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1.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580391

RESUMO

Importance: Moving to multigene testing for all women with breast cancer (BC) could identify many more mutation carriers who can benefit from precision prevention. However, the cost-effectiveness of this approach remains unaddressed. Objective: To estimate incremental lifetime effects, costs, and cost-effectiveness of multigene testing of all patients with BC compared with the current practice of genetic testing (BRCA) based on family history (FH) or clinical criteria. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cost-effectiveness microsimulation modeling study compared lifetime costs and effects of high-risk BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 (multigene) testing of all unselected patients with BC (strategy A) with BRCA1/BRCA2 testing based on FH or clinical criteria (strategy B) in United Kingdom (UK) and US populations. Data were obtained from 11 836 patients in population-based BC cohorts (regardless of FH) recruited to 4 large research studies. Data were collected and analyzed from January 1, 2018, through June 8, 2019. The time horizon is lifetime. Payer and societal perspectives are presented. Probabilistic and 1-way sensitivity analyses evaluate model uncertainty. Interventions: In strategy A, all women with BC underwent BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 testing. In strategy B, only women with BC fulfilling FH or clinical criteria underwent BRCA testing. Affected BRCA/PALB2 carriers could undertake contralateral preventive mastectomy; BRCA carriers could choose risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). Relatives of mutation carriers underwent cascade testing. Unaffected relative carriers could undergo magnetic resonance imaging or mammography screening, chemoprevention, or risk-reducing mastectomy for BC risk and RRSO for ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated as incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained and compared with standard £30 000/QALY and $100 000/QALY UK and US thresholds, respectively. Incidence of OC, BC, excess deaths due to heart disease, and the overall population effects were estimated. Results: BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 multigene testing for all patients detected with BC annually would cost £10 464/QALY (payer perspective) or £7216/QALY (societal perspective) in the United Kingdom or $65 661/QALY (payer perspective) or $61 618/QALY (societal perspective) in the United States compared with current BRCA testing based on clinical criteria or FH. This is well below UK and US cost-effectiveness thresholds. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, unselected multigene testing remained cost-effective for 98% to 99% of UK and 64% to 68% of US health system simulations. One year's unselected multigene testing could prevent 2101 cases of BC and OC and 633 deaths in the United Kingdom and 9733 cases of BC and OC and 2406 deaths in the United States. Correspondingly, 8 excess deaths due to heart disease occurred in the United Kingdom and 35 in the United States annually. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found unselected, high-risk multigene testing for all patients with BC to be extremely cost-effective compared with testing based on FH or clinical criteria for UK and US health systems. These findings support changing current policy to expand genetic testing to all women with BC.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495828

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by pathogenic variants of the NF1 gene. A markedly increased risk of breast cancer is associated with NF1. We have determined the breast cancer survival and risk of contralateral breast cancer in NF1. METHODS: We included 142 women with NF1 and breast cancer from five cohorts in Europe and 335 women without NF1 screened for other familial breast cancers. Risk of contralateral breast cancer and death were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis with delayed entry. RESULTS: One hundred forty-two women with NF1 were diagnosed for breast cancer at a median age of 46.9 years (range 27.0-84.3 years) and then followed up for 1235 person-years (mean = 8.70 years). Twelve women had contralateral breast cancer with a rate of 10.5 per 1000 years. Cumulative risk for contralateral breast cancer was 26.5% in 20 years. Five and 10-year all-cause survival was 64.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 54.8-76.8) and 49.8% (95%CI = 39.3-63.0). Breast cancer-specific 10-year survival was 64.2% (95% CI = 53.5-77.0%) compared with 91.2% (95% CI = 87.3-95.2%) in the non-NF1 age-matched population at increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Women with NF1 have a substantial contralateral breast cancer incidence and poor survival. Early start of breast cancer screening may be a way to improve the survival.

4.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk but a wide range of risk estimates have been reported that are based on retrospective studies. OBJECTIVE: To estimate relative and absolute PCa risks associated with BRCA1/2 mutations and to assess risk modification by age, family history, and mutation location. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a prospective cohort study of male BRCA1 (n = 376) and BRCA2 carriers (n = 447) identified in clinical genetics centres in the UK and Ireland (median follow-up 5.9 and 5.3 yr, respectively). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Standardised incidence/mortality ratios (SIRs/SMRs) relative to population incidences or mortality rates, absolute risks, and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using cohort and survival analysis methods. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Sixteen BRCA1 and 26 BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed with PCa during follow-up. BRCA2 carriers had an SIR of 4.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.99-6.61) and absolute PCa risk of 27% (95% CI 17-41%) and 60% (95% CI 43-78%) by ages 75 and 85 yr, respectively. For BRCA1 carriers, the overall SIR was 2.35 (95% CI 1.43-3.88); the corresponding SIR at age <65 yr was 3.57 (95% CI 1.68-7.58). However, the BRCA1 SIR varied between 0.74 and 2.83 in sensitivity analyses to assess potential screening effects. PCa risk for BRCA2 carriers increased with family history (HR per affected relative 1.68, 95% CI 0.99-2.85). BRCA2 mutations in the region bounded by positions c.2831 and c.6401 were associated with an SIR of 2.46 (95% CI 1.07-5.64) compared to population incidences, corresponding to lower PCa risk (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.96) than for mutations outside the region. BRCA2 carriers had a stronger association with Gleason score ≥7 (SIR 5.07, 95% CI 3.20-8.02) than Gleason score ≤6 PCa (SIR 3.03, 95% CI 1.24-7.44), and a higher risk of death from PCa (SMR 3.85, 95% CI 1.44-10.3). Limitations include potential screening effects for these known mutation carriers; however, the BRCA2 results were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The results substantiate PCa risk patterns indicated by retrospective analyses for BRCA2 carriers, including further evidence of association with aggressive PCa, and give some support for a weaker association in BRCA1 carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study we followed unaffected men known to carry mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to investigate whether they are at higher risk of developing prostate cancer compared to the general population. We found that carriers of BRCA2 mutations have a high risk of developing prostate cancer, particularly more aggressive prostate cancer, and that this risk varies by family history of prostate cancer and the location of the mutation within the gene.

5.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504802

RESUMO

The level of evidence to provide treatment recommendations for vestibular schwannoma is low compared to other intracranial neoplasms. Therefore, the vestibular schwannoma task force of the European Association of Neuro-Oncology assessed the data available in the literature and composed a set of recommendations for health care professionals. The radiological diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma is made by magnetic resonance imaging. Histological verification of the diagnosis is not always required. Current treatment options comprise observation, surgical resection, fractionated radiotherapy and radiosurgery. The choice of treatment depends on clinical presentation, tumor size and expertise of the treating center. In small tumors, observation has to be weighed against radiosurgery, in large tumors surgical decompression is mandatory, potentially followed by fractionated radiotherapy or radiosurgery. Except for bevacizumab in neurofibromatosis type 2, there is no role for pharmacotherapy.

6.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA2 cause a higher risk of early-onset aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating targeted PrCa screening using prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. OBJECTIVE: To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 40-69 yr with a germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation and male controls testing negative for a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were recruited. Participants underwent PSA screening for 3 yr, and if PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, men were offered prostate biopsy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analyses included Poisson regression offset by person-year follow-up, chi-square tests for proportion t tests for means, and Kruskal-Wallis for medians. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 3027 patients (2932 unique individuals) were recruited (919 BRCA1 carriers, 709 BRCA1 noncarriers, 902 BRCA2 carriers, and 497 BRCA2 noncarriers). After 3 yr of screening, 527 men had PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, 357 biopsies were performed, and 112 PrCa cases were diagnosed (31 BRCA1 carriers, 19 BRCA1 noncarriers, 47 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 BRCA2 noncarriers). Higher compliance with biopsy was observed in BRCA2 carriers compared with noncarriers (73% vs 60%). Cancer incidence rate per 1000 person years was higher in BRCA2 carriers than in noncarriers (19.4 vs 12.0; p = 0.03); BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (61 vs 64 yr; p = 0.04) and were more likely to have clinically significant disease than BRCA2 noncarriers (77% vs 40%; p = 0.01). No differences in age or tumour characteristics were detected between BRCA1 carriers and BRCA1 noncarriers. The 4 kallikrein marker model discriminated better (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73) for clinically significant cancer at biopsy than PSA alone (AUC = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: After 3 yr of screening, compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 mutation carriers were associated with a higher incidence of PrCa, younger age of diagnosis, and clinically significant tumours. Therefore, systematic PSA screening is indicated for men with a BRCA2 mutation. Further follow-up is required to assess the role of screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: We demonstrate that after 3 yr of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, we detect more serious prostate cancers in men with BRCA2 mutations than in those without these mutations. We recommend that male BRCA2 carriers are offered systematic PSA screening.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12524, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467304

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.

9.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 31(6): 562-567, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425178

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a schwannoma predisposition syndrome, alongside schwannomatosis related to germline LZTR1 and SMARCB1 pathogenic variants. This review highlights their overlapping phenotypes, new insight into NF2 phenotype and treatment outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Mosaic NF2 is more prevalent than previously thought. Use of next-generation sequencing and tumour testing is needed to differentiate mosaic NF2 and schwannomatosis. Developing NF2 phenotypic insights include vasculopathy with brainstem infarction and vessel stenosis; focal cortical dysplasia in severe phenotypes; swallowing/speech difficulties and continued debate into malignancy in NF2. Proposed are: use of visual evoked potentials to monitor optic nerve sheath meningioma; potential routine magnetic resonance angiogram in adolescence and a genetic score to cohort patients with similar pathogenic_variants, for natural history/treatment outcome studies. Cohort studies found survival analysis to hearing loss and unilateral visual loss in severe mutation groups was 32 and 38 years; active management gave better outcomes than surveillance in spinal ependymoma; gamma knife, bevacizumab and hearing preservation surgery maintained or improved short-term hearing in selected patients, and gamma knife had a good long-term tumour control in mild patients with small tumours. SUMMARY: Further long-term outcome studies are needed comparing similar severity patients to allow informed decision making.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221419, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome is a hereditary cancer syndrome caused by constitutional pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system, leading to increased risk of colorectal, endometrial and other cancers. The study aimed to identify the incremental costs and consequences of strategies to identify Lynch syndrome in women with endometrial cancer. METHODS: A decision-analytic model was developed to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of reflex testing strategies for identifying Lynch syndrome in women with endometrial cancer taking the NHS perspective and a lifetime horizon. Model input parameters were sourced from various published sources. Consequences were measured using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). A cost-effectiveness threshold of £20 000/QALY was used. RESULTS: Reflex testing for Lynch syndrome using MMR immunohistochemistry and MLH1 methylation testing was cost-effective versus no testing, costing £14 200 per QALY gained. There was uncertainty due to parameter imprecision, with an estimated 42% chance this strategy is not cost-effective compared with no testing. Age had a significant impact on cost-effectiveness, with testing not predicted to be cost-effective in patients aged 65 years and over. CONCLUSIONS: Testing for Lynch syndrome in younger women with endometrial cancer using MMR immunohistochemistry and MLH1 methylation testing may be cost-effective. Age cut-offs may be controversial and adversely affect implementation.

11.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273341

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of mosaicism in de novo neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2). METHODS: Patients fulfilling NF2 criteria, but with no known affected family member from a previous generation (n = 1055), were tested for NF2 variants in lymphocyte DNA and where available tumor DNA. The proportion of individuals with a proven or presumed mosaic NF2 variant was assessed and allele frequencies of identified variants evaluated using next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: The rate of proven/presumed mosaicism was 232/1055 (22.0%). However, nonmosaic heterozygous pathogenic variants were only identified in 387/1055 (36.7%). When variant detection rates in second generation nonmosaics were applied to de novo cases, we assessed the overall probable mosaicism rate to be 59.7%. This rate differed by age from 21.7% in those presenting with bilateral vestibular schwannoma <20 years to 80.7% in those aged ≥60 years. A mosaic variant was detected in all parents of affected children with a single-nucleotide pathogenic NF2 variant. CONCLUSION: This study has identified a very high probable mosaicism rate in de novo NF2, probably making NF2 the condition with the highest expressed rate of mosaicism in de novo dominant disease that is nonlethal in heterozygote form. Risks to offspring are small and probably correlate with variant allele frequency detected in blood.

12.
Histopathology ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310679

RESUMO

AIMS: Lynch syndrome (LS) is associated with an increased risk of developing endometrial carcinoma (EC) and ovarian carcinoma (OC). There is considerable variability in current practices and opinions related to screening of newly diagnosed patients with EC/OC for LS. An online survey was undertaken to explore the extent of these differences. METHODS AND RESULTS: An online questionnaire was developed by a panel of experts and sent to all members of the British Association of Gynaecological Pathologists (BAGP) and the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists (ISGyP). Anonymised results were received and analysed. Thirty-six BAGP and 44 ISGyP members completed the survey. More than 90% of respondents were aware of the association of LS with both EC and OC, but 34% were not aware of specific guidelines for LS screening. Seventy-one per cent of respondents agreed that universal screening for LS should be carried out in all newly diagnosed EC cases, with immunohistochemistry (IHC) alone as the preferred approach. Only 36% of respondents currently performed IHC or microsatellite instability testing on all newly diagnosed EC cases, with most of the remaining respondents practising selective screening, based on clinical or pathological features or both. A significant minority of respondents (35%) believed that patient consent was required before performance of mismatch repair (MMR) protein IHC. Almost all respondents favoured the use of standardised terminology for reporting MMR protein staining results, and this is proposed herein. CONCLUSION: There is wide support for universal LS screening in patients with EC, but this survey highlights areas of considerable variation in practice.

13.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.

14.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause a recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome known as constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD). Family members with a heterozygous MMR variant have Lynch syndrome. We aimed at estimating cancer risk in these heterozygous carriers as a novel approach to avoid complicated statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. METHODS: Cumulative colorectal cancer incidence was estimated in a cohort of PMS2- and MSH6-associated families, ascertained by the CMMRD phenotype of the index, by using mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients as analytical weights in a proportional hazard regression on the cause-specific hazards. Confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by bootstrapping at the family level. RESULTS: The estimated cumulative colorectal cancer risk at age 70 years for heterozygous PMS2 variant carriers was 8.7% (95% CI 4.3-12.7%) for both sexes combined, and 9.9% (95% CI 4.9-15.3%) for men and 5.9% (95% CI 1.6-11.1%) for women separately. For heterozygous MSH6 variant carriers these estimates are 11.8% (95% CI 4.5-22.7%) for both sexes combined, 10.0% (95% CI 1.83-24.5%) for men and 11.7% (95% CI 2.10-26.5%) for women. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with previous reports that used more complex statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. These results underline the need for MMR gene-specific surveillance protocols for Lynch syndrome.

15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 781-794, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence linking breast size to breast cancer risk has been inconsistent, and its interpretation is often hampered by confounding factors such as body mass index (BMI). Here, we used linkage disequilibrium score regression and two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine the genetic associations between BMI, breast size and breast cancer risk. METHODS: Summary-level genotype data from 23andMe, Inc (breast size, n = 33 790), the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (breast cancer risk, n = 228 951) and the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (BMI, n = 183 507) were used for our analyses. In assessing causal relationships, four complementary MR techniques [inverse variance weighted (IVW), weighted median, weighted mode and MR-Egger regression] were used to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: The genetic correlation (rg) estimated between BMI and breast size was high (rg = 0.50, P = 3.89x10-43). All MR methods provided consistent evidence that higher genetically predicted BMI was associated with larger breast size [odds ratio (ORIVW): 2.06 (1.80-2.35), P = 1.38x10-26] and lower overall breast cancer risk [ORIVW: 0.81 (0.74-0.89), P = 9.44x10-6]. No evidence of a relationship between genetically predicted breast size and breast cancer risk was found except when using the weighted median and weighted mode methods, and only with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative risk. There was no evidence of reverse causality in any of the analyses conducted (P > 0.050). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate a potential positive causal association between BMI and breast size and a potential negative causal association between BMI and breast cancer risk. We found no clear evidence for a direct relationship between breast size and breast cancer risk.

16.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

18.
Histopathology ; 75(2): 236-246, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062389

RESUMO

AIMS: Beta2-microglobulin (B2M) forms part of the HLA class I complex and plays a role in metastatic biology. B2M mutations occur frequently in mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancer (dMMR CRC), with limited data suggesting they may protect against recurrence. Our experimental study tested this hypothesis by investigating B2M mutation status and B2M protein expression and recurrence in patients in the stage II QUASAR clinical trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sanger sequencing was performed for the three coding exons of B2M on 121 dMMR and a subsample of 108 pMMR tumours; 52 with recurrence and 56 without. B2M protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Mutation status and protein expression were correlated with recurrence and compared to proficient mismatch repair (pMMR) CRCs. Deleterious B2M mutations were detected in 39 of 121 (32%) dMMR tumours. Five contained missense B2M-variants of unknown significance, so were excluded from further analyses. With median follow-up of 7.4 years, none of the 39 B2M-mutant tumours recurred, compared with 14 of 77 (18%) B2M-wild-type tumours (P = 0.005); six at local and eight at distant sites. Sensitivity and specificity of IHC in detecting B2M mutations was 87 and 71%, respectively. Significantly (P < 0.0001) fewer (three of 104, 2.9%) of the 108 pMMR CRCs demonstrated deleterious B2M mutations. One pMMR tumour, containing a frameshift mutation, later recurred. CONCLUSION: B2M mutations were detected in nearly one-third of dMMR cancers, none of which recurred. B2M mutation status has potential clinical utility as a prognostic biomarker in stage II dMMR CRC. The mechanism of protection against recurrence and whether this protection extends to stage III disease remains unclear.

19.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 5(3): 189-198, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041842

RESUMO

Germline TP53 pathogenic variants are rare but associated with a high risk of cancer; they are often identified in the context of clinically diagnosed Li-Fraumeni syndrome predisposing to a range of young onset cancers including sarcomas and breast cancer. The study aim was to conduct a detailed morphological review and immuno-phenotyping of breast cancer arising in carriers of a germline TP53 pathogenic variant. We compared breast cancers from five defined groups: (1) TP53 carriers with breast cancer (n = 59), (2) early onset HER2-amplified breast cancer, no germline pathogenic variant in BRCA1/2 or TP53 (n = 55), (3) BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers (n = 60); (4) BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers (n = 61) and (5) young onset breast cancer with no known germline pathogenic variant (n = 98). Pathologists assessed a pre-agreed set of morphological characteristics using light microscopy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for HER2, ER, PR, p53, integrin alpha v beta 6 (αvß6) integrin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and pSMAD2/3 was performed on tissue microarrays of invasive carcinoma. We confirmed a previously reported high prevalence of HER2-amplified, ductal no special type invasive breast carcinoma amongst known TP53 germline pathogenic variant carriers 20 of 36 (56%). Furthermore we observed a high frequency of densely sclerotic tumour stroma in cancers from TP53 carriers (29/36, 80.6%) when compared with non-carriers, 50.9% (28/55), 34.7% (50/144), 41.4% (65/157), 43.8% (95/217) in groups 2-5 respectively. The majority of germline TP53 gene carrier breast tumours had a high intensity of integrin αvß6, α-SMA and pSMAD2/3 expression in the majority of cancer cells. In conclusion, aggressive HER2 positive breast cancers with densely sclerotic stroma are common in germline TP53 carriers. High levels of αvß6 integrin, α-SMA and pSMAD2/3 expression suggest that the dense stromal phenotype may be driven by upregulated transforming growth factor beta signalling.

20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 176(1): 141-148, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941651

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To improve breast cancer risk stratification to enable more targeted early detection/prevention strategies that will better balance risks and benefits of population screening programmes. METHODS: 9362 of 57,902 women in the Predicting-Risk-Of-Cancer-At-Screening (PROCAS) study who were unaffected by breast cancer at study entry and provided DNA for a polygenic risk score (PRS). The PRS was analysed alongside mammographic density (density-residual-DR) and standard risk factors (Tyrer-Cuzick-model) to assess future risk of breast cancer based on tumour stage receptor expression and pathology. RESULTS: 195 prospective incident breast cancers had a prediction based on TC/DR/PRS which was informative for subsequent breast cancer overall [IQ-OR 2.25 (95% CI 1.89-2.68)] with excellent calibration-(0.99). The model performed particularly well in predicting higher stage stage 2+ IQ-OR 2.69 (95% CI 2.02-3.60) and ER + BCs (IQ-OR 2.36 (95% CI 1.93-2.89)). DR was most predictive for HER2+ and stage 2+ cancers but did not discriminate as well between poor and extremely good prognosis BC as either Tyrer-Cuzick or PRS. In contrast, PRS gave the highest OR for incident stage 2+ cancers, [IQR-OR 1.79 (95% CI 1.30-2.46)]. CONCLUSIONS: A combined approach using Tyrer-Cuzick/DR/PRS provides accurate risk stratification, particularly for poor prognosis cancers. This provides support for reducing the screening interval in high-risk women and increasing the screening interval in low-risk women defined by this model.

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