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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bone turnover, which regulates bone mass, may exert metabolic consequences, particularly on markers of glucose metabolism and adiposity. To better understand these relationships, we examined cross-sectional associations between bone turnover markers (BTMs) and metabolic traits in a population with high bone mass (HBM, BMD Z-score≥+3.2). DESIGN: ß-C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (ß-CTX), procollagen type-1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and osteocalcin were assessed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. Metabolic traits, including lipids and glycolysis-related metabolites, were measured using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Associations of BTMs with metabolic traits were assessed using Generalized Estimating Equation linear regression, accounting for within-family correlation, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, height, weight, menopause, bisphosphonate and oral glucocorticoid use). RESULTS: 198 adults with HBM had complete data, mean [SD] age 61.6 [13.7] years; 77% female. Of 23 summary metabolic traits, citrate was positively related to all BTMs: adjusted ßß-CTX =0.050 (95% CI 0.024,0.076),p=1.71x10-4 , ßosteocalcin =6.54x10-4 (1.87x10-4 ,0.001),p=0.006 and ßP1NP =2.40x10-4 (6.49x10-5 ,4.14x10-4 ),p=0.007 (ß= increase in citrate (mmol/L) per 1µg/L BTM increase). Inverse relationships of ß-CTX (ß=-0.276 [-0.434,-0.118],p=6.03x10-4 ) and osteocalcin (-0.004 [-0.007,-0.001],p=0.020) with triglycerides were also identified. We explored the generalizability of these associations in 3,664 perimenopausal women (age 47.9 [4.4] years) from a UK family cohort. We confirmed a positive, albeit lower magnitude, association between ß-CTX and citrate (adjusted ßwomen =0.020 [0.013,0.026],p=1.95x10-9 ) and an inverse association of similar magnitude between ß-CTX and triglycerides (ß=-0.354 [-0.471,-0.237],p=3.03x10-9 ). CONCLUSIONS: Bone resorption is positively related to circulating citrate and inversely related to triglycerides. Further studies are justified to determine whether plasma citrate or triglyceride concentrations are altered by factors known to modulate bone resorption, such as bisphosphonates.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647093

RESUMO

Mendelian randomization (MR) is increasingly used to make causal inferences in a wide range of fields, from drug development to aetiologic studies. Causal inference in MR is possible because of the process of genetic inheritance from parents to offspring. Specifically, at gamete formation and conception meiosis ensures random allocation to the offspring of one allele from each parent at each locus, and these are unrelated to most of the other inherited genetic variants. To date, most MR studies have used data from unrelated individuals. These studies assume that genotypes are independent of the environment across a sample of unrelated individuals, conditional on covariates. Here we describe potential sources of bias, such as transmission ratio distortion, selection bias, population stratification, dynastic effects and assortative mating that can induce spurious or biased SNP-phenotype associations. We explain how studies of related individuals such as sibling pairs or parent-offspring trios can be used to overcome some of these sources of bias, to provide potentially more reliable evidence regarding causal processes. The increasing availability of data from related individuals in large cohort studies presents an opportunity to both overcome some of these biases and also to evaluate familial environmental effects.

3.
Behav Genet ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493278

RESUMO

There is increasing interest within the genetics community in estimating the relative contribution of parental genetic effects on offspring phenotypes. Here we describe the user-friendly M-GCTA software package used to estimate the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by maternal (or alternatively paternal) and offspring genotypes on offspring phenotypes. The tool requires large studies where genome-wide genotype data are available on mother- (or alternatively father-) offspring pairs. The software includes several options for data cleaning and quality control, including the ability to detect and automatically remove cryptically related pairs of individuals. It also allows users to construct genetic relationship matrices indexing genetic similarity across the genome between parents and offspring, enabling the estimation of variance explained by maternal (or alternatively paternal) and offspring genetic effects. We evaluated the performance of the software using a range of data simulations and estimated the computing time and memory requirements. We demonstrate the use of M-GCTA on previously analyzed birth weight data from two large population based birth cohorts, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). We show how genetic variation in birth weight is predominantly explained by fetal genetic rather than maternal genetic sources of variation.

4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intrauterine environment is critical for fetal growth and development. However, observational associations between maternal gestational lipid concentrations and offspring birth weight (BW) have been inconsistent and ascertaining causality is challenging. METHODS: We used a novel two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to estimate the causal effect of maternal gestational high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride concentrations on offspring BW. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with serum HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations identified in the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium genome-wide association study meta-analysis (n = 188 577 European-ancestry individuals; sample 1) were selected as instrumental variables. The effects of these SNPs on offspring BW were estimated using a structural equation model in the UK Biobank and Early Growth Genetics consortium (n = 230 069 European-ancestry individuals; sample 2) that enabled partitioning of the genetic associations into maternal- (intrauterine) and fetal-specific effects. RESULTS: We found no evidence for a causal effect of maternal gestational HDL-C, LDL-C or triglyceride concentrations on offspring BW [standard deviation change in BW per standard deviation higher in HDL-C = -0.005 (95% confidence interval: -0.039, 0.029), LDL-C = 0.014 (-0.017, 0.045), and triglycerides = 0.014 (-0.025, 0.052)]. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that maternal gestational HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations play a limited role in determining offspring BW. However, we cannot comment on the impact of these and other lipid fractions on fetal development more generally. Our study illustrates the power and flexibility of two-sample MR in assessing the causal effect of maternal environmental exposures on offspring outcomes.

7.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 84(2): 359-371, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102023

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Time is a critical factor in drug action. The duration of inhibition of the target or residence time of the drug molecule on the target often guides drug scheduling. METHODS: The effects of time on the concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of approved and investigational agents [300 compounds] were examined in the NCI60 cell line panel in 2D at 2, 3, 7 and in 3D 11 days. RESULTS: There was a moderate positive linear relationship between data from the 2-day NCI60 screen and the 3-, 7- and 11-day and a strong positive linear relationship between 3-, 7- and 11-day luminescence screen IC50s by Pearson correlation analysis. Cell growth inhibition by agents selective for a specific cell cycle phase plateaued when susceptible cells were growth inhibited or killed. As time increased the depth of cell growth inhibition increased without change in the IC50. DNA interactive agents had decreasing IC50s with increasing exposure time. Epigenetic agents required longer exposure times; several were only cytotoxic after 11 days' exposure. For HDAC inhibitors, time had little or no effect on concentration response. There were potency differences amongst the three BET bromodomain inhibitors tested, and an exposure duration effect. The PARP inhibitors, rucaparib, niraparib, and veliparib reached IC50s < 10 µM in some cell lines after 11 days. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that variations in compound exposure time may reflect either mechanism of action or compound chemical half-life. The activity of slow-acting compounds may optimally be assessed in spheroid models that can be monitored over prolonged incubation times.

8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and BMI in childhood and adulthood. Each of these associations could be due to causal intrauterine effects, or confounding (genetic or environmental), or some combination of these. Here we estimate the extent to which the association between maternal BMI and offspring body size is explained by offspring genotype, as a first step towards establishing the importance of genetic confounding. METHODS: We examined the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI with offspring BW and BMI at 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, in three European birth cohorts (n ≤11 498). Bivariate Genomic-relatedness-based Restricted Maximum Likelihood implemented in the GCTA software (GCTA-GREML) was used to estimate the extent to which phenotypic covariance was explained by offspring genotype as captured by common imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We merged individual participant data from all cohorts, enabling calculation of pooled estimates. RESULTS: Phenotypic covariance (equivalent here to Pearson's correlation coefficient) between maternal BMI and offspring phenotype was 0.15 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.17] for offspring BW, increasing to 0.29 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.31) for offspring 15 year BMI. Covariance explained by offspring genotype was negligible for BW [-0.04 (95% CI: -0.09, 0.01)], but increased to 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.21) at 15 years, which is equivalent to 43% (95% CI: 15%, 72%) of the phenotypic covariance. Sensitivity analyses using weight, BMI and ponderal index as the offspring phenotype at all ages showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring genotype explains a substantial fraction of the covariance between maternal BMI and offspring adolescent BMI. This is consistent with a potentially important role for genetic confounding as a driver of the maternal BMI-offspring BMI association.

9.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(7): 1306-1313, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882941

RESUMO

Observations that insulin and adiponectin levels are related to cortical bone size in adolescents, independently of body composition, suggest factors related to fat metabolism directly influence skeletal development. To explore this question, we examined associations between a metabolic screen focusing on fat metabolism, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measures of the mid-tibia, in 15-year-olds from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Metabolic profiles were generated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, from blood samples obtained at the same time as pQCT scans. Ordinary least squares linear regression was used to investigate relationships between metabolic measures and periosteal circumference (PC), cortical thickness (CT), and cortical bone mineral density (BMDC ). Metabolic profiles yielded 22 independent components following principal component analysis (PCA), giving a Bonferroni-adjusted threshold for statistical significance of p = 0.002. Data were available in 1121 subjects (487 males), mean age 15 years. Several metabolites related to lipid and cholesterol metabolism were associated with PC, CT, and BMDC after adjustment for age, sex, and Tanner stage. After additional adjustment for height, fat, and lean mass, only the association between citrate and BMDC remained below the Bonferroni-significant threshold (ß = -0.14 [-0.18, -0.09]) (ß represents a standardized coefficient). Citrate also showed evidence of association with PC (ß = 0.06 [0.03, 0.10]) and strength strain index (SSI; ß = 0.04 [0.01, 0.08]). Subsequently, we investigated whether these relationships were explained by increased bone resorption. Citrate was strongly related to serum ß-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (ß-CTX) (ß = 0.20 [0.16, 0.23]). After additional adjustment for ß-CTX the above associations between citrate and BMDC (ß = -0.04 [-0.08, 0.01]), PC (ß = 0.03 [-0.01, 0.07]) and SSI (ß = 0.03 [-0.01, 0.07]) were no longer observed. We conclude that in adolescents, circulating levels of citrate are inversely related to BMDC and positively related to PC, reflecting associations with higher bone turnover. Further studies are justified to elucidate possible contributions of citrate, a constituent of bone matrix, to bone resorption and cortical density. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 861-875, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in estimating the causal effect of a range of maternal environmental exposures on offspring health-related outcomes. Previous attempts to do this using Mendelian randomization methodologies have been hampered by the paucity of epidemiological cohorts with large numbers of genotyped mother-offspring pairs. METHODS: We describe a new statistical model that we have created which can be used to estimate the effect of maternal genotypes on offspring outcomes conditional on offspring genotype, using both individual-level and summary-results data, even when the extent of sample overlap is unknown. RESULTS: We describe how the estimates obtained from our method can subsequently be used in large-scale two-sample Mendelian randomization studies to investigate the causal effect of maternal environmental exposures on offspring outcomes. This includes studies that aim to assess the causal effect of in utero exposures related to fetal growth restriction on future risk of disease in offspring. We illustrate our framework using examples related to offspring birthweight and cardiometabolic disease, although the general principles we espouse are relevant for many other offspring phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: We advocate for the establishment of large-scale international genetics consortia that are focused on the identification of maternal genetic effects and committed to the public sharing of genome-wide summary-results data from such efforts. This information will facilitate the application of powerful two-sample Mendelian randomization studies of maternal exposures and offspring outcomes.

11.
Behav Genet ; 49(3): 327-339, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600410

RESUMO

Offspring outcomes are a function of maternal genetics operating on the intrauterine and postnatal environment, offspring genetics and environmental factors. Partitioning genetic effects into maternal and offspring components requires genotyped mother-offspring pairs or genotyped individuals with phenotypic information on themselves and their offspring. We performed asymptotic power calculations and data simulations to estimate power to detect maternal and offspring genetic effects under a range of different study designs and models. We also developed the "Maternal and offspring Genetic effects Power Calculator" (M-GPC), an online utility which allows users to estimate the power to detect maternal and offspring genetic effects in their own studies. We find that approximately 50,000 genotyped mother-offspring pairs will be required to detect realistically sized maternal or offspring genetic effects (> 0.1% variance explained) with appreciable power (power > 90%, α = 5 × 10-8, two degree of freedom test), whereas greater than 10,000 pairs will be required to determine whether known genetic loci have maternal and/or offspring genetic effects (power > 78%, α = 0.05). The structural equation modelling framework espoused in this manuscript provides a natural method of combining different data structures including those present in large scale biobanks in order to maximize power to detect maternal and offspring genetic effects. We conclude that the sample sizes required to detect maternal or offspring genetic effects that explain realistic proportions of the trait variance with appreciable power are achievable and within the range of current research consortia.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4774, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429480

RESUMO

The total number of acquired melanocytic nevi on the skin is strongly correlated with melanoma risk. Here we report a meta-analysis of 11 nevus GWAS from Australia, Netherlands, UK, and USA comprising 52,506 individuals. We confirm known loci including MTAP, PLA2G6, and IRF4, and detect novel SNPs in KITLG and a region of 9q32. In a bivariate analysis combining the nevus results with a recent melanoma GWAS meta-analysis (12,874 cases, 23,203 controls), SNPs near GPRC5A, CYP1B1, PPARGC1B, HDAC4, FAM208B, DOCK8, and SYNE2 reached global significance, and other loci, including MIR146A and OBFC1, reached a suggestive level. Overall, we conclude that most nevus genes affect melanoma risk (KITLG an exception), while many melanoma risk loci do not alter nevus count. For example, variants in TERC and OBFC1 affect both traits, but other telomere length maintenance genes seem to affect melanoma risk only. Our findings implicate multiple pathways in nevogenesis.

15.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320955

RESUMO

We aimed to report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived hip shape, which is thought to be related to the risk of both hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. Ten hip shape modes (HSMs) were derived by statistical shape modeling using SHAPE software, from hip DXA scans in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; adult females), TwinsUK (mixed sex), Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS; mixed), Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study (MrOS), and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF; females) (total N = 15,934). Associations were adjusted for age, sex, and ancestry. Five genomewide significant (p < 5 × 10-9 , adjusted for 10 independent outcomes) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with HSM1, and three SNPs with HSM2. One SNP, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2158915 associated with HSM1, was associated with HSM5 at genomewide significance. In a look-up of previous GWASs, three of the identified SNPs were associated with hip osteoarthritis, one with hip fracture, and five with height. Seven SNPs were within 200 kb of genes involved in endochondral bone formation, namely SOX9, PTHrP, RUNX1, NKX3-2, FGFR4, DICER1, and HHIP. The SNP adjacent to DICER1 also showed osteoblast cis-regulatory activity of GSC, in which mutations have previously been reported to cause hip dysplasia. For three of the lead SNPs, SNPs in high LD (r2 > 0.5) were identified, which intersected with open chromatin sites as detected by ATAC-seq performed on embryonic mouse proximal femora. In conclusion, we identified eight SNPs independently associated with hip shape, most of which were associated with height and/or mapped close to endochondral bone formation genes, consistent with a contribution of processes involved in limb growth to hip shape and pathological sequelae. These findings raise the possibility that genetic studies of hip shape might help in understanding potential pathways involved in hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

16.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 179(6): 363-372, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324795

RESUMO

Objective Hyperglycaemia during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse health outcomes in mother and child, but the genetic aetiology is scarcely studied. Our aims were to (1) assess the overlapping genetic aetiology between the pregnant and non-pregnant population and (2) assess the importance of genome-wide polygenic contributions to glucose traits during pregnancy, by exploring whether genetic risk scores (GRSs) for fasting glucose (FG), 2-h glucose (2hG), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and BMI in non-pregnant individuals were associated with glucose measures in pregnant women. Methods We genotyped 529 Norwegian pregnant women and constructed GRS from known genome-wide significant variants and SNPs weakly associated (p > 5 × 10-8) with FG, 2hG, BMI and T2D from external genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and examined the association between these scores and glucose measures at gestational weeks 14-16 and 30-32. We also performed GWAS of FG, 2hG and shape information from the glucose curve during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Results GRSFG explained similar variance during pregnancy as in the non-pregnant population (~5%). GRSBMI and GRST2D explained up to 1.3% of the variation in the glucose traits in pregnancy. If we included variants more weakly associated with these traits, GRS2hG and GRST2D explained up to 2.4% of the variation in the glucose traits in pregnancy, highlighting the importance of polygenic contributions. Conclusions Our results suggest overlap in the genetic aetiology of FG in pregnant and non-pregnant individuals. This was less apparent with 2hG, suggesting potential differences in postprandial glucose metabolism inside and outside of pregnancy.

17.
J Immunol Res ; 2018: 2624981, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30186880

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease of chronic systemic inflammation (SI). In the present study, we used four datasets to explore whether methylation-derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (mdNLR) might be a marker of SI in new onset, untreated, and treated prevalent RA cases and/or a marker of treatment response to the tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) etanercept. mdNLR was associated with increased odds of being a new onset RA case (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.95-2.80, P < 2 × 10-16) and performed better in distinguishing new onset RA cases from controls compared to covariates: age, gender, and smoking status. In untreated preclinical RA cases and controls, mdNLR at baseline was associated with diagnosis of RA in later life after adjusting for batch (OR = 4.30, 95% CI = 1.52-21.71, P = 0.029) although no association was observed before batch correction. When prevalent RA cases were treated, there was no association with mdNLR in samples before and after batch correction (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.05-1.82, P = 0.23), and mdNLR was not associated with treatment response to etanercept (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.75-1.68, P = 0.64). Our results indicate that SI measured by DNA methylation data is indicative of the recent onset of RA. Although preclinical RA was associated with mdNLR, there was no difference in the mean mdNLR between preclinical RA cases and controls. mdNLR was not associated with RA case status if treatment for RA has commenced, and it is not associated with treatment response. In the future, mdNLR estimates may be used as a valuable research tool to reliably estimate SI in the absence of freshly collected blood samples.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Linfócitos/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos , Metilação de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Etanercepte/farmacologia , Etanercepte/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMJ ; 362: k3225, 2018 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the genetic determinants of fracture risk and assess the role of 15 clinical risk factors on osteoporotic fracture risk. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of genome wide association studies (GWAS) and a two-sample mendelian randomisation approach. SETTING: 25 cohorts from Europe, United States, east Asia, and Australia with genome wide genotyping and fracture data. PARTICIPANTS: A discovery set of 37 857 fracture cases and 227 116 controls; with replication in up to 147 200 fracture cases and 150 085 controls. Fracture cases were defined as individuals (>18 years old) who had fractures at any skeletal site confirmed by medical, radiological, or questionnaire reports. Instrumental variable analyses were performed to estimate effects of 15 selected clinical risk factors for fracture in a two-sample mendelian randomisation framework, using the largest previously published GWAS meta-analysis of each risk factor. RESULTS: Of 15 fracture associated loci identified, all were also associated with bone mineral density and mapped to genes clustering in pathways known to be critical to bone biology (eg, SOST, WNT16, and ESR1) or novel pathways (FAM210A, GRB10, and ETS2). Mendelian randomisation analyses showed a clear effect of bone mineral density on fracture risk. One standard deviation decrease in genetically determined bone mineral density of the femoral neck was associated with a 55% increase in fracture risk (odds ratio 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.48 to 1.63; P=1.5×10-68). Hand grip strength was inversely associated with fracture risk, but this result was not significant after multiple testing correction. The remaining clinical risk factors (including vitamin D levels) showed no evidence for an effect on fracture. CONCLUSIONS: This large scale GWAS meta-analysis for fracture identified 15 genetic determinants of fracture, all of which also influenced bone mineral density. Among the clinical risk factors for fracture assessed, only bone mineral density showed a major causal effect on fracture. Genetic predisposition to lower levels of vitamin D and estimated calcium intake from dairy sources were not associated with fracture risk.

19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(2): 398-404, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982347

RESUMO

Background: Several observational studies have shown that low serum vitamin B-12 is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. However, it is unclear if these associations reflect a causal effect of vitamin B-12 on cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases, latent confounding, or reverse causality. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate 1) the possible causal relation between vitamin B-12 and indicators of body fat, lipid, and glucose variables; type 2 diabetes (T2D); and cardiovascular disease by using a 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) method and 2) the possible pleiotropic role of fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2). Design: We selected 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with serum concentrations of vitamin B-12 in a previous genomewide association study (GWAS) in 45,576 individuals. We performed 2-sample MR analyses of the relation between vitamin B-12 and cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases with the use of publicly available GWAS summary statistics for 15 outcomes in ≤339,224 individuals. The robustness of results was tested with sensitivity analyses by using MR Egger regression and weighted-median estimation, and by performing additional analyses excluding a variant in the FUT2 gene, which may be pleiotropic. Results: We found a suggestive causal relation between vitamin B-12 and fasting glucose and ß cell function [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of ß cell function (HOMA-B)]. However, we found no evidence that serum concentrations of vitamin B-12 were causally related to BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, plasma leptin, body fat, fasting insulin, insulin resistance (from HOMA of insulin resistance), glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, T2D, coronary artery disease, or HDL, LDL, or total cholesterol. Conclusions: We found no evidence that serum concentrations of vitamin B-12 are causally related to body weight or the majority of cardiometabolic outcomes investigated. However, vitamin B-12 may have a causal effect on fasting glucose and HOMA-B, although these results will require replication in large independent data sets. This trialwas registered at http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN47414943 as ISRCTN47414943.

20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(16): 2927-2939, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860447

RESUMO

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism leading to parent-of-origin silencing of alleles. So far, the precise number of imprinted regions in humans is uncertain. In this study, we leveraged genome-wide DNA methylation in whole blood measured longitudinally at three time points (birth, childhood and adolescence) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data in 740 mother-child duos from the Avon Longitudinal Study of parents and children to identify candidate imprinted loci. We reasoned that cis-meQTLs at genomic regions that were imprinted would show strong evidence of parent-of-origin associations with DNA methylation, enabling the detection of imprinted regions. Using this approach, we identified genome-wide significant cis-meQTLs that exhibited parent-of-origin effects (POEs) at 82 loci, 34 novel and 48 regions previously implicated in imprinting (3.7-10

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