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Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 125, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824909


Background: Investigating and improving the effects of behaviour change interventions requires detailed and consistent specification of all aspects of interventions. An important feature of interventions is the way in which these are delivered, i.e. their mode of delivery. This paper describes an ontology for specifying the mode of delivery of interventions, which forms part of the Behaviour Change Intervention Ontology, currently being developed in the Wellcome Trust funded Human Behaviour-Change Project. Methods: The Mode of Delivery Ontology was developed in an iterative process of annotating behaviour change interventions evaluation reports, and consulting with expert stakeholders. It consisted of seven steps: 1) annotation of 110 intervention reports to develop a preliminary classification of modes of delivery; 2) open review from international experts (n=25); 3) second round of annotations with 55 reports to test inter-rater reliability and identify limitations; 4) second round of expert review feedback (n=16); 5) final round of testing of the refined ontology by two annotators familiar and two annotators unfamiliar with the ontology; 6) specification of ontological relationships between entities; and 7) transformation into a machine-readable format using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) language and publishing online. Results: The resulting ontology is a four-level hierarchical structure comprising 65 unique modes of delivery, organised by 15 upper-level classes: Informational , Environmental change, Somatic, Somatic alteration, Individual-based/ Pair-based /Group-based, Uni-directional/Interactional, Synchronous/ Asynchronous, Push/ Pull, Gamification, Arts feature. Relationships between entities consist of is_a. Inter-rater reliability of the Mode of Delivery Ontology for annotating intervention evaluation reports was a=0.80 (very good) for those familiar with the ontology and a= 0.58 (acceptable) for those unfamiliar with it. Conclusion: The ontology can be used for both annotating and writing behaviour change intervention evaluation reports in a consistent and coherent manner, thereby improving evidence comparison, synthesis, replication, and implementation of effective interventions.

J Environ Radioact ; 178-179: 411-418, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28689881


The National Health and Medical Research Council and Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council of Australia developed the current Australian Drinking Water Guidelines which recommend an annual radiation dose value of 1 mSv year-1. One of the potential major contributors to the radiation dose from drinking water is radium-228, a naturally occurring radionuclide arising from the thorium decay series. Various methods of analysing for radium-228 in water have been established and adapted by analytical radiochemistry laboratories. Seven laboratories in Australia participated in analysing radium-228 spiked water samples with activity concentrations ranging from 6 mBq L-1 to 20 Bq L-1. The aim of the exercise was to compare and evaluate radium-228 results reported by the participating laboratories, the methods used and the detection limits. This paper presents the outcome of the exercise.

Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento de Radiação , Rádio (Elemento)/análise , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Austrália
J Environ Radioact ; 178-179: 404-410, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28528654


Natural radionuclides and stable elements were measured in weaver ants, leaves and soils collected from three sites in tropical northern Australia. Radionuclide concentration ratios for ants relative to soil were derived from the measurements and used to refine the current environmental radiological assessment for remediation of Ranger uranium mine. Use of site-specific concentration ratios for weaver ants gave a more conservative estimate of environmental exposure to the arthropod wildlife group than use of default concentration ratios in the ERICA Tool. This was primarily because the 226Ra concentration ratio for weaver ants was more than 7 times greater than for generic arthropods.

Formigas/metabolismo , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioisótopos/metabolismo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Austrália , Radiação de Fundo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise
Methods Mol Biol ; 1302: 137-48, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25981252


Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is a damaging soilborne pest of potatoes which can cause major crop losses. In 2010, a new European Union directive (2007/33/EC) on the control of PCN came into force. Under the new directive, seed potatoes can only be planted on land which has been found to be free from PCN infestation following an official soil test. A major consequence of the new directive was the introduction of a new harmonized soil sampling rate resulting in a threefold increase in the number of samples requiring testing. To manage this increase with the same staffing resources, we have replaced the traditional diagnostic methods. A system has been developed for the processing of soil samples, extraction of DNA from float material, and detection of PCN by high-throughput real-time PCR. Approximately 17,000 samples are analyzed each year using this method. This chapter describes the high-throughput processes for the production of float material from soil samples, DNA extraction from the entire float, and subsequent detection and identification of PCN within these samples.

DNA de Helmintos/análise , DNA de Plantas/análise , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Solo/parasitologia , Solanum tuberosum/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nematoides/patogenicidade
Methods Mol Biol ; 1302: 161-76, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25981254


Viruses cause important diseases to potato crops. Monitoring virus content in plant material for quarantine or seed certification scheme purposes is essential to prevent the spread of viruses and to minimize the impact of viral diseases. There are currently two main methods for virus diagnosis in potato tubers: growing-on ELISA testing which requires breaking tuber dormancy followed by an ELISA test on grown plantlets and direct real-time RT-PCR testing on tubers. This chapter will describe both methods that can be adapted for large-scale virus testing activities.

Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Vírus de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/virologia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Tubérculos/virologia , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Vírus de Plantas/patogenicidade , RNA Viral/genética
Pest Manag Sci ; 69(8): 955-63, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23355345


BACKGROUND: The eradicability of rain-splashed crop diseases was examined by modelling the spread of lupin anthracnose over a spatially heterogeneous landscape. Two hypotheses were investigated: (i) in most cases, rain-splashed diseases are unlikely to be eradicable because spread will be too extensive by the time the disease is detected; (ii) there are recognisable characteristics of an incursion that can be used to identify cases when the disease will be eradicable. RESULTS: Results indicate that the eradication of a rain-splashed crop disease is heavily dependent on the surveillance effort, on how detectable the disease is and on whether there are susceptible hosts outside the cropping area. These simple indicators can be used to estimate the potential for success of an eradication scheme. Eradication targeting only the crop area is destined to fail, unless it is certain that no susceptible host lies adjacent to the cropping area. CONCLUSION: A failed eradication attempt can be costly, and a simple set of indicators for the likelihood of success is extremely useful. These indicators can aid decision-makers when faced with a new incursion, identifying when there is little hope of success. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Colletotrichum/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Agricultura , Tomada de Decisões , Modelos Teóricos , Doenças das Plantas/economia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia