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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 1427335, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387265

RESUMO

To investigate the change in zinc homeostasis of broilers under heat stress, 512 broiler chickens were raised to the age of 28 days. The broilers were then assigned to heat stress and normal temperature (36.0°C vs. 26.0°C) groups for 7 days. The results showed that oxidative stress induced by high temperature had a negative effect on the growth performance of broilers. Heat stress altered zinc homeostasis and led to a redistribution of zinc in broilers, which was reflected in increased zinc concentrations in the jejunum, liver, and tibia. Upregulation of the expression of the zinc exporter ZnT1 and importers ZIP8 and ZIP14 in the jejunum indicated that more zinc was absorbed and transported from the jejunum into the blood, while the liver increased its capacity to hold zinc through upregulation of metallothionein (MT) expression, which was achieved by reducing ZnT1 expression and upregulating the expression of the importer ZIP3. The pathway was mediated by zinc transporters, but the capacity of MT to chelate and release zinc ions also played a crucial role. The mechanism of alterations in zinc homeostasis under heat stress was revealed by the changes in zinc transporters and MT levels in the intestine and liver. Heat stress also altered cecal microbial diversity and reduced the relative abundances of Bilophila and Dialister. In conclusion, broilers altered systemic zinc homeostasis through the regulation of zinc transporters and MT in the liver and jejunum to resist oxidative stress induced by high temperature.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Metalotioneína , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte , Galinhas/metabolismo , Homeostase , Jejuno/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Temperatura , Zinco/farmacologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337975

RESUMO

Thermosensation is crucial for the survival of any organism. In animals, changes in brain temperature are detected via sensory neurons, their cell bodies are located in the trigeminal ganglia. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are the largest temperature sensing family. In mammals, 11 thermoTRPs are known, as in poultry, there are only three. This research further elucidates TRP mRNA expression in the brain of broiler embryo's. Three incubation treatments were conducted on 400 eggs each: the control (C) at 37.6 °C; T1 deviating from C by providing a + 1 °C heat stimuli during embryonic day (ED) 15-20 for 8 h a day; and T2, imposing a + 2 °C heat stimuli. After each heat stimuli, 12 eggs per treatment were taken for blood sampling from the chorioallantoic membrane and brain harvesting. Incubation parameters such has residual yolk (free embryonic) weight, chick quality and hatch percentage were collected. After primer optimization, 22 target genes (13 TRPs and 9 non-TRPs) were measured on mRNA of the brain using a nanofluidic biochip (Fluidigm Corporation). Four target genes (ANO2, TRPV1, SCN5A, TRAAK) have a significant treatment effect - independent of ED. Another four (TRPM8, TRPA1, TRPM2, TRPC3) have a significant treatment effect visible on one or more ED. Heat sensitive channels were increased in T2 and to a lesser degree in T1, which could be part of an acclimatisation process resulting in later life heat tolerance by increased heat sensitivity. T2, however, resulted in a lower hatch weight, quality and hatchability. No hormonal differences were detected.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Temperatura Alta , Animais , Encéfalo , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/genética , Canais Iônicos , Mamíferos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Temperatura
3.
Front Nutr ; 8: 650211, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34926538

RESUMO

We investigated the use of citrus pulp (CP) as a novel prebiotic capable of exerting microbiota and immunomodulating capacities to alleviate weaning stress. Inulin (IN), a well-known prebiotic, was used for comparison. Hundred and 28 male weaned piglets of 21 days old were assigned to 32 pens of 4 piglets each. Piglets were assigned to one of the four treatments, i.e., control, IN supplemented at 0.2% (IN0.2%), and CP supplemented either at 0.2% (CP0.2%) or at 2% (CP2%). On d10-11 and d31-32 post-weaning, one pig per pen was euthanized for intestinal sampling to evaluate the growth performance, chyme characteristics, small intestinal morphology, colonic inflammatory response and barrier integrity, metabolite profiles [gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)], and microbial populations. The IN treatment and the two CP treatments induced higher small intestinal villus height to crypt depth ratios in comparison with the control diet at both sampling times. All treatments decreased acidic goblet cell absolute counts in the crypts in comparison to the control diet of the duodenum on d10-11 and d31-32. The gene expression of ß-defensin 2 was downregulated in colonic tissues following the IN and CP2% inclusion on d31-32. On d31-32, piglets fed with IN and CP0.2% showed lower mRNA levels of occludin and claudin-3, respectively. Not surprisingly, flavonoids were observed in the colon in the CP treatments. Increased colonic acetate proportions on d10-11, at the expense of branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) levels, were observed following the CP2% supplementation compared to the control diet, inferring a reduction of proteolytic fermentation in the hindgut. The beneficial microbial community Faecalibacterium spp. was promoted in the colon of piglets fed with CP2% on d10-11 (p = 0.04; false discovery rate (FDR) non-significant) and on d31-32 (p = 0.03; FDR non-significant) in comparison with the control diet. Additionally, on d31-32, CP2% increased the relative abundance of Megasphaera spp. compared to control values (p = 0.03; FDR non-significant). In conclusion, CP2% promoted the growth of beneficial bacterial communities in both post-weaning time points, modulating colonic fermentation patterns in the colon. The effects of CP supplementation were similar to those of IN and showed the potential as a beneficial feed supplement to alleviate weaning stress.

4.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829172

RESUMO

In recent years, chronic diseases including obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disorders have been the leading causes of incapacity and death globally. Increasing evidence suggests that improvements of lifestyle habits and diet is the most commonly adopted strategy for the prevention of chronic disorders. Moreover, many dietary compounds have revealed health-promoting benefits beyond their nutritional effects. It is worth noting that diet plays an important role in shaping the intestinal microbiota. Coarse cereals constitute important sources of nutrients for the gut microbiota and contribute to a healthy gut microbiome. Furthermore, the gut microbiota converts coarse cereals into functional substances and mediates the interaction between the host and these components. In this study, we summarize the recent findings concerning functional components of cereal grains and their potential chemopreventive activity via modulating the gut microbiota.

5.
Food Funct ; 12(24): 12181-12193, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752597

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play an important role in the host system. Among SCFAs, butyrate has received particular attention for its large effect on host immunity, particularly in supplying energy to enterocytes and producing immune cells. Butyrate enters the cells through the Solute Carrier Family 5 Member 8 (SLC5A8) transporters, then works as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDAC) that inhibits the activation of Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which down-regulates the expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α. Meanwhile, butyrate acts as a ligand to activate G protein-coupled receptors GPR41, GPR43, and GPR109, promoting the expression of anti-inflammatory factors. Besides, it inhibits the proinflammatory factors. Further, it can also suppress the expression of chemokines and reduce inflammation to maintain host homeostasis. This paper reviews the research progress highlighting the potential function of butyrate as a factor impacting intestinal health, obesity and brain disorders.


Assuntos
Butiratos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Alimento Funcional , Humanos
6.
Vet Sci ; 8(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679037

RESUMO

Prebiotics, such as inulin, are non-digestible compounds that stimulate the growth of beneficial microbiota, which results in improved gut and overall health. In this study, we were interested to see if, and how, the ileal transcriptome altered after inulin administration in the pre-weaning period in pigs. Seventy-two Piétrain-Landrace newborn piglets were divided into three groups: (a) a control (CON) group (n = 24), (b) an inulin (IN)-0.5 group (n = 24), and (c) an IN-0.75 group (n = 24). Inulin was provided as a solution and administered twice a day. At week 4, eight piglets per group, those closest to the average in body weight, were sacrificed, and ileal scrapings were collected and analyzed using 3' mRNA massively parallel sequencing. Only minor differences were found, and three genes were differentially expressed between the CON and IN-0.5 group, at an FDR of 10%. All three genes were downregulated in the IN-0.5 group. When comparing the CON group with the IN-0.75 group, five genes were downregulated in the IN-0.75 group, including the three genes seen earlier as differentially expressed between CON and IN-0.5. No genes were found to be differential expressed between IN-0.5 and IN-0.75. Validation of a selection of these genes was done using qRT-PCR. Among the downregulated genes were Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4), Aquaporin 7 (AQP7), and Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1). Thus, although only a few genes were found to be differentially expressed, several of them were involved in lipid metabolism, belonging to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway and known to promote lipolysis. We, therefore, conclude that these lipid metabolism genes expressed in the ileum may play an important role when supplementing piglets with inulin early in life, before weaning.

7.
Vet Sci ; 8(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679062

RESUMO

Maternal diet during early gestation affects offspring phenotype, but it is unclear whether maternal diet during late gestation influences piglet metabolism. We evaluated the impact of two dietary protein levels in sow late gestation diet and piglet nursery diet on piglet metabolism. Diets met or exceeded the crude protein and amino acid requirements. Sows received either 12% (Lower, L) or 17% (Higher, H) crude protein (CP) during the last five weeks of gestation, and piglets received 16.5% (L) or 21% (H) CP from weaning at age 3.5 weeks. This resulted in a 2 × 2 factorial design with four sow/piglet diet treatment groups: HH and LL (match), HL and LH (mismatch). Piglet hepatic tissues were sampled and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were determined by RNA sequencing. At age 4.5 weeks, 25 genes were downregulated and 22 genes were upregulated in the mismatch compared to match groups. Several genes involved in catabolic pathways were upregulated in the mismatch compared to match groups, as were genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation. The results show a distinct interaction effect between maternal and nursery diets, implying that sow late gestation diet could be used to optimize piglet metabolism.

8.
Front Nutr ; 8: 731930, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568407

RESUMO

Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are considered as functional oligosaccharides and have great prebiotic potential. XOS are the degraded products of xylan prepared via chemical, physical or enzymatic degradation. They are mainly composed of xylose units linked by ß-1, 4 bonds. XOS not only exhibit some specific physicochemical properties such as excellent water solubility and high temperature resistance, but also have a variety of functional biological activities including anti-inflammation, antioxidative, antitumor, antimicrobial properties and so on. Numerous studies have revealed in the recent decades that XOS can be applied to many food and feed products and exert their nutritional benefits. XOS have also been demonstrated to reduce the occurrence of human health-related diseases, improve the growth and resistance to diseases of animals. These effects open a new perspective on XOS potential applications for human consumption and animal production. Herein, this review aims to provide a general overview of preparation methods for XOS, and will also discuss the current application of XOS to human and animal health field.

9.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438653

RESUMO

Isoquinoline alkaloids (IQ) exert beneficial antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects in livestock. Therefore, we hypothesized that supplementing sows' diets with IQ during gestation would decrease farrowing stress, affecting the piglets' development and performance. Sows were divided into: IQ1, supplemented with IQ from gestation day 80 (G80) to weaning; IQ2, supplemented from gestation day 110 (G110) to weaning, and a non-supplemented (NC) group. Sow body weight (BW), feed intake, back-fat thickness and back-muscle thickness were monitored. Cortisol, glucose and insulin were measured in sows' blood collected 5 d before, during, and after 7 d farrowing. Protein, fat, IgA and IgG were analyzed in the colostrum and milk. Piglets were monitored for weight and diarrhea score, and for ileum histology and gene expression 5 d post-weaning. IQ-supplemented sows lost less BW during lactation. Glucose and insulin levels were lower in the IQ groups compared to NC-sows 5 d before farrowing and had higher levels of protein and IgG in their colostrum. No other differences were observed in sows, nor in the measured parameters in piglets. In conclusion, IQ supplementation affected sows' metabolism, reducing body weight loss during lactation. Providing IQ to sows from their entrance into the maternity barn might be sufficient to induce these effects. IQ improved colostrum quality, increasing the protein and IgG content, improving passive immunity for piglets.

10.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-18, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404276

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver disorders in humans, partly because it is closely related to metabolic disorders of the liver with increasing prevalence. NAFLD begins with hepatic lipid accumulation, which may cause inflammation and eventually lead to fibrosis in the liver. Numerous studies have demonstrated the close relationship between gut dysfunction (especially the gut microbiota and its metabolites) and the occurrence and progression of NAFLD. The bidirectional communication between the gut and liver, named the gut-liver axis, is mainly mediated by the metabolites derived from both the liver and gut through the biliary tract, portal vein, and systemic circulation. Herein, we review the effects of the gut-liver axis on the pathogenesis of NAFLD. We also comprehensively describe the potential molecular mechanisms from the perspective of the role of liver-derived metabolites and gut-related components in hepatic metabolism and inflammation and gut health, respectively. The study provides insights into the mechanisms underlying current summarizations that support the intricate interactions between a disordered gut and NAFLD and can provide novel strategies to lessen the prevalence and consequence of NAFLD.

11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371955

RESUMO

Despite the well-established role of quinoa protein as the source of antihypertensive peptides through in vitro enzymolysis, there is little evidence supporting the in vivo antihypertensive effect of intact quinoa protein. In this study, in vivo study on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) was conducted by administering quinoa protein for five weeks. Gastrointestinal content identification indicated that many promising precursors of bioactive peptides were released from quinoa protein under gastrointestinal processing. Quinoa protein administration on SHRs resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure, a significant increase in alpha diversity, and microbial structure alternation towards that in non-hypertension rats. Furthermore, blood pressure was highly negatively correlated with the elevated abundance of genera in quinoa protein-treated SHRs, such as Turicibacter and Allobaculum. Interestingly, the fecal microbiota in quinoa protein-treated SHRs shared more features in the composition of genera with non-hypertension rats than that of the captopril-treated group. These results indicate that quinoa protein may serve as a potential candidate to lower blood pressure and ameliorate hypertension-related gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Captopril/administração & dosagem , Chenopodium quinoa , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Fezes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Peptídeos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
12.
J Anim Sci ; 99(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097723

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOSs) supplementation on growth performance, serum parameters, small intestinal morphology, intestinal mucosal integrity, and immune function in weaned piglets. A total of 240 weaned piglets with an average body weight (BW) of 8.82 ± 0.05 kg (28 d of age) were assigned randomly to four dietary treatments in a 28-d trial, including a control (CON) diet and three diets with XOS supplementation at the concentration of 100 (XOS100), 500 (XOS500), and 1,000 (XOS1000) mg/kg. There were four replicates per treatment with 15 pigs per pen. From day 1 to 14, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake, and gain to feed ratio (G:F) during the different treatments. The different doses of XOSs showed a quadratic effect on BW on day 28, ADG, and G:F on day 1 to 28 of piglets (P < 0.05). From day 15 to 28, ADG of pigs fed the XOS500 diet was higher (P < 0.05) than pigs fed the CON diet. During the overall period (day 1 to 28), pigs fed the XOS500 diet had a higher BW, ADG, and G:F than pigs fed the CON diet (P < 0.05). In addition, compared with the CON group, the XOS500 group had significantly higher serum total antioxidant capacity, total superoxide dismutase and catalase levels, and lower malondialdehyde levels on days 14 and 28 (P < 0.05). The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration in the XOS500 group was also significantly higher compared with the CON group on days 14 and 28 (P < 0.05). However, serum immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin M were not affected by the dietary treatments. Supplementation of XOS500 to the feed significantly increased the villus height (VH) and VH to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum and ileum in comparison with the CON and XOS1000 groups. Moreover, the XOS500 group significantly elevated the expression levels of occludin and zonula occludens protein-1 in the ileum compared with the CON group. The ileal interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA expression levels in the XOS100 and XOS500 groups were markedly lower than in the CON group. In contrast, the ileal IL-10 mRNA expression levels were remarkably higher in the XOS500 than in the CON group. In conclusion, XOSs have a beneficial effect on growth performance by improving serum antioxidant defense system, serum IgG, small intestinal structure, and intestinal barrier function in weaned piglets.


Assuntos
Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Intestinos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Suínos , Desmame
13.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804202

RESUMO

Fermented feed mulberry (FFM), being rich in dietary fiber, has not been fully evaluated to be used in sow's diet. In this study, we investigated the effects of 25.5% FFM supplemented in gestation diets on the performance and gut microbiota of sows and their offspring. Results showed that the serum concentration of glucose, progesterone, and estradiol were not affected by the dietary treatment, while the level of serum insulin and fecal short chain fatty acid were both reduced in FFM group on gestation day 60 (G60, p < 0.05). Additionally, FFM increased both voluntary feed intake and weaning litter weight (p < 0.05), while decreased the losses of both Backfat thickness and bodyweight throughout lactation (p < 0.05). 16S rRNA sequencing showed FFM supplementation significantly increased the diversity and relative abundance of sows' fecal microbiota on G60 (p < 0.05). The differential microbiota for sows from FFM group was that Bacteroidetes was increased on G60 while Firmicutes were decreased on Lactation day 7 (L7, p < 0.05), and which for the FFM piglets was that both unclassified_f_Lachnospiraceae on L0 and norank_f_Ruminococcaceae on L7 were increased (p < 0.05). In short, FFM can be recognized as a potential feed ingredient used in sow's diet.

14.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802175

RESUMO

Apple pomace (AP) is known to be rich in biomolecules beneficial for health and it may advantageously be used to overcome the critical step of piglets' weaning. The study aimed to determine the effect of two levels of incorporation of AP on the performance, intestinal morphology, and microbiota of weaned piglets and investigate this feed ingredient as a weaning strategy. An experiment was performed with 42 piglets from weaning (28 days old) over a five-week period, including three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets (0%, 2%, and 4% dried AP diets) with seven pen-repetitions per diet (two pigs per pen). AP diets were beneficial for the average daily gain calculated on week 3 (p = 0.038) and some parameters of the intestinal architecture on the 35 post-weaning day. The 4% AP diet was beneficial for the feed conversion ratio (p = 0.002) and the energetic feed efficiency (p = 0.004) on the 35 post-weaning day. AP tended to influence the consistency of feces (softer to liquid, p = 0.096) and increased the counts of excreted pathogens (p = 0.072). Four percent AP influenced the richness of the microbiota and the bacteria profile as observed for the phylum Bacteroidetes or the class Clostridia. The 4% AP diet appeared as an interesting weaning strategy that should be evaluated in a large cohort.

15.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 641172, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717037

RESUMO

Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) is a well-known kind of oligosaccharide and extensively applied as a prebiotic. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of XOS supplementation substituting chlortetracycline (CTC) on growth, gut morphology, gut microbiota, and hindgut short chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents of weaning piglets. A total of 180 weaned piglets were randomly allocated to three treatments for 28 days, as follows: control group (basal diet, CON), basal diet with 500 mg/kg (XOS500) XOS, and positive control (basal diet with 100 mg/kg CTC). Compared with the CON group, the piglets in the XOS500 group improved body weight (BW) on days 28, average daily gain (ADG) and reduced feed: gain ratio during days 1-28 (P < 0.05). The XOS500 supplementation increased Villus height and Villus height: Crypt depth ratio in the ileum (P < 0.05). Villus Height: Crypt Depth of the ileum was also increased in the CTC treatment group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the XOS500 supplementation increased significantly the numbers of goblet cells in the crypt of the cecum. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed distinct differences in microbial compositions between the ileum and cecum. XOS500 supplementation significantly increased the bacterial diversity. However, CTC treatment markedly reduced the microbial diversity (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, XOS500 supplementation in the diet significantly increased the abundance of Lactobacillus genus compared to the CON and CTC group in the ileum and cecum (P < 0.01), whereas the level of Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Escherichia-Shigella, and Terrisporobacter genus in the XOS500 group were markedly lower than the CON and CTC group (P < 0.05). In addition, dietary supplementation with XOS500 significantly increased the total short-chain fatty acids, propionate and butyrate concentrations and decreased the acetate concentration compared to the CON group in the cecum (P < 0.05). In summary, dietary supplemented with XOS500 could enhance specific beneficial microbiota abundance and decrease harmful microbiota abundance to maintain the structure of the intestinal morphology and improve growth performance of weaned piglets. Thus, XOS may potentially function as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in weaned piglets in modern husbandry.

16.
Front Nutr ; 8: 769773, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35127780

RESUMO

Several studies have demonstrated that high protein diets improve glucose homeostasis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain elusive. This exploratory study aims to screen and compare the acute effects of dietary proteins from different sources on intestinal glucose absorption. Six dietary proteins from various sources were thus selected and digested thanks to the INFOGEST static gastrointestinal digestion protocol. The digested proteins were able to decrease intestinal glucose absorption in vitro and ex vivo. Moreover, acute ingestion of casein and fish gelatin led to improved glucose tolerance in Wistar rats without significant effect on insulin secretion. In parallel, GLUT2 mRNA expression in enterocytes was decreased following short-term incubation with some of the digested proteins. These results strengthen the evidence that digested protein-derived peptides and amino acids are key regulators of glucose homeostasis and highlight their role in intestinal glucose absorption.

17.
Food Res Int ; 138(Pt A): 109755, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292938

RESUMO

The important changes in diet during the first years of life strongly modulate the intestinal microbiota of young children. Among in vitro digestive models, the simulator of human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME®) model, seems particularly adapted to study the effects of prebiotics and/or probiotics on the dynamic microbiota of toddlers. The main purpose of this study was to investigate different formulations with prebiotic (3'-sialyllactose: 3'SL) and probiotic (Bifidobacterium crudilactis FR/62/b/3) effects on young child microbiota using the SHIME® model. The ascending (AC), transverse (TC) and descending (DC) colons of the SHIME® model were inoculated with feces from 3 donors aged between 1 and 2 years, in three separate vessels. After two weeks of microbiota stabilization, four treatments of one week (prebiotic, probiotic, synbiotic and cell-free spent media from the synbiotic) were administered. In all the colon vessels, the short chain fatty acid analyses, determined using high-performance liquid chromatography highlighted a ratio acetate/propionate/butyrate proportion of 5:19:6, situated between infant and adult normal values. As already observed in other validated studies focusing on the SHIME® model, the 16S rDNA sequencing highlighted a low richness and diversity in the AC, while the microbial communities in the TC and the DC remained similar to each other. Although some bacteria involved in biofilm development have been identified (Stenotrophomonas, Megasphera and Enterobacter), specific bacterial populations, proper to each colon were developed. Some bacteria associated to the upper intestinal tract, such as Lactobacillus and Veillonella genera, seemed to grow easily in the AC. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting the hsp60 gene confirmed the ability of bifidobacteria to survive in this toddler model. In addition, the synbiotic treatment tended to a bifidogenic effect (P < 0.1). On the other hand, the feces of the donors and the content of the three colon vessels were filtered and placed in contact with Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890 to evaluate the modulation of virulence gene expression using reverse transcription PCR. Finally, filtered supernatants from donor feces significantly up-regulated the expression of the luxS gene of E. coli O157:H7 (P = 0.013). In conclusion, despite the presence of biofilms, the toddler SHIME® model used in his study shared characteristics found both in adults and infants. Although additional investigations should be performed, combining 3'SL and B. crudilactis FR/62/b/3 could lead to a beneficial effect on infant microbiota by favoring bifidobacterial presence. Finally, the filtrated supernatant from young child feces could be able to modulate the quorum sensing mechanism for E. coli O157:H7.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium , Microbiota , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Oligossacarídeos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339363

RESUMO

Lunasin is a soybean-derived peptide that exhibits anticancer bioactivity in different cancer cells and has been identified in different plants. However, recent studies revealed through molecular and chemical analyses that lunasin was absent in wheat and other cereals. In this study, the soybean-derived lunasin was cloned into pCAMBIA3300 and we transferred the expression vector into wheat via an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The identification of transgenic wheat was detected by polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that lunasin content in transgenic wheat L32-3, L32-6, and L33-1 was 308.63, 436.78, and 349.07 µg/g, respectively, while lunasin was not detected in wild-type wheat. Lunasin enrichment from transgenic wheat displayed an increased anti-proliferative activity compared with peptide enrichment from wild-type wheat in HT-29 cells. Moreover, the results of a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed a significant elevation in p21, Bax, and caspase-3 expression, while Bcl-2 was significantly downregulated. In conclusion, soybean-derived lunasin was successfully expressed in wheat via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and may exert anti-proliferative activity by regulating the apoptosis pathway in HT-29 cells, which provides an effective approach to compensate for the absence of lunasin in wheat.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Soja/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HT29 , Humanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
19.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(11)2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171908

RESUMO

The strategy of improving the growth and health of piglets through maternal fiber diet intervention has attracted increasing attention. Therefore, 15 sows were conducted to a wheat bran (WB) group, in which the sows' diets included 25% of WB in gestation and 14% in lactation, and a control (CON) group, in which the sows' diets at all stages of reproduction did not contain WB. The results show that maternal high WB intervention seems not to have an impact on the growth of the offspring or the villus height of the duodenum, and the ratio of villi/crypts in the duodenum and jejunum were all higher in piglets born from WB sows, which may indicate that WB piglets had a larger absorption area and capacity for nutrients. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and interleukin 6 (IL6) expression levels were notably upregulated in the ileal mucosa of WB piglets, while no immune-related genes in the colonic mucosa were affected by the maternal WB supplementation. In conclusion, adding a high proportion of wheat bran to the sow's gestation and lactation diet can affect the intestinal architecture and the expression of some inflammation genes, to some extent, in the ileal mucosa in the progeny.

20.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 367(16)2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840558

RESUMO

The 'first 1000 days of life' determine the gut microbiota composition and can have long-term health consequences. In this study, the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME®) model, which represents the main functional sections of the digestive tract, was chosen to study the microbiota of young children. The aim of this study was to reproduce the digestive process of toddlers and their specific colonic environment. The ascending, transverse and descending colons of SHIME® model were inoculated with feces from three donors aged between 1 and 2 years-old, in three separate runs. For each run, samples from colon vessels were collected at days 14, 21 and 28 after microbiota stabilization period. Short chain fatty acid concentrations determined by HPLC showed that microbiota obtained in SHIME® model shared characteristics between adults and infants. In addition, microbial diversity and bacterial populations determined by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing were specific to each colon vessel. In conclusion, the SHIME® model developed in this study seemed well adapted to evaluate prebiotic and probiotic impact on the specific microbiota of toddlers, or medicine and endocrine disruptor metabolism. Moreover, this study is the first to highlight some biofilm development in in vitro gastrointestinal modelling systems.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Modelos Biológicos , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Colo/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Microbiologia/normas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
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