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1.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165150

RESUMO

Opioid use disorder (OUD) affects over two million in the United States and is an increasing public health crisis. The abuse of fentanyl and the emergence of potent fentanyl derivatives increases the risk for the user to succumb to overdose, but also to develop OUD. While intense attention is currently focused on understanding the complexity of behaviors and neural functions that contribute to OUD, much remains to be discovered concerning the interactions of opioid intake with the immune response in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that short-term abstinence from fentanyl self-administration associates with altered expression of innate immune markers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer fentanyl (0.0032 mg/kg/infusion) to stability followed by 24 h of abstinence. Several innate immune markers, as well as opioid receptors (ORs) and intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), were interrogated within nodes of the neurocircuitry involved in OUD processes, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), hippocampus (HIP) and midbrain (MB). In the present study, few immune targets were impacted in the PFC and MB during short-term abstinence from fentanyl (relative to saline) self-administration. However, increased expression of cytokines [e.g., interleukin (IL)1ß, IL5], chemokines [e.g., C-C motif chemokine 20 (MIP3α)], tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interferon (IFN) proteins (e.g., IFNß and IFNγ)] was seen in the NAc, while decreased expression of cytokines (e.g., several ILs), chemokines [e.g., granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) MCP1, MIP3α], the chemokine ligand 5 (RANTES) and interferons (e.g., IFNß and IFNγ) in the HIP. Positive correlations were observed between cumulative fentanyl intake and expression of IL1ß and IL6 in the NAc, and significant negative correlations with fentanyl intake and IFN ß, IL2, IL5, IL12p70 and IL17 in the HIP. Few changes in OR expression was observed during early abstinence from fentanyl self-administration. Excitingly, the expression of the PRR, stimulator of interferon genes (STING) negatively correlated with cumulative fentanyl intake and significantly correlated to specific cytokines, chemokines and interferon proteins in the HIP. Although the CPu appears relatively invulnerable to changes in innate immune markers, the highest correlations between cumulative fentanyl intake with MAVS and/or STING was measured in the CPu. Our findings provide the first evidence of CNS innate immune responses and implicate STING as novel mechanistic targets of immunomodulation during short-term abstinence from fentanyl self-administration.

2.
J Virol ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996435

RESUMO

Argentine hemorrhagic fever is a potentially lethal disease that is caused by Junin virus (JUNV). There are currently around 5 million individuals at risk of infection within endemic regions in Argentina. The live attenuated vaccine strain, Candid #1 (Can), is approved for use in endemic regions and has substantially decreased the number of annual Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) cases. The glycoprotein (GPC) gene is primarily responsible for the attenuation of the Can strain, and we have shown that the absence of an N-linked glycosylation motif in the subunit G1 of the GP complex of Can, which is otherwise present in the wild type pathogenic JUNV, causes GPC retention in the ER. Here, we show that Can GPC aggregates in the ER of infected cells, forming incorrect cross-chain disulfide bonds, which results in impaired GPC processing into G1 and G2. The GPC fails to cleave into its G1 and G2 subunits and is targeted for degradation within lysosomes. Cells infected with the wild-type Romero (Rom) strain do not produce aggregates that are observed in Can infection, and the stress on the ER remains minimal. While the mutation of the N-linked glycosylation motif (T168A) is primarily responsible for the formation of aggregates, other mutations within G1 that occurred earlier in the passage history of the Can strain also contribute to aggregation of the GPC within the ER.ImportanceThe development of vaccines and therapeutics to combat viral hemorrhagic fevers remains a top priority within the Implementation Plan of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise. The Can strain, derived from the pathogenic XJ strain of JUNV, has been demonstrated to be both safe and protective against AHF. While the vaccine strain is approved for use in endemic regions within Argentina, the mechanisms of Can attenuation have not been elucidated. A better understanding of the viral genetic determinants of attenuation will improve our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to disease pathogenesis and provide critical information for the rational design of live attenuated vaccine candidates for other viral hemorrhagic fevers.

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