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Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(7): 996-1006, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695756


High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of human genome coding regions allows the simultaneous screen of a large number of genes, significantly improving the diagnosis of non-syndromic intellectual disabilities (ID). HTS studies permit the redefinition of the phenotypical spectrum of known disease-causing genes, escaping the clinical inclusion bias of gene-by-gene Sanger sequencing. We studied a cohort of 903 patients with ID not reminiscent of a well-known syndrome, using an ID-targeted HTS of several hundred genes and found de novo heterozygous variants in TCF4 (transcription factor 4) in eight novel patients. Piecing together the patients from this study and those from previous large-scale unbiased HTS studies, we estimated the rate of individuals with ID carrying a disease-causing TCF4 mutation to 0.7%. So far, TCF4 molecular abnormalities were known to cause a syndromic form of ID, Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), which combines severe ID, developmental delay, absence of speech, behavioral and ventilation disorders, and a distinctive facial gestalt. Therefore, we reevaluated ten patients carrying a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in TCF4 (eight patients included in this study and two from our previous ID-HTS study) for PTHS criteria defined by Whalen and Marangi. A posteriori, five patients had a score highly evocative of PTHS, three were possibly consistent with this diagnosis, and two had a score below the defined PTHS threshold. In conclusion, these results highlight TCF4 as a frequent cause of moderate to profound ID and broaden the clinical spectrum associated to TCF4 mutations to nonspecific ID.

Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(2): 287-292, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255276


CHARGE syndrome is a rare genetic disorder mainly due to de novo and private truncating mutations of CHD7 gene. Here we report an intriguing hot spot of intronic mutations (c.5405-7G > A, c.5405-13G > A, c.5405-17G > A and c.5405-18C > A) located in CHD7 IVS25. Combining computational in silico analysis, experimental branch-point determination and in vitro minigene assays, our study explains this mutation hot spot by a particular genomic context, including the weakness of the IVS25 natural acceptor-site and an unconventional lariat sequence localized outside the common 40 bp upstream the acceptor splice site. For each of the mutations reported here, bioinformatic tools indicated a newly created 3' splice site, of which the existence was confirmed using pSpliceExpress, an easy-to-use and reliable splicing reporter tool. Our study emphasizes the idea that combining these two complementary approaches could increase the efficiency of routine molecular diagnosis.

Eur J Med Genet ; 57(1): 5-14, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24239951


BACKGROUND: 15q11-q13 region is an area of well-known susceptibility to genomic rearrangements, in which several breakpoints have been identified (BP1-BP5). Duplication of this region is observed in two instances: presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC) derived of chromosome 15, or interstitial tandem duplication. Duplications are clinically characterized by a variable phenotype that includes central hypotonia, developmental delay, speech delay, seizure, minor dysmorphic features and autism. METHODS: Retrospective clinical and molecular study of 30 unrelated patients who were identified among the patients seen at the genetic clinics of Robert DEBRE hospital with microduplication of the 15q11-q13 region. RESULTS: Fifteen patients presented with a supernumerary marker derived from chromosome 15. In fourteen cases the SMC was of large size, encompassing the Prader-Willi/Angelman critical region. All but one was maternal in origin. One patient had a PWS-like phenotype in absence of maternal UPD. In one case, the marker had a smaller size and contained only the BP1-BP2 region. Fifteen patients presented with interstitial duplication. Four cases were inherited from phenotypically normal parents (3 maternal and 1 paternal). Phenotypic features were somewhat variable and 57% presented with autism. Twelve patients showed cerebral anomalies and 18 patients had an abnormal EEG with a typical, recognizable pattern of excessive diffuse rapid spikes in the waking record, similar to the pattern observed after benzodiazepine exposure. Duplication of paternally expressed genes MKRN3, MAGEL2 and NDN in two autistic patients without extra material of a neighboring region enhances their likelihood to be genes related to autism.

Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem