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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17551-17557, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647062

RESUMO

The rational creation of two-component conjugated polymer systems with high levels of phase purity in each component is challenging but crucial for realizing printed soft-matter electronics. Here, we report a mixed-flow microfluidic printing (MFMP) approach for two-component π-polymer systems that significantly elevates phase purity in bulk-heterojunction solar cells and thin-film transistors. MFMP integrates laminar and extensional flows using a specially microstructured shear blade, designed with fluid flow simulation tools to tune the flow patterns and induce shear, stretch, and pushout effects. This optimizes polymer conformation and semiconducting blend order as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS), photovoltaic response, and field effect mobility. For printed all-polymer (poly[(5,6-difluoro-2-octyl-2H-benzotriazole-4,7-diyl)-2,5-thiophenediyl[4,8-bis[5-(2-hexyldecyl)-2-thienyl]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl]) [J51]:(poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)}) [N2200]) solar cells, this approach enhances short-circuit currents and fill factors, with power conversion efficiency increasing from 5.20% for conventional blade coating to 7.80% for MFMP. Moreover, the performance of mixed polymer ambipolar [poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT):N2200] and semiconducting:insulating polymer unipolar (N2200:polystyrene) transistors is similarly enhanced, underscoring versatility for two-component π-polymer systems. Mixed-flow designs offer modalities for achieving high-performance organic optoelectronics via innovative printing methodologies.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633937

RESUMO

Self-assembled nanodielectrics (SANDs) consist of alternating layers of polarized phosphonate-functionalized azastibazolium π-electron (PAE) and high-k dielectric metal oxide (ZrO2 or HfOx) films. SANDs are desirable gate dielectrics materials for thin-film transistor applications because of their excellent properties such as low-temperature fabrication, large dielectric strength, and large capacitance. In this paper, we investigate the cross-plane thermal boundary conductance of SANDs using the frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) technique. First, we characterize the thermal conductance of PAE self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), inverted-PAE (IPAE) SAMs, and mixed PAE-IPAE SAMs, sandwiched between thin gold and silica (SiO2) films at the top and bottom surfaces. Next, we quantify the thermal conductance of SAND-n with different numbers (n) of PAE-ZrO2 layers and thicknesses ranging between 4.7 and 11.3 nm. From the FDTR measurements, we observe that the thermal boundary conductance of the SAMs can be tuned between 42.1 ± 4.6 MW/(m2 K) and 52.4 ± 2.5 MW/(m2 K), based on the relative density of the PAE and IPAE chromophores. In the SAND-n samples, we observe a monotonic decrease in the thermal conductance with increasing n. We use the measured thermal conductance data in a series resistance model to estimate a thermal interface conductance of 695 MW/(m2 K) for the contact between the PAE chromophore and the zirconium dioxide films, which is an order of magnitude larger than the SAMs. We attribute the improved thermal conductance to stronger adhesion between the PAE chromophore and the zirconium dioxide films, as compared to the weakly bonded SAMs to the gold and silicon dioxide films.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698577

RESUMO

Emerging non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) with crystalline domains enable high-performance bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Thermal annealing is known to enhance BHJ photoactive layer morphology and performance. However, the microscopic mechanism of annealing-induced performance enhancement is poorly understood in emerging NFAs, espe-cially regarding competing factors. Here, optimized thermal annealing of the model system PBDB-TF:Y6 (Y6 = 2,2'-((2Z,2'Z)-((12,13-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,9-diundecyl-12,13-dihydro-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-e]thieno[2",3'':4',5']thieno[2',3':4,5]pyrrolo[3,2-g]thieno[2',3':4,5]-thieno[3,2-b]indole-2,10-diyl)bis(methanylylidene))bis(5,6-difluoro-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-2,1-diylidene))dimalononitrile) decreases open circuit voltage (VOC) but increases the short circuit current (JSC) and fill factor (FF) such that the resulting power conversion efficiency (PCE) increases from 14% to 15% in ambient. Here we systematically investigate these thermal annealing effects through in-depth characteri-zations of carrier mobility, film morphology, charge photogeneration and recombination, using SCLC, GIXRD, AFM, XPS, NEXAFS, R-SoXS, TEM, STEM, fs/ns TA spectroscopy, 2DES, and impedance spectroscopy. Surprisingly, thermal annealing does not alter film crystallinity, nor R-SoXS characteristic size scale, relative average phase purity, nor TEM-imaged phase separation, but rather facilitates Y6 migration to the BHJ film top surface, changes the PBDB-TF/Y6 vertical phase separa-tion and intermixing, and reduces bottom surface roughness. While these morphology changes increase bimolecular re-combination (BR) and lower the free charge (FC) yield, they also increase the average of electron and hole mobility by at least two-fold. Importantly, the increased µh dominates and underlies the increased FF and PCE. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that Y6 molecules co-facially pack via their end-groups/cores, with the shortest π-π distance as close as 3.34 Å, clarifying out-of-plane π-face-on molecular orientation in the nano-crystalline BHJ domains. DFT analysis of Y6 crystals reveals hole/electron re-organization energies as low as 160/150 meV, large intermolecular electronic coupling integrals of 12.1 - 37.9 meV, ra-tionalizing the 3D electron transport and relatively high µe of 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1. Taken all together, this work clarifies the richness of thermal annealing effects in high-efficiency NFA solar cells and tasks for future materials design.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703807

RESUMO

The field-effect electron mobility of aqueous solution-processed indium gallium oxide (IGO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) is significantly enhanced by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) addition to the precursor solution, a >70-fold increase to 7.9 cm2/Vs. To understand the origin of this remarkable phenomenon, microstructure, electronic structure, and charge transport of IGO:PVA film are investigated by a battery of experimental and theoretical techniques, including In K-edge and Ga K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS); resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS); ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS); Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy; time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS); composition-/processing-dependent TFT properties; high-resolution solid-state 1H, 71Ga, and 115In NMR spectroscopy; and discrete Fourier transform (DFT) analysis with ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) liquid-quench simulations. The 71Ga{1H} rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) NMR and other data indicate that PVA achieves optimal H doping with a Ga···H distance of ∼3.4 Å and conversion from six- to four-coordinate Ga, which together suppress deep trap defect localization. This reduces metal-oxide polyhedral distortion, thereby increasing the electron mobility. Hydroxyl polymer doping thus offers a pathway for efficient H doping in green solvent-processed metal oxide films and the promise of high-performance, ultra-stable metal oxide semiconductor electronics with simple binary compositions.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539371

RESUMO

The frequency-dependent capacitance of low-temperature solution-processed metal oxide (MO) dielectrics typically yields unreliable and unstable thin-film transistor (TFT) performance metrics, which hinders the development of next-generation roll-to-roll MO electronics and obscures intercomparisons between processing methodologies. Here, capacitance values stable over a wide frequency range are achieved in low-temperature combustion-synthesized aluminum oxide (AlOx) dielectric films by fluoride doping. For an optimal F incorporation of ∼3.7 atomic % F, the F:AlOx film capacitance of 166 ± 11 nF/cm2 is stable over a 10-1-104 Hz frequency range, far more stable than that of neat AlOx films (capacitance = 336 ± 201 nF/cm2) which falls from 781 ± 85 nF/cm2 to 104 ± 4 nF/cm2 over this frequency range. Importantly, both n-type/inorganic and p-type/organic TFTs exhibit reliable electrical characteristics with minimum hysteresis when employing the F:AlOx dielectric with ∼3.7 atomic % F. Systematic characterization of film microstructural/compositional and electronic/dielectric properties by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-fight secondary ion mass spectrometry, cross-section transmission electron microscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy reveal that fluoride doping generates AlOF, which strongly reduces the mobile hydrogen content, suppressing polarization mechanisms at low frequencies. Thus, this work provides a broadly applicable anion doping strategy for the realization of high-performance solution-processed metal oxide dielectrics for both organic and inorganic electronics applications.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2405, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415064

RESUMO

Fiber-based electronics enabling lightweight and mechanically flexible/stretchable functions are desirable for numerous e-textile/e-skin optoelectronic applications. These wearable devices require low-cost manufacturing, high reliability, multifunctionality and long-term stability. Here, we report the preparation of representative classes of 3D-inorganic nanofiber network (FN) films by a blow-spinning technique, including semiconducting indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) and copper oxide, as well as conducting indium-tin oxide and copper metal. Specifically, thin-film transistors based on IGZO FN exhibit negligible performance degradation after one thousand bending cycles and exceptional room-temperature gas sensing performance. Owing to their great stretchability, these metal oxide FNs can be laminated/embedded on/into elastomers, yielding multifunctional single-sensing resistors as well as fully monolithically integrated e-skin devices. These can detect and differentiate multiple stimuli including analytes, light, strain, pressure, temperature, humidity, body movement, and respiratory functions. All of these FN-based devices exhibit excellent sensitivity, response time, and detection limits, making them promising candidates for versatile wearable electronics.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340439

RESUMO

A new organic small-molecule family comprising tetracyanoquinodimethane-substituted quinoidal dithioalky(SR)terthiophenes (DSTQs) (DSTQ-6 (1); SR = SC6H13, DSTQ-10 (2); SR = SC10H21, DSTQ-14 (3); SR = SC10H21) was synthesized and contrasted with a nonthioalkylated analogue (DRTQ-14 (4); R = C14H29). The physical, electrochemical, and electrical properties of these new compounds are thoroughly investigated. Optimized geometries obtained from density functional theory calculations and single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveal the planarity of the SR-containing DSTQ core. DSTQs pack in a slipped π-π stacked two-dimensional arrangement, with a short intermolecular stacking distance of 3.55 Å and short intermolecular S···N contacts of 3.56 Å. Thin-film morphological analysis by grazing incident X-ray diffraction reveals that all DSTQ molecules are packed in an edge-on fashion on the substrate. The favorable molecular packing, the high core planarity, and very low lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level (-4.2 eV) suggest that DSTQs could be electron-transporting semiconductors. Organic field-effect transistors based on solution-sheared DSTQ-14 exhibit the highest electron mobility of 0.77 cm2 V-1 s-1 with good ambient stability, which is the highest value reported to date for such a solution process terthiophene-based small molecular semiconductor. These results demonstrate that the device performance of solution-sheared DSTQs can be improved by side chain engineering.

8.
iScience ; 23(4): 100981, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224434

RESUMO

Environment-friendly manufacturing and mechanical robustness are imperative for commercialization of flexible OSCs as green-energy source, especially in portable and wearable self-powered flexible electronics. Although, the commonly adopted PEDOT:PSS electrodes that are treated with severely corrosive and harmful acid lack foldability. Herein, efficient folding-flexible OSCs with highly conductive and foldable PEDOT:PSS electrodes processed with eco-friendly cost-effective acid and polyhydroxy compound are demonstrated. The acid treatment endows PEDOT:PSS electrodes with high conductivity. Meanwhile, polyhydroxy compound doping contributes to excellent bending flexibility and foldability due to the better film adhesion between PEDOT:PSS and PET substrate. Accordingly, folding-flexible OSCs with high efficiency of 14.17% were achieved. After 1,000 bending or folding cycles, the device retained over 90% or 80% of its initial efficiency, respectively. These results represent one of the best performances for ITO-free flexible OSC reported so far and demonstrate a novel approach toward commercialized efficient and foldable green-processed OSCs.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053356

RESUMO

Mechanically flexible films of the highly crystalline core-cyanated perylenediimide (PDIF-CN2) molecular semiconductor are achieved via a novel grain boundary plasticization strategy in which a specially designed polymeric binder (PB) is used to connect crystallites at the grain boundaries. The new PB has a naphthalenediimide-dithiophene π-conjugated backbone end-functionalized with PDI units. In contrast to conventional polymer-small molecule blends where distinct phase separation occurs, this blend film with plasticized grain boundaries exhibits a morphology typical of homogeneous PDIF-CN2 films which is preserved upon bending at radii as small as 2 mm. Thin-film transistors fabricated with PB/PDIF-CN2 blends exhibit substantial electron mobilities even after repeated bending. This design represents a new approach to realizing flexible and textured semiconducting π-electron films with good mechanical and charge transport properties.

10.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078300

RESUMO

Layered indium selenide (InSe) is an emerging two-dimensional semiconductor that has shown significant promise for high-performance transistors and photodetectors. The range of optoelectronic applications for InSe can potentially be broadened by forming mixed-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures with zero-dimensional molecular systems that are widely employed in organic electronics and photovoltaics. Here, we report the spatially resolved investigation of photoinduced charge separation between InSe and two molecules (C70 and C8-BTBT) using scanning tunneling microscopy combined with laser illumination. We experimentally and computationally show that InSe forms type-II and type-I heterojunctions with C70 and C8-BTBT, respectively, due to an interplay of charge transfer and dielectric screening at the interface. Laser-excited scanning tunneling spectroscopy reveals a ∼0.25 eV decrease in the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of C70 with optical illumination. Furthermore, photoluminescence spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy indicate that electron transfer from InSe to C70 in the type-II heterojunction induces a photovoltage that quantitatively matches the observed downshift in the tunneling spectra. In contrast, no significant changes are observed upon optical illumination in the type-I heterojunction formed between InSe and C8-BTBT. Density functional theory calculations further show that, despite the weak coupling between the molecular species and InSe, the band alignment of these mixed-dimensional heterostructures strongly differs from the one suggested by the ionization potential and electronic affinities of the isolated components. Self-energy-corrected density functional theory indicates that these effects are the result of the combination of charge redistribution at the interface and heterogeneous dielectric screening of the electron-electron interactions in the heterostructure. In addition to providing specific insight for mixed-dimensional InSe-organic van der Waals heterostructures, this work establishes a general experimental methodology for studying localized charge transfer at the molecular scale that is applicable to other photoactive nanoscale systems.

11.
Sci Adv ; 5(11): eaax8801, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803836

RESUMO

Direct full-color photodetectors without sophisticated color filters and interferometric optics have attracted considerable attention for widespread applications. However, difficulties of combining various multispectral semiconductors and improving photon transfer efficiency for high-performance optoelectronic devices have impeded the translation of these platforms into practical realization. Here, we report a low-temperature (<150°C) fabricated two-dimensionally pixelized full-color photodetector by using monolithic integration of various-sized colloidal quantum dots (QDs) and amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide semiconductors. By introducing trap-reduced chelating chalcometallate ligands, highly efficient charge carrier transport and photoresistor-free fine-patterning of QD layers were successfully realized, exhibiting extremely high photodetectivity (>4.2 × 1017 Jones) and photoresponsivity (>8.3 × 103 A W-1) in a broad range of wavelengths (365 to 1310 nm). On the basis of these technologies, a wavelength discriminable phototransistor circuit array (>600 phototransistors) was implemented on a skin-like soft platform, which is expected to be a versatile and scalable approach for wide spectral image sensors and human-oriented biological devices.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5502, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796731

RESUMO

Nanostructured molecular semiconductor films are promising Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) platforms for both fundamental and technological research. Here, we report that a nanostructured film of the small molecule DFP-4T, consisting of a fully π-conjugated diperfluorophenyl-substituted quaterthiophene structure, demonstrates a very large Raman enhancement factor (>105) and a low limit of detection (10-9 M) for the methylene blue probe molecule. This data is comparable to those reported for the best inorganic semiconductor- and even intrinsic plasmonic metal-based SERS platforms. Photoluminescence spectroscopy and computational analysis suggest that both charge-transfer energy and effective molecular interactions, leading to a small but non-zero oscillator strength in the charge-transfer state between the organic semiconductor film and the analyte molecule, are required to achieve large SERS enhancement factors and high molecular sensitivities in these systems. Our results provide not only a considerable experimental advancement in organic SERS figure-of-merits but also a guidance for the molecular design of more sensitive SERS systems.

13.
Adv Mater ; 31(46): e1905161, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566274

RESUMO

Currently, n-type acceptors in high-performance all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) are dominated by imide-functionalized polymers, which typically show medium bandgap. Herein, a novel narrow-bandgap polymer, poly(5,6-dicyano-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-alt-indacenodithiophene) (DCNBT-IDT), based on dicyanobenzothiadiazole without an imide group is reported. The strong electron-withdrawing cyano functionality enables DCNBT-IDT with n-type character and, more importantly, alleviates the steric hindrance associated with typical imide groups. Compared to the benchmark poly(naphthalene diimide-alt-bithiophene) (N2200), DCNBT-IDT shows a narrower bandgap (1.43 eV) with a much higher absorption coefficient (6.15 × 104 cm-1 ). Such properties are elusive for polymer acceptors to date, eradicating the drawbacks inherited in N2200 and other high-performance polymer acceptors. When blended with a wide-bandgap polymer donor, the DCNBT-IDT-based all-PSCs achieve a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 8.32% with a small energy loss of 0.53 eV and a photoresponse of up to 870 nm. Such efficiency greatly outperforms those of N2200 (6.13%) and the naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based analog NDI-IDT (2.19%). This work breaks the long-standing bottlenecks limiting materials innovation of n-type polymers, which paves a new avenue for developing polymer acceptors with improved optoelectronic properties and heralds a brighter future of all-PSCs.

14.
Chemphyschem ; 20(20): 2608-2626, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529569

RESUMO

Accurate single-crystal X-ray diffraction data offer a unique opportunity to compare and contrast the atomistic details of bulk heterojunction photovoltaic small-molecule acceptor structure and packing, as well as provide an essential starting point for computational electronic structure and charge transport analysis. Herein, we report diffraction-derived crystal structures and computational analyses on the n-type semiconductors which enable some of the highest efficiency organic solar cells produced to date, 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (ITIC) and seven derivatives (including three new crystal structures: 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-propylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (ITIC-C3), 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(3-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (m-ITIC-C6), and 3,9-bis(2-methylene-((3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-6,7-difluoro)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-butylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (ITIC-C4-4F). IDTT acceptors typically pack in a face-to-face fashion with π-π distances ranging from 3.28-3.95 Å. Additionally, edge-to-face packing is observed with S⋯π interactions as short as 3.21-3.24 Å. Moreover, ITIC end group identities and side chain substituents influence the nature and strength of noncovalent interactions (e. g. H-bonding, π-π) and thus correlate with the observed packing motif, electronic structure, and charge transport properties of the crystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal relatively large nearest-neighbor intermolecular π-π electronic couplings (5.85-56.8 meV) and correlate the nature of the band structure with the dispersion interactions in the single crystals and core-end group polarization effects. Overall, this combined experimental and theoretical work reveals key insights into crystal engineering strategies for indacenodithienothiophene (IDTT) acceptors, as well as general design rules for high-efficiency post-fullerene small molecule acceptors.

15.
Adv Mater ; 31(40): e1903239, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402528

RESUMO

Recent perovskite solar cell (PSC) advances have pursued strategies for reducing interfacial energetic mismatches to mitigate energy losses, as well as to minimize interfacial and bulk defects and ion vacancies to maximize charge transfer. Here nonconjugated multi-zwitterionic small-molecule electrolytes (NSEs) are introduced, which act not only as charge-extracting layers for barrier-free charge collection at planar triple cation PSC cathodes but also passivate charged defects at the perovskite bulk/interface via a spontaneous bottom-up passivation effect. Implementing these synergistic properties affords NSE-based planar PSCs that deliver a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 21.18% with a maximum VOC = 1.19 V, in combination with suppressed hysteresis and enhanced environmental, thermal, and light-soaking stability. Thus, this work demonstrates that the bottom-up, simultaneous interfacial and bulk trap passivation using NSE modifiers is a promising strategy to overcome outstanding issues impeding further PSC advances.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(34): 13410-13420, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379156

RESUMO

Achieving efficient polymer solar cells (PSCs) requires a structurally optimal donor-acceptor heterojunction morphology. Here we report the combined experimental and theoretical characterization of a benzodithiophene-benzothiadiazole donor polymer series (PBTZF4-R; R = alkyl substituent) blended with the non-fullerene acceptor ITIC-Th and analyze the effects of substituent dimensions on blend morphology, charge transport, carrier dynamics, and PSC metrics. Varying substituent dimensions has a pronounced effect on the blend morphology with a direct link between domain purity, to some extent domain dimensions, and charge generation and collection. The polymer with the smallest alkyl substituent yields the highest PSC power conversion efficiency (PCE, 11%), reflecting relatively small, high-purity domains and possibly benefiting from "matched" donor polymer-small molecule acceptor orientations. The distinctive morphologies arising from the substituents are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations which reveal that substituent dimensions dictate a well-defined set of polymer conformations, in turn driving chain aggregation and, ultimately, the various film morphologies and mixing with acceptor small molecules. A straightforward energetic parameter explains the experimental polymer domain morphological trends, hence PCE, and suggests strategies for substituent selection to optimize PSC materials morphologies.

17.
Chem Mater ; 31(9): 3395-3406, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296974

RESUMO

We investigated the influence of backbone regiochemistry on the conductivity, charge density, and polaron structure in the widely studied n-doped donor-acceptor polymer poly[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenediimide-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene) [P(NDI2OD-T2)]. In contrast to classic semicrystalline polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), the regioirregular (RI) structure of the naphthalenediimide (NDI)-bithiophene (T2) backbone does not alter the intramolecular steric demand of the chain versus the regioregular (RR) polymer, yielding RI-P(NDI2OD-T2) with similar energetics and optical features as its RR counterpart. By combining the electrical, UV-vis/infrared, X-ray diffraction, and electron paramagnetic resonance data and density functional theory calculations, we quantitatively characterized the conductivity, aggregation, crystallinity, and charge density, and simulated the polaron structures, molecular vibrations, and spin density distribution of RR-/RI-P(NDI2OD-T2). Importantly, we observed that RI-P(NDI2OD-T2) can be doped to a greater extent compared to its RR counterpart. This finding is remarkable and contrasts benchmark P3HT, allowing us to uniquely study the role of regiochemistry on the charge-transport properties of n-doped donor-acceptor polymers.

18.
Adv Mater ; 31(28): e1901408, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106490

RESUMO

Considerable progress in materials development and device integration for mechanically bendable and stretchable optoelectronics will broaden the application of "Internet-of-Things" concepts to a myriad of new applications. When addressing the needs associated with the human body, such as the detection of mechanical functions, monitoring of health parameters, and integration with human tissues, optoelectronic devices, interconnects/circuits enabling their functions, and the core passive components from which the whole system is built must sustain different degrees of mechanical stresses. Herein, the basic characteristics and performance of several of these devices are reported, particularly focusing on the conducting element constituting them. Among these devices, strain sensors of different types, energy storage elements, and power/energy storage and generators are included. Specifically, the advances during the past 3 years are reported, wherein mechanically flexible conducting elements are fabricated from (0D, 1D, and 2D) conducting nanomaterials from metals (e.g., Au nanoparticles, Ag flakes, Cu nanowires), carbon nanotubes/nanofibers, 2D conductors (e.g., graphene, MoS2 ), metal oxides (e.g., Zn nanorods), and conducting polymers (e.g., poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrene sulfonate), polyaniline) in combination with passive fibrotic and elastomeric materials enabling, after integration, the so-called electronic skins and electronic textiles.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(19): 9230-9238, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004056

RESUMO

Metal oxide (MO) semiconductor thin films prepared from solution typically require multiple hours of thermal annealing to achieve optimal lattice densification, efficient charge transport, and stable device operation, presenting a major barrier to roll-to-roll manufacturing. Here, we report a highly efficient, cofuel-assisted scalable combustion blade-coating (CBC) process for MO film growth, which involves introducing both a fluorinated fuel and a preannealing step to remove deleterious organic contaminants and promote complete combustion. Ultrafast reaction and metal-oxygen-metal (M-O-M) lattice condensation then occur within 10-60 s at 200-350 °C for representative MO semiconductor [indium oxide (In2O3), indium-zinc oxide (IZO), indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO)] and dielectric [aluminum oxide (Al2O3)] films. Thus, wafer-scale CBC fabrication of IGZO-Al2O3 thin-film transistors (TFTs) (60-s annealing) with field-effect mobilities as high as ∼25 cm2 V-1 s-1 and negligible threshold voltage deterioration in a demanding 4,000-s bias stress test are realized. Combined with polymer dielectrics, the CBC-derived IGZO TFTs on polyimide substrates exhibit high flexibility when bent to a 3-mm radius, with performance bending stability over 1,000 cycles.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(7): 3274-3287, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672702

RESUMO

Indacenodithienothiophene (IDTT)-based postfullerene electron acceptors, such as ITIC (2,2'-[[6,6,12,12-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-6,12-dihydrodithieno[2,3- d:2',3'- d']-s-indaceno[1,2- b:5,6- b']dithiophene-2,8-diyl]-bis[methylidyne(3-oxo-1 H-indene-2,1(3 H)-diylidene)]]bis[propanedinitrile]), have become synonymous with high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). Here we systematically investigate the influence of end-group fluorination density and positioning on the physicochemical properties, single-crystal packing, end-group redistribution propensity, and BHJ photovoltaic performance of a series of ITIC variants, ITIC- nF ( n = 0, 2, 3, 4, and 6). Increasing n from 0 → 6 contracts the optical bandgap, but only marginally lowers the LUMO for n > 4. This yields enhanced photovoltaic short-circuit current density and good open-circuit voltage, so that ITIC-6F achieves the highest PCE of the series, approaching 12% in blends with the PBDB-TF donor polymer. Single-crystal diffraction reveals that the ITIC- nF molecules cofacially interleave with ITIC-6F having the shortest π-π distance of 3.28 Å. This feature together with ZINDO-level computed intermolecular electronic coupling integrals as high as 57 meV, and B3LYP/DZP-level reorganization energies as low as 147 meV, rival or surpass the corresponding values for fullerenes, ITIC-0F, and ITIC-4F, and track a positive correlation between the ITIC- nF space-charge limited electron mobility and n. Finally, a heretofore unrecognized solution-phase redistribution process between the 2-(3-oxo-indan-1-ylidene)-malononitrile-derived end-groups (EGs) of IDTT-based NFAs, i.e., EG1-IDTT-EG1 + EG2-IDTT-EG2 ⇌ 2 EG1-IDTT-EG2, with implications for the entire ITIC PSC field, is identified and mechanistically characterized, and the effects on PSC performance are assessed.

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