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1.
World J Clin Oncol ; 12(11): 1037-1046, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-clear cell (ncc) metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) has dismal results with standard systemic therapies and a generally worse prognosis when compared to its clear-cell counterpart. New systemic combination therapies have emerged for metastatic RCC (mRCC), but the pivotal phase III trials excluded patients with nccRCC, which constitute about 30% of metastatic RCC cases. AIM: To provide a piece of real-life evidence on the use of pazopanib in this patient subgroup. METHODS: The present study is a multicenter retrospective observational analysis aiming to assess the activity, efficacy, and safety of pazopanib as first-line therapy for advanced nccRCC patients treated in a real-life setting. RESULTS: Overall, 48 patients were included. At the median follow-up of 40.6 mo, the objective response rate was 27.1%, the disease control rate was 83.3%, and the median progression-free survival and overall survival were 12.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.6-20.9) and 27.7 (95%CI: 18.2-37.1) mo, respectively. Grade 3 adverse events occurred in 20% of patients, and no grade 4 or 5 toxicities were found. CONCLUSION: Pazopanib should be considered as a good first-line option for metastatic RCC with variant histology.

2.
Biomedicines ; 9(12)2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944576

RESUMO

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease that has a variable clinical presentation and unpredictable behavior. Until recently, therapeutic options were limited. Insights into the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling have allowed the increased use of targeted treatments. Before the advent of drugs that interfere with this pathway, investigations concerning the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib opened the way to a rationale-based therapeutic approach to the disease. Imatinib block the binding site of ATP in the BCR/ABL protein and is also a platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and a KIT (CD117) kinase inhibitor. A case of refractory LCH with brain involvement was reported to be successfully treated with imatinib. Thereafter, we further explored the role of this tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The present study is composed of an immunohistochemical evaluation of PDGFRß expression and a clinical evaluation of imatinib in a series of LCH patients. In the first part, a series of 10 samples obtained from LCH patients was examined and a strong immunohistochemistry expression of PDGFRß was found in 40% of the cases. In the clinical part of the study, five patients were enrolled. Long-lasting disease control was obtained. These results may suggest a potential role for this drug in the current age.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 56-63, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical data suggest that docetaxel and enzalutamide interfere with androgen receptor translocation and signalling. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of their concurrent administration in the first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, phase II trial, previously untreated mCRPC patients were randomised 1:1 to receive eight 21-d courses of docetaxel 75 mg/m2, oral prednisone 5 mg twice daily and oral enzalutamide 160 mg/d (arm DE), or the same treatment without enzalutamide (arm D). The primary end-point was the percentage of patients without investigator-assessed disease progression 6 months after the first docetaxel administration. RESULTS: The 246 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive docetaxel, prednisone and enzalutamide (n = 120) or docetaxel and prednisone (n = 126). The 6-month progression rate was 12.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.1-20.6) in arm DE and 27.8% (95% CI 22.8-39.4) in arm D (chi-squared test 10.01; P = 0.002). The most frequent grade III-IV adverse events were fatigue (12.5% in arm DE versus 5.6% in arm D), febrile neutropenia (9.3% versus 4.0%) and neutropenia (7.6% versus 5.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of enzalutamide and docetaxel appears to be more clinically beneficial than docetaxel alone in previously untreated mCRPC patients, although serious adverse events were more frequent. Our findings suggest that first-line treatment with this combination could lead to an additional clinical benefit when prompt and prolonged disease control is simultaneously required. Clearly, these results should be considered cautiously because of the study's phase II design and the absence of an overall survival benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT 2014-000175-43 - NCT02453009.

4.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440678

RESUMO

In contrast to several tumors whose prognoses are radically affected by novel immunotherapeutic approaches and/or targeted therapies, the outcomes of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poor. The underlying cirrhosis that is frequently associated with it complicates medical treatment and often determines survival. The landscape of HCC treatment had included sorafenib as the only drug available for ten years, until 2018, when lenvatinib was approved for treatment. The second-line systemic treatments available for hepatocellular carcinoma include regorafenib, cabozantinib, ramucirumab, and, more recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, the median survival remains below 15 months. The results obtained in clinics should be interpreted whilst considering the peculiar role of the liver as an immune organ. A healthy liver microenvironment ordinarily experiences stimulation by gut-derived antigens. This setup elucidates the response to chronic inflammation and the altered balance between tolerance and immune response in HCC development. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms involved in HCC pathogenesis, with a special focus on the immune implications, along with current and future clinical perspectives.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Evasão Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Front Nutr ; 8: 703392, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422883

RESUMO

Glioblastoma is the most frequent and aggressive brain cancer in adults. While precision medicine in oncology has produced remarkable progress in several malignancies, treatment of glioblastoma has still limited available options and a dismal prognosis. After first-line treatment with surgery followed by radiochemotherapy based on the 2005 STUPP trial, no significant therapeutic advancements have been registered. While waiting that genomic characterization moves from a prognostic/predictive value into therapeutic applications, practical and easy-to-use approaches are eagerly awaited. Medical reports on the role of the ketogenic diet in adult neurological disorders and in glioblastoma suggest that nutritional interventions may condition outcomes and be associated with standard therapies. The acceptable macronutrient distribution of daily calories in a regular diet are 45-65% of daily calories from carbohydrates, 20-35% from fats, and 10-35% from protein. Basically, the ketogenic diet follows an approach based on low carbohydrates/high fat intake. In carbohydrates starvation, body energy derives from fat storage which is used to produce ketones and act as glucose surrogates. The ketogenic diet has several effects: metabolic interference with glucose and insulin and IGF-1 pathways, influence on neurotransmission, reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation, direct effect on gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. Apart from these central effects working at the synapsis level, recent evidence also suggests a role for microbiome and gut-brain axis induced by a ketogenic diet. This review focuses on rationales supporting the ketogenic diet and clinical studies will be reported, looking at future possible perspectives.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066144

RESUMO

The anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab is a key drug for the treatment of HER2-positive gastric cancer (GC); however, its activity is often limited by the onset of resistance and mechanisms of resistance are still poorly understood. Several targeted agents showed synergistic activity by concomitant use with trastuzumab in vitro and are under clinical investigation. The aim of this study was to assess the antitumor activity of duligotuzumab, an anti HER3/EGFR antibody or ipatasertib, an AKT inhibitor, combined with trastuzumab in a panel of HER2-positive human gastric cancer cells (GCC), and the efficacy of such combinations in HER2-resistant cells. We have assessed the efficacy of duligotuzumab or ipatasertib and trastuzumab in combination, analyzing proliferation, migration and apoptosis and downstream intracellular signaling in vitro on human HER2-positive GCC (NCI-N87, OE33, OE19) and in negative HER2 GCC (MKN28). We observed a reduction of proliferation, migration and apoptotic rate in HER2-positive OE33, OE19 and N87 cell lines with the combination of duligotuzumab or ipatasertib plus trastuzumab. In particular, in OE33 and OE19 cell lines, the same combined treatment inhibited the activation of proteins downstream of HER2, HER3, AKT and MAPK pathways. Targeting both HER2 and HER3, or HER2 and AKT, results in an improved antitumor effect on HER2-positive GCC.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068344

RESUMO

Soft-tissue sarcomas are rare tumors characterized by pathogenetic, morphological, and clinical intrinsic variability. Median survival of patients with advanced tumors are usually chemo- and radio-resistant, and standard treatments yield low response rates and poor survival results. The identification of defined genomic alterations in sarcoma could represent the premise for targeted treatments. Summarizing, soft-tissue sarcomas can be differentiated into histotypes with reciprocal chromosomal translocations, with defined oncogenic mutations and complex karyotypes. If the latter are improbably approached with targeted treatments, many suggest that innovative therapies interfering with the identified fusion oncoproteins and altered pathways could be potentially resolutive. In most cases, the characteristic genetic signature is discouragingly defined as "undruggable", which poses a challenge for the development of novel pharmacological approaches. In this review, a summary of genomic alterations recognized in most common soft-tissue sarcoma is reported together with current and future therapeutic opportunities.

8.
Future Oncol ; 17(25): 3291-3299, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098744

RESUMO

Despite recent advances, treatment options for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) progressing after next-generation hormonal agents (NHAs) are limited and provide only modest survival benefit. Thus, an unmet need remains for mCRPC patients after treatment with targeted endocrine therapy or NHA therapy. Pembrolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody for PD-1, has been found to have activity as monotherapy in patients with mCRPC and as combination therapy in a Phase Ib/II study with docetaxel and prednisone/prednisolone for patients previously treated with enzalutamide or abiraterone acetate. The aim of the randomized, double-blind, Phase III KEYNOTE-921 study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab plus docetaxel in patients with mCRPC who were previously treated with an NHA. Clinical trial registration: NCT03834506 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

10.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 19(5): e286-e298, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958297

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a deadly disease. Enzalutamide is an oral second-generation anti-androgen that is active in mCRPC. Circulating tumor cells (CTC) count correlates with overall survival (OS) in mCRPC, whereas detection of the androgen-receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) in CTC predicts poor response to oral second-generation anti-androgens. Also, loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) in CTC is a biomarker of poor prognosis in mCRPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this translational study, we employed flow cytometry to assess total, PTEN-, and AR-V7+ CTC count per 7.5 mL of whole blood in a prospective cohort of patients with mCRPC receiving enzalutamide. RESULTS: CTCs were assessed in a total of 45 men with mCRPC at baseline and at 12 weeks. Overall, CTC, PTEN- CTC, and AR-V7+ CTC detection rate was high, at baseline, with 84.4%, 71.1%, and 51.1% of samples showing at least 1 cell/7.5-mL blood, respectively, and after 3 months, with 93.3%, 64.4%, and 77.7% of samples showing at least 1 cell/7.5-mL blood, respectively. Median radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and OS were 6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-9) and 14.3 (95% CI, 12.8-20.3) months, respectively. Median (interquartile range) total CTC count at baseline was 5 (3; 8), whereas median (interquartile range) PTEN- CTC count was 2 (0; 4) and median (interquartile range) AR-V7+ CTC count was 1 (0; 3). At baseline, ≥ 5 versus < 5 total CTC count was associated with worse rPFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.35; 95% CI, 1.14-4.84; P= .021) and OS (HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.45-6.54; P = .003), whereas ≥ 2 versus < 2 PTEN- CTC count was associated with worse rPFS (HR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.8-8.72; P= .001) and OS (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.12-5; P= .025). Finally, ≥ 1 versus < 1 AR-V7+ CTC count was also associated with worse rPFS (HR, 5.05; 95% CI, 2.4-10.64; P< .001) and OS (HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.1-4.58; P= .026). CONCLUSIONS: Despite multiple limitations, including the small sample size, our preliminary study suggests that assessment of CTC via flow cytometry may provide potentially useful prognostic and predictive information in advanced prostate cancer. Further studies are warranted. Micro-Abstract: In this study, men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, scheduled to start enzalutamide, were assessed for circulating tumor cell count and molecular characterization (total, PTEN-, and AR-V7+ circulating tumor cell count) by the use of flow cytometry. We found that flow cytometry could be used to enumerate circulating tumor cells, but also to assess molecular biomarkers on their surface.


Assuntos
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Benzamidas , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , Nitrilas , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Feniltioidantoína , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Isoformas de Proteínas , Receptores Androgênicos
11.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 16(1): 22, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection represents one of the main etiologic pathways of penile carcinogenesis in approximately 30-50 % of cases. Several techniques for the detection of HPV are currently available including Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques, DNA and RNA in situ hybridization (ISH), p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC). The multiplex HPV RNA ISH/p16 IHC is a novel technique for the simultaneous detection of HPV E6/E7 transcripts and p16INK4a overexpression on the same slide in a single assay. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the discrepancy of p16 IHC expression relatively to HPV RNA ISH in penile cancer tissue. METHODS: We collected a series of 60 PCs. HPV has been analysed through the RNA ISH, p16 IHC and the multiplex HPV RNA ISH/p16 IHC. RESULTS: The multiplex HPV RNA ISH /p16 IHC results in the series were in complete agreement with the previous results obtained through the classic p16 IHC and HPV RNA scope carried out on two different slides. The multiplex HPV RNA ISH /p16 IHC showed that HPV positivity in our series is more frequently in usual squamous cell carcinoma than in special histotypes (19 out of 60 - 15 %- versus 6 out of 60 - 10 %-), in high-grade than in moderate/low grade carcinomas (6 out of 60 - 10 %- versus 4 out of 60 - 6.7 %-). In addition, our data revealed that in 5 out of 20 cases with p16 high intensity expression is not associated with HPV RNA ISH positivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize that the use of p16 as a surrogate of HPV positivity was unsuccessful in approximatively 8 % of cases analysed in our series. Indeed, p16 IHC showed a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 71 %, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 54 % and a negative predictive value of 100 %; when considering high intensity, p16 IHC showed a sensitivity of 100 %, a specificity of 89 %, with a PPV of 75 % and NPV of 100 %. Since HPV positivity could represent a relevant prognostic and predictive value, the correct characterization offered by this approach appears to be of paramount importance.

14.
In Vivo ; 35(3): 1849-1856, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of intra-fractional monitoring and correction of prostate position with the Image Guided Radio Therapy (IGRT) system can increase the spatial accuracy of dose delivery. Clarity is a system used for intrafraction prostate-motion management, it provides a real-time visualization of prostate with a transperineal ultrasound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Clarity-IGRT on proper intrafraction alignment and monitoring, its impact on Planning Tumor Volume margin and on urinary and rectal toxicity in elderly patients not eligible for surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five elderly prostate cancer patients, median age=75 years (range=75-90 years) were treated with Volumetric Radiotherapy and Clarity-IGRT using 3 different schemes: A) 64.5/72 Gray (Gy) in 30 fractions on prostate and seminal vesicles (6 patients); B) 35 Gy in 5 fractions on prostate and seminal vesicles (12 patients); C): 35 Gy in 5 fractions on prostate (7 patients). Ultrasound identification of the overlapped structures to the detected ones during simulation has been used in each session. A specific software calculates direction and entity of necessary shift to obtain the perfect match. The average misalignment in the three-dimensional space has been determined and shown in a box-plot. RESULTS: All patients completed treatment with mild-moderate toxicity. During treatment, genitourinary toxicity was 32% Grade 1; 4% Grade 2, rectal was 4% Grade 1. At follow-up of 3 months, genitourinary toxicity was 20% Grade 1; 4% Grade 2, rectal toxicity was 4% Grade 2. At follow-up of 6 months, genitourinary toxicity was 4% Grade 1; 4% Grade 2. Rectal toxicity was 4% Grade 2. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy with the Clarity System allows a reduction of PTV margins, the amount of fractions can be reduced increasing the total dose, not exacerbating urinary and rectal toxicity with greater patient's compliance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Ultrassonografia
15.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm ; 36(5): 391-396, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769088

RESUMO

Background: The retrospective studies that have so far described the outcomes of the sequential use of life-prolonging agents (LPAs) did not include metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients who received radium-223 (223Ra) as part of their treatment. Consequently, it is not known whether including 223Ra in the therapeutic sequence has an impact on cumulative survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate this impact by comparing the cumulative overall survival (OS) in two series of mCRPC patients sequentially treated with two or three LPAs after first-line docetaxel (DOC), including 223Ra and not. Materials and Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of mCRPC patients with bone involvement alone who received two or three LPAs (including 223Ra) after first-line DOC. The control group was a contemporary series of mCRPC patients with bone involvement alone treated with sequences of two or three LPAs other than 223Ra after first-line DOC. Results: Median cumulative OS was 40.6 months in the 223Ra group of 78 patients and 36.2 months in the non-223Ra group of 186 patients (p = 0.08). OS outcomes were significantly influenced by the number of treatment lines, and baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) and prostate-specific antigen levels. Conclusions: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study designed to evaluate the impact of introducing 223Ra in the treatment sequences for mCRPC patients, and the results show that its use does not negatively affect cumulative OS.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Rádio (Elemento)/uso terapêutico , Acetato de Abiraterona/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Terapia Combinada , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilas/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taxoides/administração & dosagem
16.
Future Oncol ; 17(7): 807-815, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508980

RESUMO

Background: Radium 223 (RA223) is currently administered as part of a therapeutic sequence with the other life-prolonging agents (LPAs) for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Patients & methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients who had received at least three LPAs including RA223. Results: Median overall survival (OS) from the start of first-line treatment was 39.8 months, with the patients who completed all six planned courses of RA223 having a longer OS than those who did not (53.2 vs 29.5 months; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Our study confirms the activity of RA223 regardless of the treatment line in which it is administered and suggests that patient selection plays a central role in maximizing this activity.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Rádio (Elemento)/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Seleção de Pacientes , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256059

RESUMO

Severe disease commonly manifests as a systemic inflammatory process. Inflammation is associated withthe enhanced production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and with a marked reduction in the plasma concentrations of protective antioxidant molecules. This imbalance gives rise to oxidative stress, which is greater in patients with more severe conditions such as sepsis, cancer, cardiovascular disease, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and burns. In these patients, oxidative stress can trigger cell, tissue, and organ damage, thus increasing morbidity and mortality. Ascorbic acid (ASC) is a key nutrient thatserves as an antioxidant and a cofactor for numerous enzymatic reactions. However, humans, unlike most mammals, are unable to synthesize it. Consequently, ASC must be obtained through dietary sources, especially fresh fruit and vegetables. The value of administering exogenous micronutrients, to reestablish antioxidant concentrations in patients with severe disease, has been recognized for decades. Despite the suggestion that ASC supplementation may reduce oxidative stress and prevent several chronic conditions, few large, randomized clinical trials have tested it in patients with severe illness. This article reviews the recent literature on the pharmacological profile of ASC and the role of its supplementation in critically ill patients.

18.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920968725, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193831

RESUMO

Background: Real-world data on chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with abiraterone plus prednisone are limited, largely deriving from small retrospective studies. Methods: ABitude is an Italian, observational, prospective, multicenter study of mCRPC patients receiving abiraterone plus prednisone in clinical practice. Chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC patients were consecutively enrolled at abiraterone start (February 2016 to June 2017) and are being followed for 3 years, with evaluation approximately every 6 months. Several clinical and patients reported outcomes were examined. Results: In this second interim analysis, among 481 enrolled patients, 453 were evaluable for analyses. At baseline, the median age was 77 years and ~69% of patients had comorbidities (mainly cardiovascular diseases). Metastases were located mainly at bones and lymph nodes; 8.4% of patients had visceral metastases. During a median follow-up of 18 months, 1- and 2-year probability of radiographic progression-free survival were 73.9% and 56.2%, respectively; the corresponding rates for overall survival were 87.3% and 70.4%. In multivariable analyses, the number of bone metastases significantly affected radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival. During abiraterone plus prednisone treatment, 65% of patients had a ⩾50% prostate-specific antigen decline, and quality of life remained appreciably high. Among symptomatic patients according to the Brief Pain Inventory) (32%), scores significantly declined after 6 months of treatment. Overall, eight patients (1.7%) had serious adverse reactions to abiraterone. Conclusions: Abiraterone plus prednisone is effective and safe for chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC patients in clinical practice.

20.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(11): 1513-1525, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the CARD study, cabazitaxel significantly improved radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival versus abiraterone or enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel and the alternative androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. Here, we report the quality-of-life outcomes from the CARD study. METHODS: CARD was a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 4 study involving 62 clinical sites across 13 European countries. Patients (aged ≥18 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤2) with confirmed metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were randomly assigned (1:1) by means of an interactive voice-web response system to receive cabazitaxel (25 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks, 10 mg daily prednisone, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) versus abiraterone (1000 mg orally once daily plus 5 mg prednisone twice daily) or enzalutamide (160 mg orally daily). Stratification factors were ECOG performance status, time to disease progression on the previous androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor, and timing of the previous androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. The primary endpoint was radiographic progression-free survival; here, we present more detailed analyses of pain (assessed using item 3 on the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form [BPI-SF]) and symptomatic skeletal events, alongside preplanned patient-reported outcomes, assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) questionnaire and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions, 5 level scale (EQ-5D-5L). Efficacy analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. Pain response was analysed in the intention-to-treat population with baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment of BPI-SF item 3, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were analysed in the intention-to-treat population with baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment of either FACT-P or EQ-5D-5L (PRO population). Analyses of skeletal-related events were also done in the intention-to-treat population. The CARD study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02485691, and is no longer enrolling. FINDINGS: Between Nov 17, 2015, and Nov 28, 2018, of 303 patients screened, 255 were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel (n=129) or abiraterone or enzalutamide (n=126). Median follow-up was 9·2 months (IQR 5·6-13·1). Pain response was observed in 51 (46%) of 111 patients with cabazitaxel and 21 (19%) of 109 patients with abiraterone or enzalutamide (p<0·0001). Median time to pain progression was not estimable (NE; 95% CI NE-NE) with cabazitaxel and 8·5 months (4·9-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (hazard ratio [HR] 0·55, 95% CI 0·32-0·97; log-rank p=0·035). Median time to symptomatic skeletal events was NE (95% CI 20·0-NE) with cabazitaxel and 16·7 months (10·8-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0·59, 95% CI 0·35-1·01; log-rank p=0·050). Median time to FACT-P total score deterioration was 14·8 months (95% CI 6·3-NE) with cabazitaxel and 8·9 months (6·3-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0·72, 95% CI 0·44-1·20; log-rank p=0·21). There was a significant treatment effect seen in changes from baseline in EQ-5D-5L utility index score in favour of cabazitaxel over abiraterone or enzalutamide (p=0·030) but no difference between treatment groups for change from baseline in EQ-5D-5L visual analogue scale (p=0·060). INTERPRETATION: Since cabazitaxel improved pain response, time to pain progression, time to symptomatic skeletal events, and EQ-5D-5L utility index, clinicians and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer can be reassured that cabazitaxel will not reduce quality of life when compared with treatment with a second androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. FUNDING: Sanofi.


Assuntos
Androstenos/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Androgênios/genética , Androstenos/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Nitrilas , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
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