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1.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 428-439, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity. RESULTS: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (BARD1, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2, odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D, odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in ATM, CHEK2, and TP53 were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
2.
Front Oncol ; 10: 541281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178576

RESUMO

Background: REQUITE (validating pREdictive models and biomarkers of radiotherapy toxicity to reduce side effects and improve QUalITy of lifE in cancer survivors) is an international prospective cohort study. The purpose of this project was to analyse a cohort of patients recruited into REQUITE using a deep learning algorithm to identify patient-specific features associated with the development of toxicity, and test the approach by attempting to validate previously published genetic risk factors. Methods: The study involved REQUITE prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy who had complete 2-year follow-up. We used five separate late toxicity endpoints: ≥grade 1 late rectal bleeding, ≥grade 2 urinary frequency, ≥grade 1 haematuria, ≥ grade 2 nocturia, ≥ grade 1 decreased urinary stream. Forty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already reported in the literature to be associated with the toxicity endpoints were included in the analysis. No SNP had been studied before in the REQUITE cohort. Deep Sparse AutoEncoders (DSAE) were trained to recognize features (SNPs) identifying patients with no toxicity and tested on a different independent mixed population including patients without and with toxicity. Results: One thousand, four hundred and one patients were included, and toxicity rates were: rectal bleeding 11.7%, urinary frequency 4%, haematuria 5.5%, nocturia 7.8%, decreased urinary stream 17.1%. Twenty-four of the 43 SNPs that were associated with the toxicity endpoints were validated as identifying patients with toxicity. Twenty of the 24 SNPs were associated with the same toxicity endpoint as reported in the literature: 9 SNPs for urinary symptoms and 11 SNPs for overall toxicity. The other 4 SNPs were associated with a different endpoint. Conclusion: Deep learning algorithms can validate SNPs associated with toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The method should be studied further to identify polygenic SNP risk signatures for radiotherapy toxicity. The signatures could then be included in integrated normal tissue complication probability models and tested for their ability to personalize radiotherapy treatment planning.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 995, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081864

RESUMO

Very-early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) is a heterogeneous phenotype associated with a spectrum of rare Mendelian disorders. Here, we perform whole-exome-sequencing and genome-wide genotyping in 145 patients (median age-at-diagnosis of 3.5 years), in whom no Mendelian disorders were clinically suspected. In five patients we detect a primary immunodeficiency or enteropathy, with clinical consequences (XIAP, CYBA, SH2D1A, PCSK1). We also present a case study of a VEO-IBD patient with a mosaic de novo, pathogenic allele in CYBB. The mutation is present in ~70% of phagocytes and sufficient to result in defective bacterial handling but not life-threatening infections. Finally, we show that VEO-IBD patients have, on average, higher IBD polygenic risk scores than population controls (99 patients and 18,780 controls; P < 4 × 10-10), and replicate this finding in an independent cohort of VEO-IBD cases and controls (117 patients and 2,603 controls; P < 5 × 10-10). This discovery indicates that a polygenic component operates in VEO-IBD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Mosaicismo , Adulto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Mutação , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , Linhagem , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/complicações , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229025, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069299

RESUMO

Mutations in CYP4F22 cause autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI). However, less than 10% of all ARCI patients carry a mutation in CYP4F22. In order to identify the molecular basis of ARCI among our patients (a cohort of ninety-two Spanish individuals) we performed a mutational analysis using direct Sanger sequencing in combination with a multigene targeted NGS panel. From these, eight ARCI families (three of them with Moroccan origin) were found to carry five different CYP4F22 mutations, of which two were novel. Computational analysis showed that the mutations found were present in highly conserved residues of the protein and may affect its structure and function. Seven of the eight families were carriers of a highly recurrent CYP4F22 variant, c.1303C>T; p.(His435Tyr). A 12Mb haplotype was reconstructed in all c.1303C>T carriers by genotyping ten microsatellite markers flanking the CYP4F22 gene. A prevalent 2.52Mb haplotype was observed among Spanish carrier patients suggesting a recent common ancestor. A smaller core haplotype of 1.2Mb was shared by Spanish and Moroccan families. Different approaches were applied to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of carrier patients with Spanish origin. The age of the mutation was calculated by using DMLE and BDMC2. The algorithms estimated that the c.1303C>T variant arose approximately 2925 to 4925 years ago, while Spanish carrier families derived from a common ancestor who lived in the XIII century. The present study reports five CYP4F22 mutations, two of them novel, increasing the number of CYP4F22 mutations currently listed. Additionally, our results suggest that the recurrent c.1303C>T change has a founder effect in Spanish population and c.1303C>T carrier families originated from a single ancestor with probable African ancestry.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Efeito Fundador , Genes Recessivos , Ictiose Lamelar/genética , Mutação , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Espanha , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(1)2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936698

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have revealed a locus at 8p12 that is associated with breast cancer risk. Fine-mapping of this locus identified 16 candidate causal variants (CCVs). However, as these variants are intergenic, their function is unclear. To map chromatin looping from this risk locus to a previously identified candidate target gene, DUSP4, we performed chromatin conformation capture analyses in normal and tumoural breast cell lines. We identified putative regulatory elements, containing CCVs, which looped to the DUSP4 promoter region. Using reporter gene assays, we found that the risk allele of CCV rs7461885 reduced the activity of a DUSP4 enhancer element, consistent with the function of DUSP4 as a tumour suppressor gene. Furthermore, the risk allele of CCV rs12155535, located in another DUSP4 enhancer element, was negatively correlated with looping of this element to the DUSP4 promoter region, suggesting that this allele would be associated with reduced expression. These findings provide the first evidence that CCV risk alleles downregulate DUSP4 expression, suggesting that this gene is a regulatory target of the 8p12 breast cancer risk locus.

6.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 8, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified 196 high confidence independent signals associated with breast cancer susceptibility. Variants within these signals frequently fall in distal regulatory DNA elements that control gene expression. RESULTS: We designed a Capture Hi-C array to enrich for chromatin interactions between the credible causal variants and target genes in six human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cell lines. We show that interacting regions are enriched for open chromatin, histone marks for active enhancers, and transcription factors relevant to breast biology. We exploit this comprehensive resource to identify candidate target genes at 139 independent breast cancer risk signals and explore the functional mechanism underlying altered risk at the 12q24 risk region. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the power of combining genetics, computational genomics, and molecular studies to rationalize the identification of key variants and candidate target genes at breast cancer GWAS signals.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
7.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 7, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are predominantly non-coding and typically attributed to altered regulatory elements such as enhancers and promoters. However, the contribution of non-coding RNAs to complex traits is not clear. RESULTS: Using targeted RNA sequencing, we systematically annotated multi-exonic non-coding RNA (mencRNA) genes transcribed from 1.5-Mb intervals surrounding 139 breast cancer GWAS signals and assessed their contribution to breast cancer risk. We identify more than 4000 mencRNA genes and show their expression distinguishes normal breast tissue from tumors and different breast cancer subtypes. Importantly, breast cancer risk variants, identified through genetic fine-mapping, are significantly enriched in mencRNA exons, but not the promoters or introns. eQTL analyses identify mencRNAs whose expression is associated with risk variants. Furthermore, chromatin interaction data identify hundreds of mencRNA promoters that loop to regions that contain breast cancer risk variants. CONCLUSIONS: We have compiled the largest catalog of breast cancer-associated mencRNAs to date and provide evidence that modulation of mencRNAs by GWAS variants may provide an alternative mechanism underlying complex traits.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de RNA
8.
Nat Genet ; 52(1): 56-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911677

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified breast cancer risk variants in over 150 genomic regions, but the mechanisms underlying risk remain largely unknown. These regions were explored by combining association analysis with in silico genomic feature annotations. We defined 205 independent risk-associated signals with the set of credible causal variants in each one. In parallel, we used a Bayesian approach (PAINTOR) that combines genetic association, linkage disequilibrium and enriched genomic features to determine variants with high posterior probabilities of being causal. Potentially causal variants were significantly over-represented in active gene regulatory regions and transcription factor binding sites. We applied our INQUSIT pipeline for prioritizing genes as targets of those potentially causal variants, using gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci), chromatin interaction and functional annotations. Known cancer drivers, transcription factors and genes in the developmental, apoptosis, immune system and DNA integrity checkpoint gene ontology pathways were over-represented among the highest-confidence target genes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(2): 179-190, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A total of 10%-20% of patients develop long-term toxicity following radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Identification of common genetic variants associated with susceptibility to radiotoxicity might improve risk prediction and inform functional mechanistic studies. METHODS: We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies (n = 3871) in men of European ancestry who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Radiotoxicities (increased urinary frequency, decreased urinary stream, hematuria, rectal bleeding) were graded prospectively. We used grouped relative risk models to test associations with approximately 6 million genotyped or imputed variants (time to first grade 2 or higher toxicity event). Variants with two-sided Pmeta less than 5 × 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Bayesian false discovery probability provided an additional measure of confidence. Statistically significant variants were evaluated in three Japanese cohorts (n = 962). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of the European ancestry cohorts identified three genomic signals: single nucleotide polymorphism rs17055178 with rectal bleeding (Pmeta = 6.2 × 10-10), rs10969913 with decreased urinary stream (Pmeta = 2.9 × 10-10), and rs11122573 with hematuria (Pmeta = 1.8 × 10-8). Fine-scale mapping of these three regions was used to identify another independent signal (rs147121532) associated with hematuria (Pconditional = 4.7 × 10-6). Credible causal variants at these four signals lie in gene-regulatory regions, some modulating expression of nearby genes. Previously identified variants showed consistent associations (rs17599026 with increased urinary frequency, rs7720298 with decreased urinary stream, rs1801516 with overall toxicity) in new cohorts. rs10969913 and rs17599026 had similar effects in the photon-treated Japanese cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: This study increases the understanding of the architecture of common genetic variants affecting radiotoxicity, points to novel radio-pathogenic mechanisms, and develops risk models for testing in clinical studies. Further multinational radiogenomics studies in larger cohorts are worthwhile.

10.
Radiother Oncol ; 138: 59-67, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146072

RESUMO

PURPOSE: REQUITE aimed to establish a resource for multi-national validation of models and biomarkers that predict risk of late toxicity following radiotherapy. The purpose of this article is to provide summary descriptive data. METHODS: An international, prospective cohort study recruited cancer patients in 26 hospitals in eight countries between April 2014 and March 2017. Target recruitment was 5300 patients. Eligible patients had breast, prostate or lung cancer and planned potentially curable radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was prescribed according to local regimens, but centres used standardised data collection forms. Pre-treatment blood samples were collected. Patients were followed for a minimum of 12 (lung) or 24 (breast/prostate) months and summary descriptive statistics were generated. RESULTS: The study recruited 2069 breast (99% of target), 1808 prostate (86%) and 561 lung (51%) cancer patients. The centralised, accessible database includes: physician- (47,025 forms) and patient- (54,901) reported outcomes; 11,563 breast photos; 17,107 DICOMs and 12,684 DVHs. Imputed genotype data are available for 4223 patients with European ancestry (1948 breast, 1728 prostate, 547 lung). Radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) assay data are available for 1319 patients. DNA (n = 4409) and PAXgene tubes (n = 3039) are stored in the centralised biobank. Example prevalences of 2-year (1-year for lung) grade ≥2 CTCAE toxicities are 13% atrophy (breast), 3% rectal bleeding (prostate) and 27% dyspnoea (lung). CONCLUSION: The comprehensive centralised database and linked biobank is a valuable resource for the radiotherapy community for validating predictive models and biomarkers. PATIENT SUMMARY: Up to half of cancer patients undergo radiation therapy and irradiation of surrounding healthy tissue is unavoidable. Damage to healthy tissue can affect short- and long-term quality-of-life. Not all patients are equally sensitive to radiation "damage" but it is not possible at the moment to identify those who are. REQUITE was established with the aim of trying to understand more about how we could predict radiation sensitivity. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and summary of the data and material available. In the REQUITE study 4400 breast, prostate and lung cancer patients filled out questionnaires and donated blood. A large amount of data was collected in the same way. With all these data and samples a database and biobank were created that showed it is possible to collect this kind of information in a standardised way across countries. In the future, our database and linked biobank will be a resource for research and validation of clinical predictors and models of radiation sensitivity. REQUITE will also enable a better understanding of how many people suffer with radiotherapy toxicity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 99(10): 894-898, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120544

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a group of rare non-syndrome diseases that affect cornification. PNPLA1 is one of the 12 related genes identified so far. Mutation screening of this gene has resulted in the identification of 13 individuals, from 10 families, who carried 7 different PNPLA1 mutations. These mutations included 2 missense, 2 frame-shift and 3 nonsense, 3 of them being novel. One of the identified variants, c.417_418delinsTC, was highly prevalent, as it was found in 6 out of 10 (60%) of our ARCI families with PNPLA1 mutations. Clinical manifestations varied significantly among patients, but altered sweating; erythema, palmar hyperlinearity and small whitish scales in flexor-extensor and facial areas were common symptoms. Haplotype analyses of c.417_418delinsTC carriers confirmed the existence of a common ancestor. This study expands the spectrum of the PNPLA1 disease, which causes variants and demonstrates that the c.417_418delinsTC mutation has founder effects in the Spanish population.


Assuntos
Efeito Fundador , Ictiose Lamelar/genética , Lipase/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Ictiose Lamelar/diagnóstico , Ictiose Lamelar/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
12.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(5): e608, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses (ARCI) have been associated with different phenotypes including: harlequin ichthyosis (HI), congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE), and lamellar ichthyosis (LI). While pathogenic variants in all ARCI genes are associated with LI and CIE phenotypes, the unique gene associated with HI is ABCA12. In HI, the most severe ARCI form, pathogenic variants in both ABCA12 gene alleles usually have a severe impact on protein function. The presence of at least one non-truncating variant frequently causes a less severe congenital ichthyosis phenotype (LI and CIE). METHODS: We report the case of a 4-year-old Ecuadorian boy with a severe skin disease. Genetic diagnosis was performed by NGS. In silico predictions were performed using Alamut software v2.11. A review of the literature was carried out to identify all patients carrying ABCA12 splice-site and missense variants, and to explore their genotype-phenotype correlations. RESULTS: Genetic testing revealed a nonsense substitution, p.(Arg2204*), and a new missense variant, p.(Val1927Leu), in the ABCA12 gene. After performing in silico analysis and a comprehensive review of the literature, we conclude that p.(Val1927Leu) affects a well conserved residue which could either disturb the protein function or alter the splicing process, both alternatives could explain the severe phenotype of our patient. CONCLUSION: This case expands the spectrum of ABCA12 reported disease-causing variants which is important to unravel genotype-phenotype correlations and highlights the importance of missense variants in the development of HI.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Ictiose Lamelar/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Fenótipo , Pré-Escolar , Códon sem Sentido , Humanos , Ictiose Lamelar/patologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Sítios de Splice de RNA
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
16.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 928-936, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892016

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fine-mapping efforts to date have identified more than 100 prostate cancer (PrCa)-susceptibility loci. We meta-analyzed genotype data from a custom high-density array of 46,939 PrCa cases and 27,910 controls of European ancestry with previously genotyped data of 32,255 PrCa cases and 33,202 controls of European ancestry. Our analysis identified 62 novel loci associated (P < 5.0 × 10-8) with PrCa and one locus significantly associated with early-onset PrCa (≤55 years). Our findings include missense variants rs1800057 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; P = 8.2 × 10-9; G>C, p.Pro1054Arg) in ATM and rs2066827 (OR = 1.06; P = 2.3 × 10-9; T>G, p.Val109Gly) in CDKN1B. The combination of all loci captured 28.4% of the PrCa familial relative risk, and a polygenic risk score conferred an elevated PrCa risk for men in the ninetieth to ninety-ninth percentiles (relative risk = 2.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55-2.82) and first percentile (relative risk = 5.71; 95% CI: 5.04-6.48) risk stratum compared with the population average. These findings improve risk prediction, enhance fine-mapping, and provide insight into the underlying biology of PrCa1.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
17.
Nature ; 551(7678): 92-94, 2017 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059683

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ásia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Simulação por Computador , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(1): 126-135, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common cancers develop through a multistep process often including inherited susceptibility. Collaboration among multiple institutions, and funding from multiple sources, has allowed the development of an inexpensive genotyping microarray, the OncoArray. The array includes a genome-wide backbone, comprising 230,000 SNPs tagging most common genetic variants, together with dense mapping of known susceptibility regions, rare variants from sequencing experiments, pharmacogenetic markers, and cancer-related traits. METHODS: The OncoArray can be genotyped using a novel technology developed by Illumina to facilitate efficient genotyping. The consortium developed standard approaches for selecting SNPs for study, for quality control of markers, and for ancestry analysis. The array was genotyped at selected sites and with prespecified replicate samples to permit evaluation of genotyping accuracy among centers and by ethnic background. RESULTS: The OncoArray consortium genotyped 447,705 samples. A total of 494,763 SNPs passed quality control steps with a sample success rate of 97% of the samples. Participating sites performed ancestry analysis using a common set of markers and a scoring algorithm based on principal components analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Results from these analyses will enable researchers to identify new susceptibility loci, perform fine-mapping of new or known loci associated with either single or multiple cancers, assess the degree of overlap in cancer causation and pleiotropic effects of loci that have been identified for disease-specific risk, and jointly model genetic, environmental, and lifestyle-related exposures. IMPACT: Ongoing analyses will shed light on etiology and risk assessment for many types of cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 126-35. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Seleção Genética
19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 35842, 2016 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27805046

RESUMO

Meningococcal disease (MD) remains an important infectious cause of life threatening infection in both industrialized and resource poor countries. Genetic factors influence both occurrence and severity of presentation, but the genes responsible are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) examining 5,440,063 SNPs in 422 Spanish MD patients and 910 controls. We then performed a meta-analysis of the Spanish GWAS with GWAS data from the United Kingdom (combined cohorts: 897 cases and 5,613 controls; 4,898,259 SNPs). The meta-analysis identified strong evidence of association (P-value ≤ 5 × 10-8) in 20 variants located at the CFH gene. SNP rs193053835 showed the most significant protective effect (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (C.I.) = 0.52-0.73; P-value = 9.62 × 10-9). Five other variants had been previously reported to be associated with susceptibility to MD, including the missense SNP rs1065489 (OR = 0.64, 95% C.I.) = 0.55-0.76, P-value = 3.25 × 10-8). Theoretical predictions point to a functional effect of rs1065489, which may be directly responsible for protection against MD. Our study confirms the association of CFH with susceptibility to MD and strengthens the importance of this link in understanding pathogenesis of the disease.


Assuntos
Fator H do Complemento/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Imunidade Inata , Infecções Meningocócicas/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Infecções Meningocócicas/patologia , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Espanha
20.
EBioMedicine ; 10: 150-63, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27515689

RESUMO

Nearly 50% of cancer patients undergo radiotherapy. Late radiotherapy toxicity affects quality-of-life in long-term cancer survivors and risk of side-effects in a minority limits doses prescribed to the majority of patients. Development of a test predicting risk of toxicity could benefit many cancer patients. We aimed to meta-analyze individual level data from four genome-wide association studies from prostate cancer radiotherapy cohorts including 1564 men to identify genetic markers of toxicity. Prospectively assessed two-year toxicity endpoints (urinary frequency, decreased urine stream, rectal bleeding, overall toxicity) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations were tested using multivariable regression, adjusting for clinical and patient-related risk factors. A fixed-effects meta-analysis identified two SNPs: rs17599026 on 5q31.2 with urinary frequency (odds ratio [OR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.08-4.69, p-value 4.16×10(-8)) and rs7720298 on 5p15.2 with decreased urine stream (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.90-3.86, p-value=3.21×10(-8)). These SNPs lie within genes that are expressed in tissues adversely affected by pelvic radiotherapy including bladder, kidney, rectum and small intestine. The results show that heterogeneous radiotherapy cohorts can be combined to identify new moderate-penetrance genetic variants associated with radiotherapy toxicity. The work provides a basis for larger collaborative efforts to identify enough variants for a future test involving polygenic risk profiling.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
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