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1.
J Immunol ; 203(8): 2276-2290, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519860

RESUMO

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of nuclear DNA associated with histones and granule proteins are involved in the extracellular killing of pathogens. Excessive NET formation has been implicated in several noninfectious pathological conditions. The disposal of NETs is, therefore, important to prevent inadvertent effects resulting from the continued presence of NETs in the extracellular environment. In this study, we investigated the interaction of NETs released by freshly isolated, PMA-stimulated primary human neutrophils with primary human monocyte-derived macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs). NETs were internalized by macrophages, and removal of the protein component prevented engulfment of NETs, whereas complexation with LL-37 restored the uptake of "naked" (protein-free) NETs. NETs were also found to dampen the bacterial LPS-induced maturation of DCs. Cytokine profiling was conducted by using a multiplex array following the interaction of NETs with macrophages or DCs, and NETs alone were found to be noninflammatory, whereas immunomodulatory effects were noted in the presence of LPS with significant upregulation of IL-1ß secretion, and a marked suppression of other LPS-induced factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in both cell types. Moreover, macrophage digestion of NETs was dependent on TREX1 (also known as DNaseIII), but not DNaseII, whereas extracellular DNase1L3-mediated degradation of NETs was observed for DCs. Collectively, these findings shed light on the interactions between NETs and phagocytic cells and provide new insights regarding the clearance of NETs, double-edged swords of innate immunity.

4.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(8): 569, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358731

RESUMO

Neutrophils are key components of the innate arm of the immune system and represent the frontline of host defense against intruding pathogens. However, neutrophils can also cause damage to the host. Nanomaterials are being developed for a multitude of different purposes and these minute materials may find their way into the body through deliberate or inadvertent exposure; understanding nanomaterial interactions with the immune system is therefore of critical importance. However, whereas numerous studies have focused on macrophages, less attention is devoted to nanomaterial interactions with neutrophils, the most abundant leukocytes in the blood. We discuss the impact of engineered nanomaterials on neutrophils and how neutrophils, in turn, may digest certain carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. We also discuss the role of the corona of proteins adsorbed onto the surface of nanomaterials and whether nanomaterials are sensed as pathogens by cells of the immune system.

6.
Nanomedicine ; 18: 112-121, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849547

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths and novel treatment approaches are urgently needed. Here we show that poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized nanodiamonds loaded with doxorubicin (ND-PEG-DOX) afforded a considerable improvement over free drug in an orthotopic pancreatic xenograft model. ND-PEG-DOX complexes were also superior to free DOX in 3-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroids of PDAC. ND-PEG showed no cytotoxicity towards macrophages, and histopathological analysis showed no abnormalities of major organs upon in vivo administration of ND-PEG-DOX. These results provide evidence that ND-mediated drug delivery may serve as a means of improving the therapeutic outcome in PDAC.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4366, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867451

RESUMO

Systems biology is increasingly being applied in nanosafety research for observing and predicting the biological perturbations inflicted by exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). In the present study, we used a combined transcriptomics and proteomics approach to assess the responses of human monocytic cells to Au-NPs of two different sizes with three different surface functional groups, i.e., alkyl ammonium bromide, alkyl sodium carboxylate, or poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-terminated Au-NPs. Cytotoxicity screening using THP-1 cells revealed a pronounced cytotoxicity for the ammonium-terminated Au-NPs, while no cell death was seen after exposure to the carboxylated or PEG-modified Au-NPs. Moreover, Au-NR3+ NPs, but not the Au-COOH NPs, were found to trigger dose-dependent lethality in vivo in the model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. RNA sequencing combined with mass spectrometry-based proteomics predicted that the ammonium-modified Au-NPs elicited mitochondrial dysfunction. The latter results were validated by using an array of assays to monitor mitochondrial function. Au-NR3+ NPs were localized in mitochondria of THP-1 cells. Moreover, the cationic Au-NPs triggered autophagy in macrophage-like RFP-GFP-LC3 reporter cells, and cell death was aggravated upon inhibition of autophagy. Taken together, these studies have disclosed mitochondria-dependent effects of cationic Au-NPs resulting in the rapid demise of the cells.

8.
Front Immunol ; 10: 133, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774634

RESUMO

Engineered nanomaterials hold promise for a wide range of applications in medicine. However, safe use of nanomaterials requires that interactions with biological systems, not least with the immune system, are understood. Do nanomaterials elicit novel or unexpected effects, or is it possible to predict immune responses to nanomaterials based on how the immune system handles pathogens? How does the bio-corona of adsorbed biomolecules influence subsequent immune interactions of nanomaterials? How does the grafting of polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) onto nanomaterial surfaces impact on these interactions? Can ancient immune evasion or "stealth" strategies of pathogens inform the design of nanomaterials for biomedical applications? Can nanoparticles co-opt immune cells to target diseased tissues? The answers to these questions may prove useful for the development of nanomedicines.

9.
FASEB J ; 33(4): 4962-4974, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657335

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently used to treat chronic disorders in children, including inflammation and cancer. Prolonged treatment with GCs is well known to impair bone growth, an effect linked to increased apoptosis and suppressed proliferation in growth plate chondrocytes. We hypothesized that the endogenous antiapoptotic protein humanin (HN) may prevent these effects. Interestingly, GC-induced bone growth impairment and chondrocyte apoptosis was prevented in HN overexpressing mice, HN-treated wild-type mice, and in HN-treated cultured rat metatarsal bones. GC-induced suppression of chondrocyte proliferation was also prevented by HN. Furthermore, GC treatment reduced Indian Hedgehog expression in growth plates of wild-type mice but not in HN overexpressing mice or HN-treated wild-type animals. A Hedgehog (Hh) antagonist, vismodegib, was found to suppress the growth of cultured rat metatarsal bones, and this effect was also prevented by HN. Importantly, HN did not interfere with the desired anti-inflammatory effects of GCs. We conclude that HN is a novel regulator of Hh signaling preventing GC-induced bone growth impairment without interfering with desired effects of GCs. Our data may open for clinical studies exploring a new possible strategy to prevent GC-induced bone growth impairment by cotreating with HN.-Zaman, F., Zhao, Y., Celvin, B., Mehta, H. H., Wan, J., Chrysis, D., Ohlsson, C., Fadeel, B., Cohen, P., Sävendahl, L. Humanin is a novel regulator of Hedgehog signaling and prevents glucocorticoid-induced bone growth impairment.

10.
J Cell Sci ; 132(5)2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683797

RESUMO

The Caenorhabditis elegans aminophospholipid translocase TAT-1 maintains phosphatidylserine (PS) asymmetry in the plasma membrane and regulates endocytic transport. Despite these important functions, the structure-function relationship of this protein is poorly understood. Taking advantage of the tat-1 mutations identified by the C. elegans million mutation project, we investigated the effects of 16 single amino acid substitutions on the two functions of the TAT-1 protein. Two substitutions that alter a highly conserved PISL motif in the fourth transmembrane domain and a highly conserved DKTGT phosphorylation motif, respectively, disrupt both functions of TAT-1, leading to a vesicular gut defect and ectopic PS exposure on the cell surface, whereas most other substitutions across the TAT-1 protein, often predicted to be deleterious by bioinformatics programs, do not affect the functions of TAT-1. These results provide in vivo evidence for the importance of the PISL and DKTGT motifs in P4-type ATPases and improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship of TAT-1. Our study also provides an example of how the C. elegans million mutation project helps decipher the structure, functions, and mechanisms of action of important genes.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 179, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655578

RESUMO

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are widely present in our daily lives. Despite the efforts to characterize their mechanism of action in multiple species, their possible implications in human pathologies are still not fully understood. Here we performed an integrated analysis of the effects of ENMs on human health by contextualizing their transcriptional mechanism-of-action with respect to drugs, chemicals and diseases. We built a network of interactions of over 3,000 biological entities and developed a novel computational tool, INSIdE NANO, to infer new knowledge about ENM behavior. We highlight striking association of metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles and major neurodegenerative disorders. Our novel strategy opens possibilities to achieve fast and accurate read-across evaluation of ENMs and other chemicals based on their biosignatures.

12.
ACS Nano ; 12(11): 10582-10620, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387986

RESUMO

Graphene and its derivatives are heralded as "miracle" materials with manifold applications in different sectors of society from electronics to energy storage to medicine. The increasing exploitation of graphene-based materials (GBMs) necessitates a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impact of these materials on human health and the environment. Here, we discuss synthesis and characterization of GBMs as well as human and environmental hazard assessment of GBMs using in vitro and in vivo model systems with the aim to understand the properties that underlie the biological effects of these materials; not all GBMs are alike, and it is essential that we disentangle the structure-activity relationships for this class of materials.

13.
J Leukoc Biol ; 104(6): 1199-1213, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106500

RESUMO

Mutations in the gene JAGN1 were recently discovered in patients with severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) consisting of decondensed chromatin decorated with various granular proteins such as neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) to combat microbial infections. However, whether JAGN1 is required for the formation or function of NETs is not known. Here, we analyzed primary neutrophils from a patient with homozygous JAGN1 mutations with respect to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced NET formation. NET release was observed, but there appeared to be a reduced level of expression of MPO in the NETs. To study this further, we differentiated HL-60 cells into neutrophil-like cells and silenced JAGN1 expression by transfection with siRNA. These cells remained capable of producing NETs, but MPO expression was severely affected, and NETs released by JAGN1-silenced cells were ineffective in killing Candida albicans. The candidacidal function was restored upon treatment with GM-CSF or addition of MPO. GM-CSF also up-regulated the expression of calprotectin in NETs. Notably, JAGN1 did not impact on N-glycosylation of MPO in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells. These studies shed light on the susceptibility of SCN patients to fungal infections and the role of JAGN1 for the antimicrobial function of neutrophils exerted by NETs.

14.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(7): 537-543, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980781

RESUMO

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have tremendous potential to produce beneficial technological impact in numerous sectors in society. Safety assessment is, of course, of paramount importance. However, the myriad variations of ENM properties makes the identification of specific features driving toxicity challenging. At the same time, reducing animal tests by introducing alternative and/or predictive in vitro and in silico methods has become a priority. It is important to embrace these new advances in the safety assessment of ENMs. Indeed, remarkable progress has been made in recent years with respect to mechanism-based hazard assessment of ENMs, including systems biology approaches as well as high-throughput screening platforms, and new tools are also emerging in risk assessment and risk management for humans and the environment across the whole life-cycle of nano-enabled products. Here, we highlight some of the key advances in the hazard and risk assessment of ENMs.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(36): 11722-11727, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006967

RESUMO

Biodegradability of graphene is one of the fundamental parameters determining the fate of this material in vivo. Two types of aqueous dispersible graphene, corresponding to single-layer (SLG) and few-layer graphene (FLG), devoid of either chemical functionalization or stabilizing surfactants, were subjected to biodegradation by human myeloperoxidase (hMPO) mediated catalysis. Graphene biodegradation was also studied in the presence of activated, degranulating human neutrophils. The degradation of both FLG and SLG sheets was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy analyses, leading to the conclusion that highly dispersed pristine graphene is not biopersistent.

16.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 15(1): 32, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genotoxicity is an important toxicological endpoint due to the link to diseases such as cancer. Therefore, an increased understanding regarding genotoxicity and underlying mechanisms is needed for assessing the risk with exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). The aim of this study was to perform an in-depth investigation regarding the genotoxicity of well-characterized Ni and NiO NPs in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells and to discern possible mechanisms. Comparisons were made with NiCl2 in order to elucidate effects of ionic Ni. METHODS: BEAS-2B cells were exposed to Ni and NiO NPs, as well as NiCl2, and uptake and cellular dose were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The NPs were characterized in terms of surface composition (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), agglomeration (photon cross correlation spectroscopy) and nickel release in cell medium (ICP-MS). Cell death (necrosis/apoptosis) was investigated by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and genotoxicity by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (cytome) assay (OECD 487), chromosomal aberration (OECD 473) and comet assay. The involvement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium was explored using the fluorescent probes, DCFH-DA and Fluo-4. RESULTS: NPs were efficiently taken up by the BEAS-2B cells. In contrast, no or minor uptake was observed for ionic Ni from NiCl2. Despite differences in uptake, all exposures (NiO, Ni NPs and NiCl2) caused chromosomal damage. Furthermore, NiO NPs were most potent in causing DNA strand breaks and generating intracellular ROS. An increase in intracellular calcium was observed and modulation of intracellular calcium by using inhibitors and chelators clearly prevented the chromosomal damage. Chelation of iron also protected against induced damage, particularly for NiO and NiCl2. CONCLUSIONS: This study has revealed chromosomal damage by Ni and NiO NPs as well as Ni ionic species and provides novel evidence for a calcium-dependent mechanism of cyto- and genotoxicity.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Níquel/toxicidade , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Propriedades de Superfície
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6668, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703973

RESUMO

Despite a considerable focus on the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in recent years, studies on the potential long-term effects of AgNPs are scarce. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of AgNPs following repeated low-dose, long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells. To this end, the human BEAS-2B cell line was exposed to 1 µg/mL AgNPs (10 nm) for 6 weeks followed by RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) as well as genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. The transcriptomics analysis showed that a substantial number of genes (1717) were differentially expressed following AgNP exposure whereas only marginal effects on DNA methylation were observed. Downstream analysis of the transcriptomics data identified several affected pathways including the 'fibrosis' and 'epithelial-mesenchymal transition' (EMT) pathway. Subsequently, functional validation studies were performed using AgNPs of two different sizes (10 nm and 75 nm). Both NPs increased collagen deposition, indicative of fibrosis, and induced EMT, as evidenced by an increased invasion index, anchorage independent cell growth, as well as cadherin switching. In conclusion, using a combination of RNA-Seq and functional assays, our study revealed that repeated low-dose, long-term exposure of human BEAS-2B cells to AgNPs is pro-fibrotic, induces EMT and cell transformation.

19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1115, 2018 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29348435

RESUMO

Carbon-based nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been shown to trigger inflammation. However, how these materials are 'sensed' by immune cells is not known. Here we compared the effects of two carbon-based nanomaterials, single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO), on primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. Genome-wide transcriptomics assessment was performed at sub-cytotoxic doses. Pathway analysis of the microarray data revealed pronounced effects on chemokine-encoding genes in macrophages exposed to SWCNTs, but not in response to GO, and these results were validated by multiplex array-based cytokine and chemokine profiling. Conditioned medium from SWCNT-exposed cells acted as a chemoattractant for dendritic cells. Chemokine secretion was reduced upon inhibition of NF-κB, as predicted by upstream regulator analysis of the transcriptomics data, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their adaptor molecule, MyD88 were shown to be important for CCL5 secretion. Moreover, a specific role for TLR2/4 was confirmed by using reporter cell lines. Computational studies to elucidate how SWCNTs may interact with TLR4 in the absence of a protein corona suggested that binding is guided mainly by hydrophobic interactions. Taken together, these results imply that CNTs may be 'sensed' as pathogens by immune cells.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/fisiologia , Nanotubos de Carbono , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Toll-Like/química , Transcriptoma
20.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 7(6): e1700916, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334180

RESUMO

Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified carbon nanotubes have been successfully employed for intra-articular delivery in mice without systemic or local toxicity. However, the fate of the delivery system itself remains to be understood. In this study 2 kDa PEG-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (PNTs) are synthesized, and trafficking and degradation following intra-articular injection into the knee-joint of healthy mice are studied. Using confocal Raman microspectroscopy, PNTs can be imaged in the knee-joint and are found to either egress from the synovial cavity or undergo biodegradation over a period of 3 weeks. Raman analysis discloses that PNTs are oxidatively degraded mainly in the chondrocyte-rich cartilage and meniscus regions while PNTs can also be detected in the synovial membrane regions, where macrophages can be found. Furthermore, using murine chondrocyte (ATDC-5) and macrophage (RAW264.7) cell lines, biodegradation of PNTs in activated, nitric oxide (NO)-producing chondrocytes, which is blocked upon pharmacological inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), can be shown. Biodegradation of PNTs in macrophages is also noted, but after a longer period of incubation. Finally, cell-free degradation of PNTs upon incubation with the peroxynitrite-generating compound, SIN-1 is demonstrated. The present study paves the way for the use of PNTs as delivery systems in the treatment of diseases of the joint.

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